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loco parentis, and do the needful work, and surely this is no unjustifiable interference with the parental authority_it is only saying to the parent, if you will not discharge the duty you owe to your child, both in the sight of God and of man, we, the public, will do it for you ; we will not suffer your child to grow up a torment to himself and to all around him ; we would much rather you did your duty yourself, but if you will not, then we must.
By law, the burden of uncared for pauper children falls at présent on the workhouse, but the poor-law authorities are not entitled to expend their money, unless under their own immediate control, and power must be given them to do so, through the medium of industrial school managers. This will be as advantageous as it is economical. Better for the public, who most eventually pay in one form or other, to maintain the child in an industrial school at 41. a year, than in a poor-house at 101, or 121, especially as the smaller expenditure gives every prospect of making him a useful member of the community, and the larger gives little hope of ever raising him above the pauper class.'
A good old Saxon principle, difficult to enforce in the present day, is adverted to by Mr. Carleton Tufnell in his report on Parochial Union Schools for 1851. He says :
• Guardians are not always so open to considerations of ultimate as of immediate economy; and many a pauper who now, before his death, costs his parish 1001, or 2001. might have lived without relief, had a different education, represented perhaps by the additional expense of a single pound, been bestowed upon him in his youth. This is strictly retributive justice ; and I think it would be good policy to increase its effect, and would give a prodigious stimulus to the diffusion of education, if the expense of every criminal, while in prison, were reimbursed to the country by the parish in which he had a settlement. What a stir would be created in any parish by the receipt of a demand from the Secretary of State for the Home Department for 801. for the support of two criminals during the past year! I cannot but think that the locality where they had been brought up would be immediately investigated, perhaps some wretch. ed hovels, before unregarded, made known, and means taken to educate and civilize families that had brought such grievous taxation on the parish. The expense of keeping criminals, as of paupers, must be borne somewhere; and it seems more just that it should fall on those parishes whose neglect has probably caused the crime than on the general purse.'
DisposAL OF JUVENILE CRIMINALS. The real difficulty with criminals will arise on the expiration of their sentences; for it will be of little avail to instruct them or even destitute children, unless they are assisted, or satisfactorily disposed of on discharge. In making any such provision, however, for cri. minals, we encounter the objection made by Lord Denman, and a very serious one it is, when a boy's success in life may be said to originate in the commission of crime.
Morally and socially a great advantage would be secured by placing a boy in a situation and circumstances in which he could afterwards
earn an honest livelihood ; and I think this consideration should outweigh difficulties and objections, which, perhaps, after all, would not have so much influence on the criminal population as might be anticipated. I should be disposed, therefore, to make the trial, and preserve the deterring effect of a sentence by subjecting the offender to a long course of discipline.
A certain proportion of boys who have been subjected to corrective discipline and instruction for periods of from one to three years might, after due inquiry as to the means of support and employinent, be disposed of in this country. The efforts of Mr. Wright, of Manchester, prove this. The experience of the convict prisons, from which men are occasionally discharged, is also in favour of it; but I think the main opening will be in emigration.
In considering the measures necessary for the final disposal of the boy, more difficulties would, however, arise in an attempt to obtain satisfaetory employment either at home or abroad, if he were sent direct from a prison, than if he were sent from an industrial school.
To obviate this, I would recommend that a prisoner, having gone through a certain period of his sentence, in a district prison or penal Schoul, sufficient, as a general rule, for his correction, and the acquirement of industrious habits, a portion of the sentence might be advantageously remitted, not only with a view to obtain the power of imposing conditions on his release, but to operate as an encouragement during the time he was under discipline. I should, therefure, propose that a boy should pass from a district prison to the district school, and be disposed of from thence on the plan now in Operation at Red Hill.
Assuming that there were only one class of schools for paupers, an objeetion might be taken io this plan on the ground that children of honest but poor parents would thus become mixed up with criminal boys. If evil is to be apprehended from such a course, it might be greatly checked by classification; but, practically, I do not think much inconvenience would result. I found this opinion upon the experience of the Philanthropic at Red Hill, and upon some acquaintance with the character of the boys at Parkhurst.
A further reason against the validity of such an objection would be that any boy, on discharge from prison, is entitled to go to his parish school, and to mix with all who attend there; or, if destitute, he is taken into the workhouse, or would be sent to a district industrial school, as a matter of course.
There appears no reason why the same facilities should not be afforded in a systematic manner. My own impression is, that a boy who has gone through one or two years strict discipline at a penal school or prison would be more exemplary in his conduct, more tractable, and, in all respects, better conducted than the class of pauper children in such a school, who had not undergone such previous discipline and instruction.
In saying this, however, I would qualify it by observing that I assume that such as were convicted of serious crimes, and the few prisoners who proved to be incorrigible, under a long sentence of imprisonment, would be specially dealt with, and not sent to the pauzer school at all.
The Act 17 and 18 Vict. cap. 86, for the better care and reforma. tion of youthful offenders in Great Britain, is a first step in the right direction, and, if due effect be given to its provisions, it may be anticipated that many of the more crying evils, which have been so long endured, may be diminished.”
There can be no more appropriate recorded fact to follow this extract from Lieut. Col. Jebb's Report, than that furnished by the next passage, extracted from The Ragged School Union Magazine, for November, 1854, describing the “ Industrial Home for Outcast Boys, Belvedere House, Belvedere Road, Lambeth, Hungerford Bridge, South, London":
“To any one desirous of visiting the Institution, the only direction needful to be given is, to cross over Hungerford Bridge from north to south. He will see before him, as he approaches the south side of the river, a large board-surmounting a house which itself rises somewhat above the neighbouring buildings-on which is written the name of the Asylum,
Indeed, its situation is its best advertisement, as it so stands that foot passengers to and from the Railway must pass by its door. They constantly step in for a few minutes, which the Committee rejoice to perceive, as they well know that even a few minutes of personal inspection on the part of an intelligent visitor, cannot fail at once to reveal to him the spirit of energy and originality that pervades the establishment.
It is especially worth while to visit it just now, because of the marked and striking contrast between its older inmates and a batch of new comers—drove or herd would perhaps be the more suitable appellation, considering the way in which they were gathered together, and the place from which some of them were taken. Mr. Driver and a Mem. ber of the Committee having looked in one night, between eleven and twelve o'clock, at the well-known Night Refuge in Field Lane, were preparing to depart, when their conversation with the master turned upon the fact of a number of those who failed, for various reasons, to obtain admission into the Refuge, being accustomed to crawl through a hole just opposite--leading down somewhere beneath the raised road. way of Victoria Street-and remain under ground till morning. They then went over to the hole, and called out in order to ascertain if there were any boys there, and to ask them to come out and show themselves. Reassured, by the familiar voice of the Refuge Master, that this invitation was no move on the part of the police, they crept out one after another to the number of fourteen. After some conversation, Mr. Driver selected four of them, whom he told to come to him on the following morning. They came, and are now with him, as well as several others collected in a somewhat similar way. The next night Mr. Driver, happening to be again out in that direction with another of the Committee, pointed out the hole as the place where the fourteen boys had emerged from the bowels of the earth. Wondering what sort of cavern it must be to hold so many, the latter gentleman suggested an immediate descent. Whereupon, fetching a lad from the Refuge to
act as pioneer, and sending him in first with a light, they prepared to follow, each divesting "himself of coat and hat for the purpose. Legs foremost was the order of the day—or rather nightwith serpent-like movement, down a sloping passage about six feet long. Then a sort of arcbed vault, about 34 feet high, 54 long, and 6 broad, received the exploring party, now reinforced by the Refuge Master, who availed himself of the opportunity of paying his first visit to this rival establishment. Two lads only were found to have taken up their quarters here upon this occasion. The conversation that ensued turned chiefly upon the measures which had become necessary to defeat the taetics of the police, whose plan of operations seemed to have been, by the use of stones and other projectiles, to force the besieged to come out of it.' A well-constructed barricade of large stones attested the engineering skill of the latter, which, whilst it narrowed the entrance and curtailed the interior space, was deemed amply to compensate for these disadvantages by the immunity from assault which it secured. There was plenty of straw in the place; and it is worthy of remark, that the English spirit of order appeared to have penetrated even into this dark and dismal retreat, as the visitors were given to understand that a certain rude code of regulations prevailed, and that only on rare occasions, and when the hole was filled to suffocation, would a general scuffle ensue--the nature of which, under such circumstances, can be more easily imagined than described.”
Amongst the other important progressive morements of the Quarter, in the Reformatory cause, we must record the charge delivered by Baron Alderson to the Grand Jury of Yorkshire at the last Winter Assizes, which was entirely in favor of Reformatory Institutions. We have but one objection to make to this charge, it seened formed in all its points upon, and to have derived its inspiration, and all the knowledge contained in it, from a very clever, but very theoretical book- Dr. Comb's Principles of Criminal Legislature. If Baron Alderson had studied the subject rather than the book, he would have known that all worth notice in Mr Comb's work, so far as legislation is concerned, has been much more ably and more wisely urged by other writers more conversant by study and profession with the question before him; men with no disputel physiological theories to advance; men founding their statements upon the proved results of long, and anxious examination and of every authority worthy of consideration.
Upon the question of Prison Discipline, no man living is worthy of attention before the Rev. John Field, Chaplain of the Berkshire Gaol. Devoting bis attention and his great ability to this important question, his claims upon our notice are three-fold, for he addresses us as a Christian, as a patriot, and
as a scholar; and the, iservices dopec by him idcinculcating correct notions on the various topics of his works-Prison Discipline, The Life of John Howard, University and other Sermons, and in his paper ono Prison Discipline in the second series of Meliora, have been more than equalled by the publicae. tion, during the past quarter, of his pamphlet Observations on the Management of Convicts, and on Tickets-of-leate : with Remarks, in an Appendix, on the More Speedy Trial and Punishment of Larceny in Certain Cases, 117
vi Mr. Toots, in Dombey and Son, was not more perplesed, when asked by the dancing-master of political and economic tastes " What are we to do with our raw material ?” than is the British Legislator - when asked, “ what are we to do with our Convicts ?" To supply the answer to this question is the aim of Mr. Field's pamphlet-and he considers that our colle victs are easily dealt with, and may in most cases be reformed, by a carefully conducted separate imprisonment, for periods of not less than twelve months duration. What separate imprisonment is, all readers of THE IRISH QUARTERLY REVIEW know, as we have frequently referred to, and quoted from, the admirable works of our good friends, the Rev. Mr. Field, and the Rev. Mr. Kingsmill: devoted to this subject, and to the elucidation of the Convict System, a paper appeared inour last number.
Mr. Field, in his pamphlet, objects to our present system of Convict treatment, because it contains two prominent evils, : 1st,the term of the convict's separate confinement is insufficient 2nd, the execution of his sentence is rendered uncertain, and so dependent" upon circumstances' as to prevent permanent reformation.
We presume that few who read this Record are ignorant of the arguments in favor of, and of the great authority due tou the opinions of those who advocate the system : Mr. Field shortly refers to them, and justly objects to a rule which condemns one guilty of perlaps, a first offence, to twelve, months separate confinement, and yet sentences the convict.. grown hardened in crime, and rendered careless of imprison. ment through a series of committals, to but mie inontlis separation before Tie joins the penal labor ranks. All these objectiqus. are urged with Mr. Field's well known ability; and he, with equal force, objects to the plan of liberating a convict, for goodconduct, before his full term of punishment shall have expired. He asserts that we séritente men, and that 'the convicts know,