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it would be an aggregate of parts, each of which would be a whole by itself.

Therefore rhythm in general is a succession of portions of time perceptible to the senses; the rhythm of art, is a beautiful whole, consisting of portions of time, variously following each other, perceptible to the senses, to be apprehended by the hearing.

In order to produce a rhythm, there must exist a force which divides the uninterrupted flow of time into portions of time. This force may operate sometimes more strongly, at other times more weakly. The stronger operation of force is called the ictus or beat, and the portion of time which is produced by such an operation of force is called arsis; the portion of time on the other hand, which is the product of the weaker operation of force, is the thesis. The sign of the arsis is ' ; the thesis is not marked. By the constant interchange of arsis and thesis, variety of rhythm is produced. If thesis follows upon thesis, or arsis upon arsis, the variety of the rhythm is interrupted, and instead of eurhythmy, arrhythmy is produced. Arrhythmy also the poet may frequently employ with propriety, as the musician uses discords. The succession of arses and arses, or theses and theses, is often only. apparent.

A rhythm which begins with the arsis, and descends to the thesis, is called falling or sinking; that which begins with the thesis and ascends to the arsis, is called rising. The former is calmer and more relaxed; the latter, livelier and more forcible.

A thesis with which a rhythm begins is called anacrusis or an upward beat.

Arsis and thesis stand in a mutual relation to each other, since the one determines the other. This mutual relation renders it possible to comprehend the various parts as a whole. That is, the arsis must stand to the thesis in a definite and appreciable relation ; and this relation in Greek rhythms is either equal, 1:1; or two to one, 2:1, or one and a half to one, 11:1, 3:2.

The mutual relation of arsis and thesis extends not only to the simplest component parts of the rhythm but also to all combinations. Thus arises a whole system of relations, which are subordinate to each other. It is not always necessary that the relation of arsis and thesis of the simple component parts, should be similar to the relations of the combinations ;

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but with regard to the ascending and descending, the latter conform themselves to the former. Where this does not take place, there occurs an arrhythmy.


Definition of Metre.Long, Short. The expression of force which, by its stronger or weaker intensity, produces arsis or thesis, and separates the single portions of time from one another and thereby defines them, determines by its extension the duration also of the portions of time, and gives them thereby their measure, pérgov, metrum. In metre, a long signifies that portion of time which, by that expression of force, is extended longer than another which is called a short, in the same manner as in rhythm arsis signifies that portion of time on which there is a greater stress than another which is called thesis. The sign for a long is

for a short u. As we found rhythm to be a definite succession of arses and theses, so metre is a definite succession of longs and shorts.

Different metres may be adapted to a particular rhythm:

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"; and, the reverse, different rhythms to a particular metre:

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The constituent parts of the metre, the long and short, stand in a relation to each other, similar to that of arsis and thesis in rhythm; the one is measured by the other. set down the short, being the smallest measure of time (zgóvos, onuecov, mora) = 1, the long is = 2.

Both measures, long and short, may be variously combined, whence metres arise. The simplest combinations of both measures are called feet (ródes, pedes). The following are the names of the most common feet : 1. Feet of two times, dixcovoi, dionuoi.*

Pyrrhichius, Pyrrhich.

* The names of the feet are thus explained: Pyrrhich, from Avgoiin, a war-dance : Tribrach, from tpißoagus, three shorts ; Trochee,

2. Feet of three times, toixgovor, rpionuoi.

Tribrachys, Tribrach.
Trochaeus, Trochee.

Iambus, Iamb.
3. Feet of four times, τετράχρονοι, τετράσημοι.

Proceleusmaticus, Proceleusmatic.
Dactylus, Dactyl.
Amphibrachys, Amphybrach.
Anapaestus, Anapaest.

Spondeus, Spondee.
4. Feet of five times, πεντάχρονοι, πεντάσημοι.

Palim-bacchius, or Anti-bacchius.
First Paeon.
Second Paeon.
Third Paeon.

Fourth Paeon.
5. Feet of six times, εξάχρονοι, εξάσημοι.

Sinking Ionicus, (Ionicus a majore).
Rising Ionicus, (Ionicus a minore).
Antispastus, Antispast.
Ditrochaeus, Ditrochee.
Diiambus, Diiamb.

6. Feet of seven times, επτάχρονοι, επτάσημοι.

First Epitritus, Epitrite.
Second Epitritus.

from teogaios, running, swift ; Iambus, perhaps from idato), to assail or satirize, being used originally in satire ; Proceleusmatic, from roonedevquatixós, urging or cheering on; Dactyle, from doxtvhos, finger; Amphibrach, from appißoagus, short at both ends ; Anapaest, from dvd halotos, struck back, that is contrary to the dactyle; Spondee, from otrovdécos, used on solemn occasions, ¿v Taīs orovdois; Bacchius, from Banycos, used in Dithyrambic hymns in the festivals of Bacchus ; Palimbacchius or Antibacchius, Bacchius reversed ; Amphimacer, from auqiuangos, long at both ends; Paeon, from raiwv, a song of praise or triumph; Ionic, from iovixós, Ionian, being used especially by the Ionians ; Choriambus, composed of a choree (trochee) and an iambus ; Antispast, from évtionaotos, drawn contrary ; Molossus, from Mohoooós, a Molossian; Epitrit, from friTpitos, three long syllables, and one short in addition, ¿ni; Dochmius, from dóquios, oblique. Trs.

Third Epitritus.

Fourth Epitritus. 7. Feet of eight times, οκτάχρονοι, οκτάσημοι.


Dispondeus, Dispondee. These feet might also be arranged according to the number of syllables, into feet of two, three, four, etc. syllables.

All these feet are a definite system of times, in which the rhythm is undetermined.


Union of Rhythm and Metre.-Kinds of Rhythms. In Rhythm we have a mutual relation of arsis and thesis, and in metre a similar one of long and short. If we would bring rhythm and metre into harmony, the equality of the two relations will be a principal requisite.

The rhythmical relation of equality, 1:1, 2:2, 4:4 permits the substitution of the following metrical forms: 1

2 | 2

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Spondeus major.

(?) Spondeus major. This substitution forms the equal kind, yévos loov, genus par. It is called also the Dactylic, because the Dactyle belongs here as the principal foot. The character of the equal kind is uniformity, repose and dignity.

The relation of thesis and arsis may also be that of the dou


ble: 1:2, 2:4, 4:8. Corresponding to this is the relation

, of the double in metre: 2 8 2

2 8 4

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Falling Rhythms.

Rising Rhythms.

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Trochee semantus.

Orthius. This substitution gives the double kind, γένος διπλάσιον, genus duplex, or the Tambic.

In the rising rhythm the first portion of time is in thesi, the other two are in arsi. The two portions of time of the arsis, considered by themselves, have again a relation of intensity, and indeed that of equality, because the relation of extension also is that of equality, and because the principal relation of the whole rhythm is rising, this subordinate one is also rising. The arsis falls therefore on the second portion of time in the second principal division :



t. a.

ul Of these three portions of time, accordingly, the third will have the greatest intensity, because a part of the ictus of the chief arsis, and a subordinate arsis are united in it. By this strong intension of one portion of time the equilibrium between arsis and thesis, towards which every rhythm tends, is to a certain extent restored, for what is wanting to this division in extension, is made up, though not completely, by intensity. At the same time a gradual ascent from the weaker to the stronger wuu is hereby effected; the first division of time is, both in reference to the whole rhythm, and in reference to the second division in thesi ; the second division of time is stronger, because in relation to the first it is in arsi, but the third is the strongest, in relation to which the second stands in thesi.

In a similar manner, in the falling rhythm, the first part

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