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necessity of educating up to the age, but not beyond it, the laboring and working classes.": It was, whilst fully impressed with suoh sentiments as these, that the late Sir Robert Peel, in the inaugural address, delivered by him as President of the Tamworth Library and Reading Room, in January, 1841, urged these points upon the members, and said :
“I beseech you to reflect upon these things ; and to enter upon the path that leads to knowledge. There may be difficulties at first, there may be habits of listlessness and inattention to be overcome ; but as you advance, new prospects will expand, new beauties will beguile the way, and you will be cheered onward by a voice from within, of self-confidence, and self-respect.
That path must lead to improvement, it may lead to eminence and honourable fame. The aspirings of a pure ambition may be indulged by those of a lowly estate, and you will not now be able to say, that chill penury' has frozen the genial current of your aspirations for knowledge and distinction. Review the names of many men conspicuous in our own time, in the annals of art and science. Enquire into their origin, Mark the first steps in life of the late Mr. Rennie-Sir Humphrey Davy-Sir Francis Chantrey -Mr. Dalton-Professor Farrady-Mr. Wheatstone, who by means of Electricity, is speeding the intercourse of thought and expression, with the velocity of light. Look around you. If you go to Lichfield, you see the monument of Dr. Johnson. If you go to Handsworth, the monument of Mr. Watt. Nay, without leaving the narrow precincts of your own town, you have the confirmation of these truths. Who is constructing here the wharfs from which new supplies of lime and coal are to be poured into the midland districts ? Mr. Stephenson, the civil engineer. Had he any advantages over you in early life? What has raised him from the bottom of the colliery in which he worked as a boy, but the elastic force of natural acuteness and industry, combined with that economy of time, which enabled him to save one hundred pounds by mending the watches of his fellow workmen, after the hours of daily labour ; and with those pious feelings, that prompted him to sanctify this first accumu. lation of capital, by applying it to the support of his indigent parents ? In him you have a daily example of the methods by which, from the lowest origin, merit has been enabled to raise itself to high eminence and great respect.
I was making enquiry the other day, of a valued friend of mine, himself among the very first in scientific knowledge, as to the early history of men who have worked their way to distinction, and i received a letter from him which I will read to you.
I forgot to mention yesterday, that Mr. Grainger, the great architect, who has, within the last five years, rebuilt the town of Newcastle--in a style infinitely superior to Regent-street, and whom I met at the Duke of Northumberland's two years ago--began his career as a poor mason's boy, carrying a hod. In the interval between 1834 and 1838, he converted Newcastle from a black and filthy cluster of narrow streets of brick, to a condition exceeding
anything I have ever seen excepting in the best parts of the New town of Edinburgh. The late Mr. Harvey, who died at an early age, three years ago, a professor at Woolwich, who published an excellent treatise on Meteorology in the Encyclopædia Metropolitana, had worked for many years as a carpenter in the Dockyard at Plymouth, where he afterwards became a teacher of mathematics, and whence removed to the professorship above mentioned. I will send you his treatise, as I am sure it will interest you; and as there is in the first page, a private letter from the author ; which if to your purpose you are welcome to quote.'
I cannot believe that by assuming the office of such a friend, by facilitating the access to such knowledge as we hope to dispense, that we shall be defeating any legitimate object of human policy, or counteracting the purposes of that Almighty Being, who gave us faculties to distinguish us from the beasts that perish, and will demand from us a severe account of the manner in which we have employed them.
I cannot believe that we shall inake men dissatisfied with their lot, by proving to them that a humble condition is no obstruction to the gaining of those distinctions which learning and science confer_that there is a field of competition in which nothing but merit can secure the prize.
It seems to me, that by bringing into immediate contact, the intelligent minds of various classes and various conditions in life, by uniting (as we have united) in the Committee of Management of this Institution, the Gentleman of ancient family and great landed possessions, with the most skilful and intelligent of our Mechanics, that we are harmonizing the gradations of society, and establishing a bond of connection which will derive no common strength from the motives that influence us, and the cause in which we are engaged.
I can hardly conceive a mind so constituted, that being familiarized with the wonderful discoveries which have been made in every department of experimental Science--that seeing the proofs of Divine intelligence in every object of contemplation, from the organization of the meanest weed that we trample on, or the insect invisible to our eyes, up to the magnificent structure of the heavens, or the still more wonderful phenomena of the soul and reason of man-can retire from such contemplations, without more enlarged conceptions of God's providence and a higher reverence for Flis name. It seems to me that we must feel the dignity of our own nature exalted, when we hold communion with such thoughts and speculations as these ; and that struck with awe, at the contemplation of infinite power, and infinite wisdom, wvqust yield the silent assent of our heart and reason, to the pious exclamation-- Oh Lord, how glorious are thy works, thy thoughts are very deep.' An unwise man doeth not well consider this, and a fool doth not understand it.'
Yes! it is ignorance and folly that form unworthy conceptions of God's providence. Far different are the impressions of those who have the most considered this and have made the greatest, how
ever imperfect, advances towards understanding it. Let me read to you the thoughts with which Sir Isaac Newton concludes his profound investigations into the mechanical causes which produce, and the laws which govern, the motions of the Universe.
• This beautiful system of sun, planets, and comets, could have its origin in no other way, than by the purpose and command of an intelligent and powerful 'Being. He governs all things_not as the soul of the world, but as the Lord of the Universe. He is not only God, but Lord or Governor. We know Him only by His properties and attributes by the wise and admirable structure of things around us, and by their final causes; we admire Him on account of His perfections, we venerate and worship Him on account of His government.'
These again, are the reflections from which Sir Humphrey Davy, in his last illness, derived according to his own expression, some pleasure and some consolation, when most other sources of consolation and pleasure were closed to him. Speaking of the intellectual and moral qualities which are required in his opinion to form the character of a true philosophical inquirer, he observes, • His mind should always be awake to devotional feeling ; and in contemplating the variety and the beauty of the external world, and developing its scientific wonders, he will always refer to that infinite wisdom, through whose beneficence he is permitted to enjoy knowledge; in becoming wiser, he will become better; he will rise at once in the scale of intellectual and moral existence-his increased sagacity will be subservient to a more exalted faith, and in proportion as the veil becomes thinner, through which he sees the causes of things, he will admire more the brightness of the Divine light, by which they are rendered visible.'”.
There is nothing of the dreamer in this; nothing of the utopian world creator, making all the earth a joint plan of spoliation for schemers, who call themselves the friends of the working classes. It is sound, common sense, worthy the son of an English manufacturer, worthy an English statesman, above all, worthy an English, patriotic gentleman.
We have, in the course of this paper, told the history of Factory Schools, in the words of Mr James P. Wilson, and have referred to him as the chief authority-we have done so as we believe that he who works a principle, and succeeds, in a matter requiring a sound head and a christian heart, is best adapted to explain his own hopes, his own fears, and his own noble triumphs. Such a man as this we find James Wilson to be; in all that he has accomplished, his brother, Mr. G. F. Wilson, has heartily aided him; and if, from the reading of this paper, one practical friend can be secured to the cause, our labor will not be vain-the only reward a man like Mr Wilson can desire will bave been gained. "Go it, greasers," "aint them cocoa-nut chaps a pitchin' it into 'em," —cried the crowd of on-lookers as they watched the Belmont Factory Cricket Match ; may it not, has it not, come to pass, that in more refined language, many a thoughtful man now repeats the hearty sentiment of admiration thus expressed.*
ART. V.—THE ROMANCE OF LIFE :-JOSEPH
BALSAMO, OTHERWISE COUNT CAGLIOSTRO. The Memoirs of a Physician. By Alexander Dumas.
London : Simms and M'Intire. 1852. There are few works of fiction have had more readers than the two novels from the pen of Alexander Dumas, under the respective titles of The Memoirs of a Physician, and The Count de Monte Christo. Although in every page, the author leaves the bounds of probability, nay of possibility, far behind, and indulges in the most exaggerated spirit of Romance, his readers feel no disinclination to accompany him, and turn his pages with all the interest that could be felt in the perusal of an awful, but strict reality. We fear that in the instances which Romance affords of heroes taken from the ordinary or inferior classes, a searching investigation would disclose much ridiculous insignificance and very humble pretensions magnified into importance, of which the originals themselves never dreamed, and occasionally low vulgarity and ruffianism exalt. ed into a dignity to which in fact it would form the strongest contrast. We suspect that but for the exercise of imaginative power, Rob Roy would be a homely, rough cattle-stealer, Jack Sheppard and Dick Turpin would find but slight sympathy on their way to the gallows, and Claude Duval would never be recognized as a rival to Charles the Second in courtly manner and in the favor of Nell Gwynn. To the examination of such subjects it is intended to devote some future occasions, but at present it is proposed to offer to the reader a few particulars connected with the genuine history of the man whom Dumas has invested with such wonderful interest to his read.
In connexion with the subject of this paper, see "Temperance as Affecting the Interexts of Emplovers and Employed." By Archibald Prentice, Esq., Manchester. The Eleventh of the Edinburgh Series of Temperance Tracts.
ers, as Joseph Balsamo, but who will be better known ander the designation to which he answered before the parliament of Paris in 1785- Alexander, Count de Cagliostro.
Dumas introduces Joseph Balsamo to his readers during the progress of Marie Antoinette to her ill fated marriage in 1770, and describes the astonishment and dismay of the Dauphiness at having her ultimate fate mirrored to her by the arch magician in a decanter of spring water : he subsequently presents Balsamo as facilitating the introduction at court of Madame du Barri, anticipating all her wishes, and by means of a Clairvoyante, reading the secrets of Ministers of State, and enabling their enemies to effect their overthrow. He speaks to old noblemen of occurrences which happened fifty years previous, and convinces them that he was an eye-witness, although apparently not forty years of age. But it is useless to recapitulate the wonders ascribed by the novelist to his hero ; it is our object to shew how very small indeed was the lock of wool which he spun into such a lengthened yarn.
We are not about to enter upon the strict details of that extraordinary and never thoroughly elucidated affair of “The Diamond Necklace.” Dumas has not adverted to it, but as it was the transaction which introduced Joseph Balsamo, or rather the Count de Cagliostro, not merely to a French, but to an European celebrity, we shall briefly notice it. CardinalLouis de Rohan, whose family occupied the first rank amongst the ancienne noblesse of France, and whose ecclesiastical titles and dignities imparted immense rank, power and emolu. ment, was at the commencement of 1785 excluded from court favor and influence, which he attributed to the personal dis. like of the queen, towards whom it has been insinuated, he entertained sentiments of an amatory character. Having heard that her Majesty had expressed great admiration for a diamond necklace belonging to Messrs Bohmer and Bassanges, jewellers, the cardinal conceived the idea, that if he either procured the inagnificent ornament for her majesty, or aided her essentially in its acquisition, such a service would effect his restoration to favor, and establish for him a paramount influence with the queen. In the adoption of this course he was stimulated by the suggestions of an unprincipled woman, the wife of an officer of gendarmerie, and who assumed the rank of a countess, pretending a connection with the royal family of France through the house of Valois. This Madame