Page images

The word-accent is not destroyed by the accent of the verse-rhythm. But the mode by which the Greeks rendered the former audible along with the latter we cannot settle with certainty.

In the Latin language, the verse-rhythm depended originally upon the word-rhythm. The Romans afterwards adopted the doctrine of quantity from the Greeks, and so gave to their language the power of departing from the word-accent in versification. But they could not wholly withdraw themselves from the dominion of accent until the Augustan age. In the earlier poets, especially in Plautus and Terence, the influence of accent is not to be mistaken.

Of the skill with which individual poets availed themselves of rhythm for poetical delineations, examples will be given in the second part. It was not however rhythm only which served this purpose, but the element of melody in speech, the sound of single tones, syllables and words. Under this head we reckon alliteration, annomination, rhyme and assonance. Used moderately and without forcing, these are often of no small effect ; for example, when Homer paints the rending of the sails by the tempest, Odyss. IX. 71.

ιστία δέ σφιν Τριχθά τε και τετραχθα διέσχισεν ϊς ανέμοιο ; or Lucretius the sound of drums, cymbals and horns, II. 619.

Tympana tenta tonant palmeis et cymbala circum

Concava, raucisonoque minantur cornua cantu; and in like manner Virgil, the braying of trumpets, Aen. IX. 503.

At tuba terribilem sonitum procul aere canoro; or Ovid the croaking of the frogs, Met. VI. 376.

Quamvis sint sub aqua, sub aqua maledicere tentant. Plautus is especially fond of alliteration and annomination. In Ennius, this poetical painting sometimes degenerated into conceit; e. g.

At Tite, tute, Tati, tibi tanta, tyranne, tulisti.

Multarum veterum legum divumque hominumque. The ancients were not acquainted with the use of rhyme and assonance, as we find them in modern poets. Where

rhymed verses or hemistichs are found, the rhyme for the most part is accidental; e. g. Aesch. Pr. 866, 867.

Κτεϊναι σύνευνον, αλλ' άπαμβλυνθήσεται

Γνώμην· δυοϊν δε θάτερον βουλήσεται, Hor. Εp. Ι. 12, 25.

Ne tamen ignores, quo sit Romana loco res. But perhaps Virg. Ec. VIII. 80, is not wholly without design;

Limus ut hic durescit, et haec ut cera liquescit, and the well known lines, quoted in the Life of Virgil ;

Hos ego versiculos feci, tulit alter honores.

Sic vos non vobis fertis aratra boves.
Sic vos non vobis vellera fertis oves.
Sic vos non vobis nidificatis aves.

Sic vos non vobis mellificatis apes. The accumulation of words of like termination has often a decided effect, as Hom. Il. XXIII. 116.

Πολλά δ' άναντα, κάταντα, πάραντά τε, δόχμιά τ' ήλθον. Such verbal rhymes frequently produce a comic effect; e. g.

; Aristoph. Nub. 709 sqq.

'Απόλλυμι δείλαιος· έκ τού σκίμπoδoς
Δάκνουσί μ' έξέρποντες οι Κορίνθιοι,
Και τας πλευράς δαρβάπτουσιν,
Και την ψυχήν εκπίνουσιν,
Και τους όρχεις εξέλκουσιν,
Και τον πρωκτόν διορύττουσιν,

Και μ' απολούσι».
Pax. 339 sqq.

Και βοάτε και γελάτο, ή
Δη γαρ εξέσται τόθ' υμίν
Πλεϊν, μένειν, κινείν, καθεύδειν,
Ες πανηγύρεις θεωρείν,
Εστιάσθαι, κοτταβίζειν,
Ιου ιού κεκραγέναι.

Plaut. Amphit. V. I. 10.
Strepitus, crepitus, sonitus, tonitrus, ut subito, ut propere,

ut valide tonuit. The rhymed Latin verses, called Leonine, are an invention of a later period.


Series may

Series, Stop, Pause, Acatalexis, Cataleris, Syllaba anceps.

A simple rhythmical series comprises, according to Chap. III., a number of like metres or feet, which stand to one another in the relation of arsis and thesis. Series are separated from one another by the cessation of the voice. Such a cessation is called a stop. The stop is not absolutely necessary.

follow one another without the intervention of a stop. A stop is not proper in the course of a series.

It is not in itself fixed how many feet or metres belong to a series, but if the series is to be perceptible by the sense, it should be limited to a moderate number, cominonly not exceeding six. A series, the number of whose feet is once for all times determined, cannot be either lengthened or shortened without ceasing to be the same series. But in rhythm, as in music, one or more times may be passed over in silence, which are, however, to be taken into account in counting the measure. Whenever this takes place, the voice must stop, and this stopping is called a pause. The pause differs in this respect from the stop, that the former is counted in the time, and is, therefore, an essential part of the rhythm ; but the latter lies without the time, and does not belong to the rhythm. In the course of a series a pause is not allowed. Moreover there cannot be a stop in the middle of a word, because thereby the unity of the word would be destroyed ; hence the law : where there is a stop or a pause, there must be the end of a word.

Rhythms apparently incomplete arise from pauses, because they seem to want one or more times; and since pauses can occur at the end of a rhythm only, and are, therefore, the sign of the close (clausula, xatóanšis), such series, apparent

ly incomplete, are called ovquoi xaradnxtızoi, ordines catalectici, catalectic series; and the reverse, complete acatalectic series, oviuoi dxard.nxtoi, ordines catalecti.

In designating the catalexes, not the wanting, but the remaining syllables of the last foot are considered. Thus a dactylic series, the end of which is shortened by one syllable:

is called a catalectic series in disyllabum, and one that is shortened by two syllables : -uv-uv-, a catalectic series in syllabam. Acatalectic series are, therefore, those the number of whose syllables has not been diminished.

The following iambic series

is, therefore, to be considered acatalectic, although it is necessary to observe a pause of one time.

The brachycatalectic series, so called (øv Juoi Boo yuxarádnutoi, ordines brachycatalecti), in which the pause of an entire foot is to be observed, are an invention of grammarians who imagined that all trochaic, iambic, and anapaestic series must be measured only by dipodies. They considered, for instance, -u-u- a dimeter trochaicus brachycatalectus, while the series is in fact a tripodia acatalecta as the second trochee, which is always rational, shows.

The grammarians have called those which have one or several times too many, hypercatalectic series (gvIuoi 'neoxatdanxtol, ordines hypercatalecti). Such series, apparently too long, have arisen from the circumstance that the ana

crusis was prefixed to the rhythm ;

is, therefore, not an hypercatalectic iambic dimeter, but a trochaic dimeter with the anacrusis; or that different series of a like

[ocr errors]


kind were united ;

is not a dimeter trochai. cus hypercatalectus, but a trochaic monometer joined to a trochaic catalectic tripody.

The catalexis serves to mark the close of a rhythm. When rhythms want a suitable close, it is effected by the omission of one or more times. But rhythmical series, which of themselves have a close, receive, generally, the catalexis only, when the series is to be connected with another, and the close to be done away with.

It is preferred to close the series more forcibly with the arsis; the catalexis is, therefore, common in those rhythrns which, if complete, commence with the arsis and close with the thesis; it is more rare in those which commence with the thesis and terminate in the arsis.

Trochaic series end with the thesis ; the catalexis (in syllabam) is, therefore, common with them. The catalexis is more rare in iambic series, because they end with the arsis. The dactyls are altogether without a close, because they close with two times in thesi ; they occur, therefore, rarely acatalectic. The catalectic dactylic rhythm ends either with the short, catalecticus in disyllabum, or with the long, catalecticus in syllabam. The former close, because it terminates in a thesis, and is on that account less forcible, is called feminine, the latter masculine. Anapaests are generally acatalectic, because they close with the arsis. The catalexis in disyllabum does not occur, because the rhythm would then be destitute of a close; the catalexis in syllabam resembles that in disyllabum of the dactyl.

The cretic ends mostly acatalectic; the catalexis in disylJabum occurs, though rarely; the catalexis in syllabam, --u-- usually transforms itself into a trochaic rhythm, Lic

In the choriamb the acatalexis is most common; the catalexis in trisyllabum, -uv-ovu is not usual on account of the absence of a close; the catalexis in disyllabum,



[ocr errors]

occurs, although rarely; the catalexis in syllabam,

transforms itself into a dactylic rhythm, -uv-". In the ionic a majore, the catalexis in disyllabum alone is used :

; in the ionic a minore, the catalexis

[ocr errors]

in trisyllabum:

Where at the close of a series a stop, or, with the catalexis, a pause is made, there it is allowed to put a short for a long, in which case, as the voice can stop, a pause equivalent to the wanting time is observed :

[ocr errors]

- ; On the other hand, in verses which consist of united series, the long at the end of a series which is not the concluding series of the verse, cannot be changed into a short, with the exception of the asynartete verses, of which hereafter.

« PreviousContinue »