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The acatalectic tetrameter is employed by the dramatists as á lyric verse without a fixed caesura or diaeresis, often with many resolutions and lightly constructed, as Aesch. Suppl. 8ii.
Λύσιμα, μάχιμα δ' έπιδε, πάτερ, βίαια μη φιλείς ορών. Soph. Oed. Col. 1076.
Τάν δεινά πλάσαν, δεινά δ' ευρούσαν προς αυθαίμων πάθη. The Dorian lyric poets have it more rarely, as Pind. Olymp. ΧΙ. 3.
Εμάς γέγραπται. Γλυκύ γαρ αυτώ μέλος οφείλων επιλέλαθ'.
ω Μοϊσ', αλλά συ και θυγάτηρ. : The Aeolian lyric poets perhaps more frequently, as Alcaeus in Hephaestion :
Δέξαι με κωμάζοντά, δέξαι, λίσσομαί σε, λίσσομαι. The Romans use it by the line, in the dialogue of the drama; versus Boiscius or octonarius.
As in the catalectic tetrameter, so called, the fourth dipody never admits the middle time, the verse is rather composed of an iambic dimeter and an iamb. tetrap. cat.
Thus the Greek and Roman comic writers often use it by the line; Versus Septenarius or quadratus. Sometimes also it occurs singly as a lyric verse, as Soph. Electr. 1420.
Πολύρρυτον γαρ αίμ' υπεξαιρούσι των κτανόντων. Longer combinations of the dipody are to be regarded as iambic systems.
(3) The Tripody.-Tripodia iambica.
The former serves sometimes in the lyric poets as the close of a rhythmical mass, as Pind. Olymp. IV. Epod. 10.
Έοικότα χρόνον, but also occurs elsewhere singly, as Soph. Electr. 479.
“Υπεστί μοι θράσος, or connected with other rhythms, as Pind. Olymp. XIV. 10.
۔ ۔ ۔ ۔
"Έργων εν ουρανό, χρυσότοξον θέμεναι παρά. It is found as a close after a catalectic trochaic tetrameter in Aristophanes, as Vesp. 339, 370.
Τίνα πρόφασιν έχων.
Αλλ' έπαγε την γνάθον. The catalectic tripody is the Monom. troch. cum anacrusi,
(4) The Tetrapody.— Tetrapodia iambica.
Both are frequent in the lyric poets and dramatists, sometimes singly, as Pind. Olymp. IV. Epod. 3.
"Έλυσεν εξ ατιμίας, Aesch. Agam. 120.
Βλαβέντα λοισθίων δρόμων, Soph. Αj. 376.
Ερεμνον αιμ' έδευσα, sometimes in connection with other rhythms, as Aesch. Agam. 1156.
Ιω γάμοι γάμοι Πάριδος ολέθριοι φίλων. Pind. Pyth. II. 5.
Εύάρματος Ιέρων ένα κρατέων.
Both rather infrequent. For an example of the acatalectic, take Pratinas in Athen. XIV. p. 617. C.
Ο δ' αυλός ύστερον χορευέτω, of the catalectic Soph. Philoct. 1095. Aesch. Sept. c. Th. 215.
Σύ τοι σύ του κατηξίωσας. .
The former is not distinguished from the lightly constructed iambic trimeter, hence it is often doubtful whether such verses are to be measured by feet or dipodies. Pind. Olymp. I. 8, is to be taken as a hexapody, not as a trimeter :
"Οθεν ο πολύφατος ύμνος αμφιβάλλεται. The catalectic hexapody is only distinguished from what is called the catalectic trimeter, by the circumstance that the third thesis can never assume the middle time: where this distinguishing mark is wanting, therefore, it remains in most cases doubtful how the verse is to be taken.
RHYTHMS, THE GROUND FOOT OF WHICH IS FOUR-TIMED.
EQUAL OR DACTYLIC-ANAPAESTIC KIND.
A. Falling, Dactylic Rhythms.
(a) Rational Dactyls. The ground foot of the dactylic rhythm is four-timed and descending; the principal arsis rests upon the first two shorts which for reasons stated above (P. I. ch. 5. p. 20) appear almost always contracted -vv, except perhaps in lyric poets in proper names, as Pind. Isthm. III. 63.
"Έρνεϊ Τελεσιάδα. τόλμα γάρ εικώς, comp. also Nem. VII. 70, and in dramatists in other cases also, although rarely, as Soph. Ant. 797.
Νύμφας, των μεγάλων πάρεδρος εν αρχαϊς. The shorts in the thesis occur either resolved, or contracted - - (spondee). The resolution of the thesis renders the rhythm more rapid, the contraction slower and more solemn. The Dorian lyric poets usually contract the thesis in proper names only, as Pind. Olymp. XI. 99. The Aeolian lyric, the epic and dramatic. poets admit the spondee also in other
The character of the dactylic rhythm is quiet and dignified in consequence of the relation of equality between the intensity and extension (P. I. ch. 3. p. 11). The dactyl is, by its gentler fall, distinguished from the anapaest which, on the contrary, rises forcibly.
The dactylic rhythm delights, according to P. I. ch. 11. p. 39, in foot and principal caesuras; even diaereses are, in certain verses, not rare. The caesura is of a double kind,
either after the long - | vv, the masculine, or after the first short - upu, the feminine, xarà tòv tooxažov.
The acatalexis is rare on account of the want of a close.
The last short of an acatalectic dactyl may by a peculiar license be changed into a long (P. I. ch. 4. p. 19).
The catalexis is either in disyllabum, terminating in thesi, or in syllabam, terminating in arsi.
The lyric poets often prefix to dactylic rhythms the anacrusis, the trochaic or iambic basis.
In the thesis it is allowed to shorten a long by the hiatus. The Roman poets, however, make very sparing_use of this liberty, as Virg. Georg. I. 281. Aen. III. 211. Eclog. VIII. 108. Hor. Sat. I. 9. 38.
Ter sunt conati imponere Pelio Ossam.
Si me amas, inquit, paulo hic ades. Inteream si. The dactylic arsis, especially in the principal caesuras, has the power of lengthening a short syllable, and excusing an hiatus, as Hom. Il. I. 19. 24.
Εκπέρσαι Πριάμοιο πόλιν, ευ δ' οίκαδ' ικέσθαι.
Αλλ' ούκ Ατρείδη Αγαμέμνονι ήνδανε θυμώ. The lengthening by the arsis is in the lyric and dramatic poets very rare, as Soph. Ant. 134.
Αντίτυπα δ' επί γα πέσε τανταλωθείς. Pind. Olymp. VI. 103.
Δέσποτα ποντόμεδον, ευθύν δε πλέον καμάτων, comp. also Pyth. IX. 114.
The Latin poets, too, sometimes, though more rarely than the Greek, used in the arsis a short as if it were long, as Virg. Ecl. X. 69. Aen. V. 521. IV. 64.
Omnia vincit Amor et nos cedamus Amori.
Pectoribus inhians spirantia consulit exta. and allowed the hiatus in the arsis, as Virg. Ecl. II. 24. Aen. IV. 667. Ecl. III. 6.
Amphion Dircaeus in Actaeo Aracyntho.