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In the first trochaic dipody the first foot is in arsi, the second in thesi. The arsis of the first foot receives from the principal arsis a part of its force, and is, therefore, stronger than the arsis of the second foot. This intensity would be impaired, if the thesis were increased by the irrational measure; but it is heightened when the second arsis is weakened by the increase of its thesis. In the iambic dipody the second iamb is in arsi, and its arsis has, therefore, the strongest intensity, which would be weakened by strengthening its thesis ; it is increased by the arsis of the first iamb being thrown into the back ground by the increase of its thesis. Hence follows the law that in trochaic series, which are to be measured by dipodies, the middle time occurs in the even places (in sedibus paribus: 2, 4, 6, 8), in iambic series in the odd places (in sedibus imparibus : 1, 3, 5, 7).

In the trochaic tripody:




the first two feet are in arsi, the third in thesi. The first foot has the strongest arsis, the second a weaker one, because with reference to the first it is in thesi, and the third the weakest, with reference to which the second is in arsi, and in order to mark this weaker arsis the middle time may be admitted in the thesis. The same is the case in trochaic series, to be measured by feet, which consist of more than three feet.

In the iambic tripody:

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the first foot is in thesi with reference to the following two; hence it requires the feeblest arsis, and its thesis may, therefore, admit the middle time. The second foot is with reference to the first in arsi, and its arsis is, therefore, not to be weakened, and still less the arsis of the third foot, with reference to which the second is in thesi. In a similar manner in longer iambic series, which are to be measured by feet, the middle time is admissible in the first foot only.


The irrational time, unless it be admitted at the commencement or end of a series only, enables us to distinguish the rhythms composed by dipodies or metres from those composed of feet. On the other hand we cannot infer from the absence of the irrational time that the rhythm should be mea

sured by feet and not by dipodies.

is a trochaic



may be a dimeter as well as a tetrapody; some other criteria are to be found in order to decide for the one or the other. For the poet may, according to his pleasure, admit or not adınit the irrational time. By the admission of the middle time, trochaic and iambic series become slower.

The dramatic poets of the Romans, previous to Augustus, admitted the middle time in every foot of iambic and trochaic series, with this exception, that they preserved pure the last thesis of every series, after which one more arsis followed.

The iambic anacrusis of one syllable may, according to the analogy of the iambic thesis, become irrational :

cs and equally so the monosyllabic concluding thesis of each series, according to the analogy of the last short of a trochaic series :


It is also, with certain limitations, allowed to put in trochaic series in all places, the irrational dactyl for the trochee, and in iambic series, the irrational anapaest for the iamb.

Irrational dactyles are distinguished from rational by a quicker movement, similar to trochees. They unite readily with trochees, and are then called logaoedic dactyls. The two shorts of an irrational dactyl are but rarely contracted.

The irrational light or cyclic anapaests resemble, by their quicker movement the iambs, with which they are therefore frequently united, and are called log aoedic anapaests. The shorts of such anapaests are never contracted.

There is a singular license which sometimes occurs in the final dactyl of a dactylic series, a long being used in the place

That such a time cannot be irrational is apparent from the following remarks: 1) according to what has been said above, irrationality in dactyls takes place in the arsis only; 2) by the same right, the first short of the first anapaest in anapaestic series, which are inverted dactylic series, and according to the same analogy the first short of the anacrusis of two times might be irrational, which, however, is not the case ; 3) as in iambic and trochaic series the irrational time may occur at the commencement or end of each dipody, so the same ought to take place in dactylic series at the end of each foot, which likewise is not the case. We see, therefore, that the admission of the long in the final dactyl is nothing but a license, which as such requires no explanation ; moreover it is not very frequent.

of the second short

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Movement, Resolution of Longs, Contraction of Shorts.

By movement («yoyń, ductus) we understand the absolute duration which is given to the parts of time. Rhythmical series can be delivered in different movements.

The contents determine the delivery. Indications of the movement lie partly in the rhythm, partly in the metre. In general the equal kind requires a slower, the double a quicker movement. Series which are to be measured by dipodies should be delivered more slowly than those measured by feet.

In metre resolved longs indicate greater quickness; contracted shorts a slower movement.

With regard to resolution and contraction the following rules are to be observed : Every long of two times can be resolved into two shorts An irrational long, therefore, of one short and an half is incapable of resolution. The older Roman poets make an exception in this respect, by sometimes resolving even an irrational long.

In the dactyl the long is not resolved, with the exception, in lyric poets, of a few proper names. The dignity and composure of the dactyl would suffer by the rapidity of four shorts, Cu uw or the violence of an anapaestic form,

-. For the same reason in anapaests of certain kinds the long of the

arsis is not resolved; the dramatic poets, however, allow


themselves the resolutions,

In a similar manner the cretic receives by means of the resolution of the first long, a more lively impulse. ?- (Paeon quartus), by the resolution of the second arsis a comic fall -Uv (Paeon primus), and by the resolution of both, the high

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est degree of rapidity,

So in other rhythms. The contraction of two shorts into one long is allowed only when the shorts belong to one relation of intensity and extension, because otherwise the rhythm would be destroyed, it being impossible to mark in one and the same syllable the end of one and the commencement of another relation. Thus it is allowed to contract



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The mode in which the Ancients adapted Rhythm and Metre

to Words. The words are the material of the poetic work of art, in which rhythm, as the form, is to become perceptible. With the exception of some small words, which in the connection

of speech are either subordinate as an anacrusis to a following arsis (atona), or follow as a thesis a preceding arsis, (encliticae), every word has its own natural rhythm which is made known by its accentuation. That is to say, the accented syllable stands in arsi, the toneless in thesi

. Each syllable, also, of a word, has its definite metre, its quantity, which depends sometimes on the vowel and sometimes on the consonant that follows the vowel. The doctrine of wordrhythm, or the doctrine of accents, and the doctrine of wordmetre or the doctrine of quantity or prosody, is presumed to be known from the grammar.

The word-rhythm, being the metrical rhythm, is given to the poet with the word itself. The rhythm of verse or the rhythm of art, he forms for himself, and adapts the words to it. Now either the verse-rhythm may be brought into harmony with the word-rhythm, so that an arsis of the verserhythm falls upon the arsis of the word-rhythm, that is on an accented syllable, and thesis in like manner upon thesis, or both rhythms go along independently beside each other. The former, as the more natural and easy, is found in the rhythmical compositions of almost all nations of modern times. This harmony of both rhythmical systems is even necessary in languages, where, as in German and English, the quantity of syllables for the most part depends on the accent. A more artistical management of the verse-rhythm, induced the Greeks to neglect the coincidence of the two systems. The mode in which the Greeks adapt the words to the verserhythm, is as follows. The natural rhythm of the words they leave entirely out of view; on the other hand, the relation of extension in the word-rhythm they bring into harmony with the relation of extension in the verse-rhythm. Where the metre requires a long, they place a long syllable, or according to preceding conditions, two shorts; where a short, a short syllable. Two shorts can, in the cases above specified, be represented by a long syllable. A middle time of an irrational trochee or iamb, may be marked by a long or short syllable at pleasure; a middle time of an irrational dactyl or anapaest, only by a long syllable.

The poets, especially the. Epic, allowed themselves many licenses in prosody; particularly proper names, and those words for which others could not be substituted, must have made claim to a greater indulgence. (Comp. Matthiae's Gr. Gr. 8 7–11).

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