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contracted into a long, and then to use the liberty of putting a short in its place. But since most poems, which have this rhythm, consist of pure iambs, and do not allow either the dissyllabic anacrusis or the pure form with the monosyllabic anacrusis,*

the verse seems to be rather a tetrapodia iamb. catal. ; com

pare above.

There are remaining several more Anacreontic poems, which can be arranged under neither of the above mentioned forms. These are either poems of a very late period in political verses, as XVIII (8'), XXIV (an'), or they must be otherwise measured, as XXV (μγ').

Όταν πίω τον οίνον,
Εύδουσιν αι μέριμναι.
Τί μοι πόνων, τί μοι γόων, τί μοι μέλει μεριμνών και
Θανείν με δει, κάν μη θέλω τί τον βίον πλανώμαι ;
Πίωμεν ούν τον οίνον

Τον του καλού Λυαίου.
The last two verses :

Συν τω δε πίνειν ημάς

Εύδουσιν αι μέριμναι, appear to have been added by a later writer.

The following poems may serve as examples:
Carm. XLVIII (B)

Δότε μοι λύρην Όπήρου
Φονίης άνευθε χορδής.

* Carm. XXX (19'), the metre of which is apparently a dimet. jonic. with a monsyllabic anacrusis, consists in fact of Pherecrateans with a spondaic basis :


Αι Μούσαι τον "Έρωτα
Δήσασαι στεφάνοισι

Το Κάλλει πααέδωκαν Carm. XXIII (λδ') 16: τελεϊν ταν 'Αφροδίταν, like the foregoing, is not genuine.

Carm. XXVI (μς), όταν ο Βάκχος ειςέλθη Tiermann changes into όταν Βάκχος εσέλθη.

The whole poem,

however, is a cento of Anacreontic and other verses, belonging to a later time.

Φέρε μοι κύπελλα θεσμών,
Φέρε μοι νόμους κεράσσω.
Μεθύων όπως χορεύσω,
Υπό σώφρονος δε λύσσης,
Μετά βαρβίτων αείδων,
Το παρoίνιον βοήσω.
Δότε μοι λύρην Ομήρου

ονίης άνευθε χορδής. Carm. XXXVII (ud')

"Ιδε πώς φανέντος ήρος
Χάριτες ρόδα βρύουσιν·
"Ιδε πώς κυμα θαλάσσης
Απαλύνεται γαλήνη:
"Ιδε πώς νήσσα κολυμβά
"Ιδε πως γέρανος οδεύει.
Αφελώς δ' έλαμψε Τιταν:
Νεφελών σκιαι δονούνται.
Τα βροτών δ' έλαμψεν έργα:

Καρπούς γαία προκύπτει.
Βρομίου στραφέν τό νάμα
Κατά φύλλον κατά κλώνα
Καθελών ήνθισε καρπός.

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Dimeter catalecticus. According to Hephaestion, Timocreon wrote an entire poem in this metre:

Σικελός κομψός ανήρ
Ποτί ταν ματέρ έφα.


Trimeter acatalectus. According to Hephaestion, used by Sapplio:

Τί με Πανδιονές ωράνα χελιδών.


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This verse was used by the Greeks and Romans, particularly in poems to Cybele. The pure form is not rare among the Greeks, as,

Προφανώς τούτο διδάσκων, αποδύση βιοτήν. The anacrusis of the first ionic was sometimes contracted:

Γαλλαι, μητρός ορείης φιλόθυρσοι δρομάδες. In the broken form the first half verse always closes with the long, as,

Φύσις ουκ έδωκε μόσχω λάλον "Απιδι στόμα. The second foot is very often resolved in both half-verses:

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Αις έντεα παταγείται και χάλκεα κρόταλα. The diaeresis after the second ionic is strictly observed.

Among the Romans, Varro, in his satires, and, according to Atil. Fortunat. p. 2677, Maecenas also (Anthol. Lat. I. p. 53) used this verse. Catullus (Carm. LXIII.) has also Galliambs. He always uses the broken form, with the exception of V. 54, where the first dimeter retains the pure form:

Et earum omnia adirem furibunda latibula, and V. 60, where the second half verse appears pure:

Abero foro, palaestra, stadio et gymnasiis.

The first arsis appears three times resolved, V. 23, 48, 70.

Ubi capita Maenades vi jaciunt hederigerae.
Ibi maria vasta visens lacrimantibus oculis.

Ego viridis algida Idae nive amicta loca colam ; the second arsis more frequently, as V. 27.

Simul haec comitibus Atys cecinit notha mulier. The first and second arses are seldom resolved, V. 63.

Ego mulier, ego adolescens, ego ephebus, ego puer. The anacrusis of the first jonic is found contracted nine times (V. 5, 15, 17, 26, 40, 67, 73, 77, 86), and then all the resolutions of the arses of the first half verse disappear, as,

Devolvit illa acuto sibi pondera silice.

Sectam meam exsecutae, duce me, mihi comites. An exception is made in V. 77, in which the second arsis is resolved:

Laevumque pecoris hostem stimulans, ita loquitur. The final syllable of the first half verse is throughout long.

In the second half verse, the anacrusis of the first foot is sometimes contracted (V. 18, 22, 34, 73, 83, 86):

Hilarate herae excitatis erroribus animum.
Tibicen ubi canit Phryx curvo grave

calamo. The second arsis appears almost always resolved, with the exception of V. 35, 73, 76.

Itaque, ut domum Cybebes tetigere lassulae.
Jam jam dolet, quod egi, jam jamque poenitet.

Ibi juncta juga resolvens Cybele leonibus. Catullus observed the diaeresis strictly. In V. 37 an elision falls


it : Piger his labantes languore oculos sapor operit. As an example take the passage in Terentianus Maurus, in which he describes this measure:

Sonat hoc subinde metro Cybeleium nemus,
Nomenque Galliambis memoratur hinc datum,
Tremulos quod esse Gallis habiles putant modos,
Adeo ut frequenter illum prope ab ultimo pedem,
Mage quo sonus vibretur studeant dare tribrachyn.




Distich composition consists in the combination of a longer and a shorter verse into one whole (P. 1. c. 9. p. 34). The shorter verse either precedes the other as an introduction, proöde, or follows it as a conclusion, epode. As the latter is more frequently the case, this kind of composition is called also the epodic. As among the verses used by the line the hexameter is the model for all later compositions, so here is the elegiac distich. Several verses used in distichs were treated as asynartete.

The distich kind of composition was chiefly used by the gnomic and elegiac poets, the Ionian lyric poets (Archilochus, and after him Horace, especially in the Epodes), the satirists and the epigrammatists. Traces of the same are also found in the dramatists, as Aesch. Agam. 1343—1346.

Α. "Ώμοι, πέπληγμαι καιρίαν πληγήν έσω.
Η. Σίγα' τις πληγήν αυτεί και ρίως ούτασμένος και
Α. "Ώμοι μάλ' αύθις, δευτέραν πεπληγμένος.

H. Tούργον ειργάσθαι δοκεί μοι βασιλέως οιμωγματι.
Terent. Andr. II. 1. 1, 2.
Quid ais; Byrria ? daturne illa Pamphilo hodie núptum? sic est.
Qui scis? - apud forum mode e Davo audivi — vae miseró mihi.
V. 5–8.
Quaéso edepol, Charine, quando non potest id fieri quod vis,
Id velis, quod póssit - nil volo áliud nisi Philumenam. — Ah
Quánto satiust te id dare operam, qui istum amorem ex corde ejicias ;
Quam id loqui, quo magis lubido frustra incendatúr tua.

Compare Plaut. Menaechm. V. 6. 1-6, where acatalectic and catalectic bacchic tetrameters are combined with each other by distichs, and Plaut. Bacch. IV. 10. 1-9, where acatalectic and catalectic anapaestic tetrameters alternate with each other.

The most important combinations by distichs, which we arrange according to the rhythm of the principal verse, are the following:

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