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nually 300,000 pounds. The depth of the mine is nearly 1600 feet. The mines of Hungary and Transylvania yield gold and silver, with other valuable minerals; and here is found the opal, so highly valued by the orientals. The mineral springs are very numerous. 417. Salt Mines. In that part of Austria which the emperor acquired by the partition of Poland, is the celebrated mine of fossil salt, at Welitska, 8 miles south of Cracow. The depth is 3600 feet, and the bredth 200 feet. The descent is by pits of great depth, and the chambers are of vast size, supported by timber or pillars of salt. The salt is of an iron grey color, intermingled with white cubes, and sometimes large blocks of salt appear imbedded in marl. The miners work by intervals of eight hours each, when they are drawn up, and their place supplied by others. This mine supplies all the neighboring countries with salt, and brings considerable revenue to the crown. 418. Curiosities. Among the wonderful works of nature are the glaciers, and the lofty peaks of the Brenner. In Carniola is a grotto of prodigious extent, and sufficient for the erection of villages. Near the entrance, the river Poig throws its waters into the hollow of a rock and passes under the grotto. The lake of Cirknitz is remarkable for its descent under ground in June, through many apertures, leaving the ground for pasturage, but in September rising again and furnishing water for numerous fish. The lake of Jesero is said to retire and to reflow every fifth year. Vast quantities of fossil bones are found in Dalmatia, but they are the bones of cattle, horses and sheep. 419. Religion and Government. The Catholics are the most numerous denomination of christians, but the Protestants are numerous, and in some of the provinces nearly equal to the Catholics. The government is a hereditary monarchy, but the power of the prince is somewhat limited by the ancient constitution of assemblies of states, consisting of the nobility, clergy, knights and burgesses. This constitution is particularly retained in Hungary, where the emperor never levies contributions of men or money without consulting the states. 420. Positilation. The circle of Austria contains about four millions of souls ; Bohemia two millions and a half ; Moravia one million and a half; Hungary, Transylvania and Buckovin four or five millions; Galitz, acquired by the dismemberment of Poland, three millions ; the other provinces of the empire may contain five or six millions, making an aggregate of twenty or twenty-two millions. 421. Army and Revenue. During the late sanguinary wars with France, Austria has raised and maintained from three to four hundred thousand men, but this immense force was almost annihilated by the activity and military skill of Bonaparte. Austria is, however, a powerful military state, and its troops hold a high reputation for skill and bravery. The revenue of Austria, before the loss of the Netherlands and of Italy, was 45 millions of dollars, but the loss of those provinces must considerably impair the wealth and strength of the Austrian empire. 422. Chief Towns. Vienna, the metropolis of the Austrian dominions, is situated on the southern side of the Danube, in a fertile plain, watered by a branch of that river. The river opposit to the city is wide, and contains several islands. To the north and east the country is level, to the south and west, hilly. The streets are narrow, the houses high, built of brick, and covered with stucco. Formerly Vienna sustained the sieges of the Turks, but recently the emperor abandoned the city on the approach of Bonaparte. Vienna contains many magnificent edifices, in particular the metropolitan church, the imperial palace, the library, arsenal, university, assembly and council houses, and some monasteries. The library contains 100,000 printed books, and 10,000 manuscripts. The inhabitants are about 250,000, and the suburbs are very populous. 423. Prague. Prague or Prag, the capital of Bohemia, is situated on both sides of the Mulda, over which is a bridge of freestone 700 feet in length. The houses are all constructed of stone, and generally three stories high, but not of remarkable elegance. The city contains 100 churches and chapels, 40 cloisters, and about


80,000 inhabitants, 10,000 of whom are Jews. On a hill in Upper Prague, stands a magnificent palace, where the tribunals meet. The nobility have also some elegant palaces, and live in splendor, but the people in general are poor. The principal business is said to consist in the brewing and sale of beer; but the lusters and drinking glasses made of Bohemian crystal are esteemed, and vended in all parts of Europe. 424. Presburg. The chief city of Hungary is Presburg, situated on the Danube, 35 miles eastward of Vienna. The Danube is very rapid at this place, and not more than 250 yards in width. On a hill above the town is a castle, where the regal ornaments are kept, and where the states assemble for public deliberation. The city contains about 25,000 inhabitants, one fourth of whom are Lutherans. It is the residence of the Archbishop of Gran, who is primate of Hungary. 425. Buda. About 70 miles eastward of Presburg stands Buda, upon the south west side of the Danube, with 20,000 inhabitants. On the opposit side is Pesth, connected with Buda by a bridge of boats. Buda is the seat of the provincial government, and therefore may be considered as the capital of Hungary. The royal palace there is a stately edifice. There are hot springs at this place, and the people, like those of Vienna, delight in bull feasts, and the exhibition of wild beasts. 426. Gratz. Gratz, the capital of Stiria, stands on the Muer, a main branch of the Drave, and is supposed to contain 35,000 souls. It has regular fortifications, and on a bold rock near the river is a strong citadel. It has also a Jesuit’s college, a fine arsenal, a university, and many handsome palaces. 427. Other Towns. Hermanstadt, the capital of Transylvania, is situated on the river Cibin, and is supposed to contain 17,000 souls. Cracow, the capital of a palatinate of the same name, and of the Polish territory acquired by Austria, is situated on the Wigla, or

Vistula, and contains about 20,000 inhabitants. Here.

are Preserved the regal jewels, the Polish kings having been formerly crowned in this city. The streets are wide and strait, but ill paved. Brunn, in Moravia, con

tains 18,000 souls; and Olmutz, a well fortified town on the Morave, about 12,000; Inspruck and Trent contain 10,000 souls each ; Triest, on a bay of the Adriatic, contains 18,000 inhabitants, and is the only sea port belonging to Austria. 428, Universities and Literature. The universities in Austria, as in other Catholic countries, serve little to advance real knowledge. There is a university in Vienna, one at Prague, one at Gratz, one at Inspruck, and one at Buda, besides some other literary institutions. There are schools for the education of children, but Austria is not distinguished for literature. 429. Language. In the Austrian dominions the three languages most generally known are the German or Gothic, the Slavonic or Polish, and the Hungarian, which is said to bear some resemblance to that of Finland. In Tyrol the Italian is used, and a mixture of Italian and German. Among the higher ranks French is fashionable, as it is in other parts of Europe. The Austrian dialect of the German is less polished than the Saxon. 430. Character and manners. The Austrians are civil and hospitable, but reserved; the women handsome, but without mental improvements ; they use paint, and dress with splendor. The gentlemen are haughty, but read little, and have minds not well cultivated. The people, however, are less corrupt than in the west of Europe, and murder and robbery are rarely committed. The Hungarians are a spirited people, and affect to despise the Germans. Their dress is a tight vest, mantle and furred cap, and their whiskers give them a ferocious aspect. The nobility affect great magnificence, and the family of Esterhazy have a palace, near Neusidler lake, which vies with the palace of Versailles. 431. Manufactures and Commerce. The territories of Austria are fertile and productive. Bohemia exports flax, wool, hides, hops, iron, steel, tin, cobalt, sulphur, alum, garnets ; and imports salt, wine, silks, cotton, spices, &c. Silesia exports Hinens, and Moravia various cloths. Austria abounds with cattle and horses,

and Hungary produces incredible quantities of wine, of which the Tokay is well known in other countries. In Vienna are manufactures of silks, gold and silver lace, cloths, stuffs, stockings, linen, silver plate, mirrors and porcelain; and Bohemia is celebrated for beautiful glass and paper. In Stiria, the manufactures of iron are nusmerous and valuable. -o-o-oPRUSSIA.

432. Mame and History. Prussia derives its name, according to some authors, from the Pruzzi or Borussi, a Slavonic nation ; and according to others, from Po, which signifies near, and Russia. Prussia was anciently peopled by the Goths, but the Slavons afterwards spread themselves over at least a part of this country, and their language still exists in the provinces conquered from Poland. The German nations, however, under the direction of the Teutonic knights, re-conquered Prussia in the twelfth and following centuries.

433. Foundation of the Monarchy. The kingdom of Prussia is of modern origin, and consists of four divisions ; the electorate of Brandenburg, Prussia proper, Silesia, and a part of Poland. Brandenburg was dependant on Poland, when in 1656 Frederick William, the elector, compelled the king to declare this electorate independent. Prederick the second was a martial prince, and, by an astonishing series of brave exploits, he conquered Silesia from Austria in 1742. In 1772, Poland was dismembered by Russia, Austria and Prussia, and the western division was annexed to Prussia.

434. Situation and Ectent. The present kingdom of Prussia is mostly situated between the 50th and 55th degrees of north latitude, and between the 12th and 24th degrees of east longitude. Its extent from east to west is nearly 600 miles, and from north to south about SOO. It is bounded north by the Baltic, east by Russia, south by the Austrian provinces of Galitz, Moravia and Bohemia, and on the west by German principalities. Its inhabitants are estimated at 8 millions.

435. Pace of the Country and Climate. That part of Prussia which borders upon the Baltic is mostly a level country, sandy and barren. That part which has been

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