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comes continually more insignificant, the form always more affected, until at last it degenerates into the rhymed leonine
As Epic poets, we have to name M. Annaeus Lucanus (d. 65), on account of his Pharosalia, C. Valerius Flaccus (70), on account of his Argonautica, P. Papinius Statius (96), on account of his Thebais and Achilleis, Caius Silius Italicus (d. 100),
on account of his Punica, and Claudius Claudianus (395). Calpurnius Serranus (50), is an imitator of Virgil in the Idyllic Epos. As didactic poets, Q. Serenus Samoni. cus (212), and Nemesianus (284) are to be mentioned.
The Aesopic Fable was handled by T. Phaedrus Libertus, (30) in the time of Tiberius, in iambs which are formed after the model of the ancient Comedians.
Satire flourished more than all other kinds, because the times afforded it ample materials. Aulus Persius Flaccus (d. 64), Decimus Junius Juvenalis (90), T. Petronius Arbiter (60), are distinguished,—the last on account of his half prose half poetic Satiricon, and Lucius Annaeus Seneca (d. 65) on account of his Satire upon the deified Claudius.
The achievements in the lyrical species are very small. The hendecasyllabus is the most favorite form. M. Valerias Martialis (100) is distinguished as the author of epigrams. He is the father of the witty epigram ; the form is the elegiac distich, the iamb, the trimeter claudus, the hendecasyllabus, the Sotadic verse, and epodic measures. To the lyric poets also belong Statius on account of his Sylvae, Decimus Magnus Ausonius (380), Claudian, etc.
The achievements in the drama are more meager still. The ten pieces of Seneca which we possess are exercises in style, and hence were never brought out. The ancient Atellanae again make their appearance under Tiberius, and speak with considerable freedom against the faults of that age. Indeed, this genuine Italian species of drama was never entirely extinct, but continued down to modern times under the form of the comedia dell' arte.
RHYTHMS, THE FUNDAMENTAL FOOT OF WHICH IS TRIPLETIMED;
THE DOUBLE OR TROCHAIC-IAMBIC CLASS.
A. Falling, Trochaic Rhythms. The ground-foot of the trochaic rhythm is tripletimed and
falling: The principal ársis rests on the first two shorts, the former of which has the stronger intensity (P. I. ch. 3. p. 13). The first and second short alone can be contracted (P. I. ch. 5. p. 21).
The trochaic rhythm, belonging to the double kind, is less dignified than the dactylic. It is quicker and lighter in consequence of the more forcible intensity of the arsis, and the more limited extension of the thesis (P. I. ch. 3. p. 13), and the rhythm being falling, has less force than the iamb, though this has the same times (P. I. ch. 1. p. 8). The rhythm may, however, by various modifications become both more forcible and grave, and also feebler and lighter.
The double kind delights in the union of pairs of feet into dipodies (P. I. ch. 3. p. 15), our time. For reasons stated above the short of the second trochee of the dipody alone can
be converted into the irrational measure :
In a trochaic series which is to be measured by dipodies, the freer measure is allowed in the even places (in sedibus paribus) alone. This rhythm, by dipodic measurement, and by a frequent use of the middle time, approaches to the dactylic and hence becomes graver and more dignified; by foot-measurement, and frequent resolution of the trochee into the tribrach it becomes more light and moveable. Thus we distinguish light trochees which are to be measured by feet and on account of their rapid movement, are particularly suited to the Aeolian mood, and grave, which proceed by dipodies, and on account of their greater dignity are frequently used in poems of the Doric mood (Hermann's Dorii Epitriti).
The poets made use of the irrational dactyl with limitations which will be hereafter more particularly described. The older Roman dramatists use the liberties, permitted in the even places, in the odd places too, (P. I. ch. 4. p. 19):
The proceleusmatic was probably not used; where it does occur, it should be concealed by the pronunciation.
Trochaic rhythms delight in the foot caesuras, because they gain force thereby (P. I. ch. 11. p. 40), as Pind. Isthm. III. 35 :
Τεσσάρων ανδρών ερήμωσεν μάχαιραν εστίαν. Longer trochaic series, if used by the line, have a principal diaeresis in the middle.
The catalexis of trochaic verses is in syllabam only.
The termination in arsi closes the verse forcibly; the catalexis is, therefore, very usual (P. I. ch. 7. p. 26).
The shortening of a long by the hiatus occurs in resolved trochees alone, and even then seldom, in lyric passages of tragedies, as Eur. Iph. Taur. 197:
Αούς τε παϊδ' Αιθίοπα. πολλά μοι υπ' αγκώνος ωκέα
βέλη. The hiatus in the trochaic arsis is very rare, and besides used in lyric poets alone, as Pind. Olymp. III. 30:
Αντιθεϊσ’ Ορθωσία έγραψεν τράν και compare also Olymp. XIII. 35.
The following are the single trochaic rhythms which are in use:
(1) The Monopody.--Monopodia trochaica :
This smallest trochaic rhythm is sometimes found before other longer ones as an introduction, and is then called a basis (Béois). We shall always mark the basis with ,
This trochaic basis contains the following forms: -u, -
vuu,uu-, all of which are
Besides this basis an
- X iambic one occurs : - (-, vu, -uu). They are sometimes interchanged. Pindar, however, uses always one form without interchange. With him the trochaic basis has usually the form of a trochee or spondee, more rarely of a tribrach, and once only as an anapaest. Nem. VI. 68.
"Ισον είπoιμι Μελησίαν. The dramatists are less restrained in the use of the basis, being allowed to interchange the trochaic and iambic forms, as Soph. Philoct. 1125, 1148.
Χώρος ουρεσιβώτας. The Aeolian lyric poets are still freer, exchanging the basis for the dissyllabic anacrusis, as Sappho in Hephaest.
Γλυκόπικρον αμάχανον όρπετον.
The Roman lyric poets used the basis commonly in the spondaic form only; Catullus alone uses the trochee, the iamb, and once the tribrach.
The trochaic basis, like every other rhythm which begins with an arsis, can be increased by the anacrusis: - (-,
---), as Aesch. Sept. c. Τh. 356, 368.
Αθαναίας εν κροκέω πέπλο Pind. Pyth. II. Epod. 8.
.. Τον ευεργέταν αγαναίς αμοιβαίς επoιχομένους τίνεσθαι.
X - Χ -
cv. In this case the second basis is usually treated with less freedom than the first. Pindar doubles the trochaic basis alone, as Nem. IV. 6, 22, 70.
X - Χ -,
Ρήμα δ' έργμάτων χρονιώτερον βιοτεύει.
Αύτις Ευρώπαν ποτί χέρσον έντεα ναός. the dramatists also the iambic, see below. A double basis
- Χ - Χ with the anacrusis likewise occurs, as Pind. Pyth. VIII. Epod. 6. (ν. 40, 60).
X - Χ -,