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384. Wittenberg. Wittenberg, fifty miles north of Dresden, the capital of Upper Saxony, is not a large city, but is the seat of the high court called the aulic judicatory, is well fortified, and contains a famous university, in which the celebrated reformer, Melancthon was a professor. It contains also a valuable library. This city is rendered memorable by being the place where Luther first preached against indulgences and the corruptions of the Catholic Church, which began the Reformation, Luther was buried in this city, and formerly the Electors of Saxony resided here; but the court is now removed to Dresden. 385. Hanover. The Electorate of Hanover is situated on the rivers Weser and Elbe, in the circle of Lower Saxony. It contains about 850,000 inhabitants, and the revenue is estimated at four millions and a half of dollars. Its extent is 180 miles by 100. The religion is Lutheran, and the parish churches are 750. The country is generally a plain, except in the south, where are the lofty mountains of Hartz. The productions of the soil are the same as in similar latitudes; and the mountains are rich in valuable minerals. 386. Chief Cities. Hanover, the capital of the Electorate, is situated on the river Leine, in a well cultivated country. It contains 15,000 inhabitants, and the new town has a large library. Gottingen, upon the same river, contains about 8000 inhabitants, and is distinguished by its university, founded by George II. king of England, in 1734. Bremen, upon the Weser, is a commercial town, containing about 10,000 inhabitants. Lunenburg, capital of the duchy of the same name, is a town of some magnitude, and near this are the salt springs and works which produce 120,000 tuns of salt in a year. 387. Hesse. The Landgraviate of Hesse Cassel, in the circle of the Upper Rhine, is nearly 80 miles square, and contains 750,000 inhabitants. It is generally mountainous, and watered by the Lahn, Fulda, Werra, Rhine and Mayn. The country is fruitful in corn and pasture, and abounds with fish, fowls, minerals, and salt springs. The inhabitants are Lutherans. The manufactures are linen, cloth, hats, stockings, gloves, paper, jewelry and porcelain, and the wool is said to be the finest in Germany. The Prince often hires out his soldiers to other powers, as to Great Britain, during the revolutionary war in America. The chief city, Cassel, contains 22,000 inhabitants. 388. Mecklenburg. The country of Mecklenburg, on the shore of the Baltic, is about 120 miles in length by 60 in bredth, and contains 300,000 inhabitants. The land is generally barren, producing not a great quantity of corn, but feeds a considerable number of sheep and cattle, and contains mines of iron, copper, alum, and salt springs. Its only port of consequence is Rostock, three miles from the Baltic, on a lake communicating with the sea. It contains two duchies, with 45 great and small cities, and the religion is Lutheran. 389. Brunswick. Brunswick, or more strictly, Wolfenbuttle, is a duchy, upon the rivers Ocker and Lene, two branches of the Weser, containing 170,000 inhabitants. The city of Brunswick stands upon both sides of the Ocker, and is divided into five parts or towns. It is of a square form, the houses constructed of wood, well fortified, and containing about 24,000 inhabitants. The religion is the Lutheran. The peasantry are sober, industrious, robust, but heavy and clownish. The manufactures are not considerable, but a kind of beer, called mum, is in such repute as to be exported. On the ramparts of this city is a mortar which will throw a bomb of a thousand weight, and carry a ball of seven hundred and fifty pounds to the distance of 33,000 paces. 390. Hamburg. Hamburg, a free city, in the duchy of Holstein, is situated upon the north side of the Elbe, which, from the sea to a distance above the city, forms an estuary, from one to four miles broad. Its principal streets are penetrated by canals, over which are bridges on a level with the streets. The kings of Denmark have often claimed the sovereignty of this city, but in 1618, it was declared free by a decree of the aulic council. It is nearly circular, about six miles in circuit,

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and contains more than 100,000 inhabitants. The religion is the Lutheran, and the city is distinguished for its charitable institutions. All beggars are committed to a house of correction, and ample provision is made for the poor. The government is lodged in a senate and three colleges of burghers. Hamburg is a place of great commerce. 391. Lubeck. About 40 miles north east of Hamburg stands Lubeck, at the confluence of several rivers, the principal of which is the Trave, by which, and a canal, it communicates with Hamburg. It stands 12 miles from the Baltic, and is a free city in the duchy of Holstein. It was formerly a place of great trade, and the head of the celebrated Hanseatic confederacy, or league of commercial cities, which, from the 12th to the 15th century, commanded the trade of the North, and was feared and respected by Princes. It has since declined, and much of its trade has been transferred to Hamburg. But its trade is yet considerable, with some manufactures; and its territories extend about 60 miles in compass. The religion is Lutheran; its churches 20 ; its buildings are of stone, and ancient. The church of St. Mary is supported by tall pillars, consisting of a single stone, and has a spire covered with gilt lead. Here is also a cellar containing wine 200 years old. 392. Bremen. Bremen is a populous commercial town, capital of a duchy of that name, belonging to the Electorate of Hanover, situated on both sides of the Weser. It is divided into four quarters, each under the government of a Burgomaster. It carries on an extensive trade in iron, flax, hemp and linen, as well as considerable fisheries. The land of this duchy is so low, that dykes are, in many places, necessary to defend it against inundations. In 1617, the water burst through the dykes, and drowned many thousand cattle. In 1739, while the inhabitants were asleep, a magazine of powder in the city, was set on fire by lightning, and the explosion shook the city like an earthquake. 393. Small States. In the northern division of Germany, are several small states or principalities, such as

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Oldcnburg, which contains 75,000 inhabitants; Swedish Pomerania, along the Baltic, with 100,000 inhabitants; Anhalt, with the same number; the territories of the princes of Nassau, with 130,000; Thuringia, with 100,000; the princes of Waldeck, with 80,000 ; the counts of Lippe and Westphalia, with 95,000; the counts of Reuss, with 66,000. 394. Ecclesiastical States. Formerly a number of states were possessed by ecclesiastics, as the archbishoprics of Mentz, Cologne, and Triers; the bishoprics of Worms, of Munster, Osnabruck, Paderborn, Liege, Hildesheim, Fulda, Wurtsburg, &c. Several of these states have been secularized ; that is, taken from their owners who were ecclesiastics, and assigned to secular princes who have no authority in spiritual affairs. The ecclesiastical electorates of Mentz, Cologne and Triers, contained each 300,000 souls, and some of the bishoprics 200,000. But those that lie on the west of the Rhine are now annexed to France, by conquest or cession. 395. Franckfort. Franckfort is the capital of Franconia, an imperial city, the residence of the ancient kings of the Franks, and the successors of Charles the Great. In this city also are the emperors of Germany elected and crowned. It is situated on the north side of the Mayne, and fortified with ramparts, a double ditch, bastions and redouts. The principal streets are wide, the houses handsome, and the inhabitants about 30,000, who are chiefly Ilutherans, but the city contains many Catholics and Jews. Two fairs are held annually in this city, and its situation upon a navigable river renders it a place of considerable commerce. The fundamental constitutions of the empire are written on parchment in capitals, and being kept in this city in a casket of gold, are called the Golden Bull. 396. Swabia. In the south of Germany, and adjacent to Swisserland, is the circle of Swabia, with an extent of 1 1,600 square miles, and a population of 1,800,000 inhabitants. It contains 4 ecclesiastical principalities, 19 independent prelacies and abbeys, 26 earldoms and lordships, and 31 free cities. The peasantry K

of this part of Germany are said to be heavy, strongbuilt persons, but ignorant, clownish, and oppressed. The higher classes are more polished, but the character of the Swabians is represented as presenting singular features. The principal potentate in this division of Germany is the duke of Wurtemberg, whom the emperor Bonaparte has lately made king. 397. Jourtemberg. The duchy of Wurtemberg contains about 600,000 souls. It is watered by the Neckar, and forms the best cultivated part of Swabia, producing not only corn and grass in plenty, but fruits and wine. It has on the west the mountains of the Black Forest, and the Alb on the south and east, which supply fuel, and mines, mineral waters and salt springs. The religion is the Lutheran, with some Calvinists, and other denominations. This duchy contains 645 villages, 88 towns, and 26 cities, of which Stutgard is the principal, and the residence of the prince. It is situated on a rivulet which flows into the Neckar, and contains a college, and an orphan house, with some elegant edifices. 398. Bavaria. On the east of Swabia, lies Bavaria, which is 150 miles in length, 120 in bredth, containing 16,000 square miles, and nearly two millions of people. This country is watered by the Danube and some of its main branches, the I.ech, the Iler, the Inn, and the Nab, with many others. It contains 35 cities, 94 towns, 720 castles, 4700 villages, with 8 great abbeys and 75 cloisters, exclusive of those in the palatinate. The duke of Ba'aria was formerly one of the nine electors of the Emperor of Germany, but his family becoming extinct, Bavaria fell to the Elector Palatine, and has since been united to the palatinate, so that lately there have been eight electors only. But this prince has been made a king of Bavaria, by the Emperor of the French. $99. General View. The southern part of Bavaria is mountainous, and checkered with forests and lakes. The hills contain numerous minerals, mineral springs, quarries of marble, and especially salt springs, which supply great quantities of salt. The northern part contains extensive plains, and produces corn in plenty. The Principal exports are wheat, cattle, wood, salt and

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