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22. The Pyrenees. The Pyrenees are a vast chain of elevated mountains, extending from the Bay of Biscay to the Mediterranean, on the northern extremity of Spain, and forming a natural boundary between Spain and France. Mont Perdu, the highest peak, is eleven thousand feet high. From the northern side of this chain, proceed many of the streams which from the river Garonne in France; and from the eastern and southern sides, descend the head streains of the Ebro in Spain.
23. The Cevennes.-The Cevennes are a continued chain of the Pyrenees, running northwardly on the west of the Rhone, and are the most considerable mountains in France. The summits of these mountains are re. markable for storms of snow in winter ; and from their declivities descend numerous streams which assist in forming the Garonne and the Loire.
24. The Carpathian Muuntains. The Carpathian mountains are a great chain in the center of Europe, on the north of Hungary. This chain with its spurs or projections, forms a natural barrier between Hungary and Gallicia ; and the Sudetic chain, which is a continuation of these mountains, divides Bohemia from Prussia.
25. Particular uses of these Mountains. From the lof. ty sides of the Carpathian mountains proceed numerous tributary streams of the Danube on the south; while on the north, they furnish the sources of the Elbe, the Oder and the Vistula, three large rivers, which discharge their waters into the Baltic Sea, and some of the streams which form the Neister, which falls into the Euxine.
26. The Appenines. The Appenines may be considered as a branch of the Alps, beginning in Genoa, and extending eastward and southward through the whole extent of Italy. They are not of great altitude, but they give rise to numerous streams, among which are the Arno, and the celebrated Tiber, on which stands Rome, the ancient mistress of the world.
27. Mountains in Norway. A chain of very high mountains runs north and south between the ocean and the gulf of Bothnia, dividing Norway from Sweden. In this chain, are numerous mountains with particular names; among which Dofrafeld is considered the highest, and among the most elevated in Europe.
28. Settlement of Europe. The aboriginal inhabit. ants of Europe were denominated Scythians and Kelts, a name now corrupted into Celts. The western part of Europe was peopled by the Celts, who were probably the immediate descendants of Japhet, and who emigrated through Asia Minor, Greece and Italy, and spread over all the west of Europe, soon after the flood. They were called also Gaels, and gave name to Gaul, now France.
29. The Scythians. The Scythians settled on the north of the Danube, from the borders of the Euxine to the Vistula. The name Scythians also was given to the Asiatic inhabitants on the north and east of the Euxine. The tribes which penetrated to the north of Europe were called Fins and Laps, whose countries, Finland and Lapland, still bear their name.
30. Changes in the Population. The primitive Celts, in England called Guydels, were vanquished by the Cimbri, a tribe from the shores of the Baltic. These were in their turn invaded by Belgic tribes, who conquered the southern parts of England, and compelled the original inhabitants to retire into the northern and western parts. These were the ancestors of the mod. ern Welch, as also of the ancient Irish, and the Highlanders in the west of Scotland. Their language is the most ancient in Europe.
31. Gothic Tribes. The Scythians, under various names, migrated from the borders of the Euxine long before the Christian era. A powerful tribe of them called Goths, settled themselves on the shores of the Baltic, and especially in the modern Sweden. Other tribes which spoke dialects of the same language, and were therefore from the same original stock, spread themselves over all Germany, and ultimately settled in Eng. land and Scotland.
32. South of Europe. The Celts were the primitive inhabitants of Italy, France and Spain; but in the south of Europe as in the north, tribes of men and colonies were continually migrating westward. Thus a colony
from Phenicia settled Cadiz in Spain, about 900 years before the Christian era ; and more than 500 years before the same era, a Greek colony built Marseilles in Gaul, now France. The southern part of Italy also was peopled by the Greeks, before the foundation of Rome.
33. Origin of the European Nations. That the nations of Europe originated in Asia, and from the same stock as the Jews, Arabians and Persians, is demonstrated by the affinity of their languages. A great number of words of the most common use, and which would be least likely to be lost among uncivilized nations, have been preserved by the Arabians in the east, by the Welch and Highland Scots in the west, and by all the Gothic nations on the Baltic, altho these people have been separated more than three thousand years, and the radical words are still found in the ancient Hebrew, Syriac, and Chaldaic languages. This fact is living and incontrovertible evidence of the truth of the scripture account of the origin of men.
34. Present political division of Europe. The territory of Europe is distributed into seven large or powerful empires and kingdoms, and many smaller states. The governments of most extent and power are Great Britain, France, Austria, Russia, Prussia, Turkey and Spain. The smaller states of most importance are Sweden, Denmark, Holland, Portugal, Switzerland, Naples, with numerous inferior states in Italy and Germany. The population of Europe is estimated at one hundred and fifty millions of souls.
35. Great Britain. The Empire of Great Britain comprehends England, Scotland and Ireland. Scotland is the northern part of the island of which England is the larger division. Formerly these two portions of the island were under distinct governments; but they were united by compact, July 22, 1706. Ireland was originally a distinct government; but conquered at first by the English, and held as a subordinate kingdom, governed by a lord lieutenant. At length, in the year 1800, it was united to Great Britain, and is now represented in the imperial parliament.
ENGLAND. 36. Names of England. The primitive names of Eng, land recorded by the Greeks and Romans, were Albion and Britannia. Albion is supposed to be derived from a word in their languages signifying white ; and to have been given to the island from the white cliffs of Dover, or hills of chalk. Britannia is supposed to be from a British word, brit, denoting painted; as the ancient inhabitants painted their bodies. But these explanations are rather conjectural than certain
37. Present name of England. The name England, is derived from a tribe of those continental nations who conquered the country after the Romans left it, and who were called Angles. They were from the Cimbric Peninsula, now called Jutland. They invaded the island in the year 547, settled in the middle counties, and called it Anglesland, which was corrupted into England.
38. Principal conguests and revolutions in England, When Julius Cesar invaded England, the Belgic colonies had established themselves in the south part of the island. They came from the opposit continent, and spoke the language of the Gauls. Cesar landed in England 55 years before Christ, and began the dominion of the Romans there; but the island was not really subdued, till the reign of Claudius, one hundred years after Cesar's invasion. The Romans when they had subdued, governed the island till the year of Christ 412.
39. Saxons. The Roman troops being recalled to defend Rome from the barbarians of the north, the Britons were left defenseless; and their northern neighbors, the Picts and Scots, began to invade and ravage their country. In their distresses, they applied to the more martial inhabitants of the opposit continent for assistance; and the Jutes arrived for that purpose in 449. These were followed in subsequent years by the Angles and Saxons, who were different tribes from the shores of the Baltic ; who, having repelled the Picts and Scots, turned their arms against the Britons and took possession of the country. By the year 585, the invaders had established seven distinct states in England, usually called the Heptarchy. These states were all united under one prince in the person of Egbert, A. D. 827.
· 40. Danish Conquest. The Danes and Norwegians were very early distinguished for their knowledge of navigation, and their piracies. In the year 787, these rovers made a descent upon England for plunder ; but about the year 832, they came in more formidable num; bers; and after many bloody battles, in which the Saxon Kings distinguished themselves, and especially the Great Alfred, and after the best towns in England had been reduced to ashes, the Danes entered London A. D. 1013, and England submitted to Swein, the conqueror.
41. Norman Conquest. The Danes retained the government of England but a few years, when the kingdom was restored to its native princes. But in the year 1066, William, Duke of Normandy, landed in England at the head of 60,000 men to conquer the country. Harold, King of England, whose troops were diminished in numbers by a battle just fought in the north against the Norwegians, hastened to meet William, and encountered his army at Hastings. After a long and bloody battle, which lasted the whole day, Harold was slain, his troops put to flight, and William ascended the throne of England. In his descendants, the crown remains to this day, and this was the last conquest of England.
42. Present inhabitants of Great Britain. The inhabitants of Great Britain are therefore composed of the discendants of different tribes from the continent. First, the remains of the primitive Celts or Gaels, who are chiefly in Wales, and the west of England ; in the west of Scotland, or Highlands, and in the north of Ireland. Their language is still preserved in the Highlands of Scotland, but is nearly extinct in Wales. Secondly, the body of the English and Scots are the descendants of the Belgic and Baltic tribes, who, at different periods, invaded and settled in England and Scotland. The latter tribes all spoke dialects of the same language. The English who came to America are their descendants, and we retain a great part of their language.
43. Situation of Great Britain. Great Britain is a large island lying in the Atlantic Ocean, near the western shore of Europe ; extending from 50 to 58 1-2 degrees of north latitude, 70 degrees of longitude east of