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will have the strongest intension, because in it a part of the principal arsis is united with the subordinate.

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and here also there is an effort after equality, and a gradual sinking from the stronger to the weaker. In the reading of such rhythms this must be carefully observed. For example, if homine stands for an iambus, it is an error to raise the se cond syllable by the strongest ictus, as is commonly done; the first syllable, on the contrary, receives the least stress, the second somewhat more, the third the most, and the reverse, where homine stands for a trochee.

The inequality of the times, and the arsis with the greater stress, give to the double kind, the character of animation and mobility.

From the equal and double kinds, two different species have again been composed, in which either the double is adopted as the leading relation of intensity and extension, and the equal, as the subordinate; or the equal as the leading re lation, and the double as the subordinate. To the first species belong the Ionic Rhythms. Falling Rhythms.

Rising Rhythms. t:2






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la nicus a majore.

nicus a minore. To the second the choriambic and antispastic : Falling Rhythms.

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spastus. In the Ionic a majore the spondee is in arsi, the pyrrhich in thesi. In the spondee, the first long is in arsi, the second in thesi, and in the pyrrhic the first short in arsi, the second in thesi; consequently the first long of the Ionic, has the strongest intension:

In the ionic a minore the


relation is the reverse. In order to restore the rhythmical equipoise, in the ionic a majore, the first, in the ionic a minore the second long, have to supply by their intension an extension of two shorts; but since this is not possible, both rhythms are deficient in rhythmical completeness. i Also, the choriamb and the antispast, are arrhythmic, because the subordinate relations are opposed to the principal relations : yet, in the antispast there is effected a forcible arrhythmy by the concurrence of two arses, which is often very well applied. No verses however have been composed of the antispast, but it has only been used singly, and the choriamb is frequently dactylic, and then entirely rhythmical.

A third kind of rhythms is produced by the relation of one and a half to one between the arsis and thesis: 11:1, 3:2. 3

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bacchius. This kind is called the three half, yévos ņuiólov, genus sesquialterum, or paeonic. In the falling cretic, the first arsis, in the rising, which cannot be found, the second arsis, has the strongest intensity. The rhythmical equipoise is restored by the iambic intension of the first long, which makes up for the one short, which is wanting to the extension. The middle syllable is in thesi, with respect to the first long; the second long is in thesi with respect to the trochee, but in arsi with respect to the short. The ictus of this long bears the same relation to that of the first, as the dactylic to the trochaic. On account of the inequality of the times and the falling and rising of the rhythm, the cretic is of a light and lively character.

The bacchius is arrhythmic on account of the opposition of the rising and falling in the principal and subordinate relations. It is therefore not used, except in a few passages of the tragedians. The elder Roman dramatists used it more frequently. The palimbacchius is equally arrhythmic, and occurs neither in the Greek nor Roman poets.

Besides these three kinds of rhythms, there is still another, but which was early rejected by the ancients, namely, the yévos énitqırov, or genus sesquitertium, or the epitrite kind in which the relation of intension and extension was 13:1, 4:3, 8:6. 3 4 3 4

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II. In poetry this kind is no more to be found.

We may also divide the different rhythms according to the number of times, of which its fundamental foot consists. I. Rhythms whose fundamental foot consists of three times.

a) falling, trochaic;

b) rising, iambic. II. Rhythms whose fundamental foot consists of four times;

a) falling, dactylic;

b) rising, anapaestic. III. Rhythms whose fundamental foot consists of five times;

a) falling, cretic bacchiac. IV. Rhythms whose fundamental foot consists of six times;

a) falling choriambic, ionici a majore;

b) rising, ionici a minore. A foot in which a rhythm is established, is called a metre.

A series of equal metres is called a simple rhythmical series (ordo rhythmicus simplex).

The metres also stand in the relation of arsis and thesis.

In the double kind, two feet (Sinodía, ovšvyía) always form a metre. The reason of this lies in the tendency towards the relation of equality. There is produced by this an equal principal relation of arsis and thesis.

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In the trochaic dipody, the first arsis will have in relation to the second a stronger intensity, because a part of the principal arsis is united in it with a subordinate one. For the same reason, in the iambic dipody the second arsis has the stronger intensity. This must be carefully observed in reading such series.

According to the analogy of the equal kind, two anapaests may also be united in a metre or a dipody. In all the other measures, each foot forms a metre by itself.

A rhythmical series may consist either of one metre, a monometer; of two metres, a dimeter; of three, a trimeter; of four, a tetrameter; of five, a pentameter; of six, a hexameter. Longer rhythmical series do not occur.

Trochees, iambs, and anapaests are not to be always measured according to dipodies, or metres. The feet are often arranged singly. A series of one foot is called a monopody; of two feet, a dipody; of three, a tripody; of four, à tetrapo dy; of five, a pentapody; of six, a hexapody.

The iambic, trochaic, and anapaestic tetrapodies and hexapodies, are distinguished from dimeters and trimeters by the beat. L'ULULU-Tetrap. troch.

Tetrap. iamb. Sv-|-- Dimet. troch. u-u-lu-v-Dimet. iamb. vcu Hex. troch. v_'s

Hex. iamb. -------- Tri. troch.-v-uv-|-~- Tri.iarn.

If we assume the short at f beat, the iambic and trochaic tetrapody is , the trochaic and iambic dimeter = f beat, the trochaic and iambic hexapody \, the trochaic and iambic trimeter = beat. Likewise the trochaic pentameter and hexameter have beat; the trochaic and iambic tripody &; the pentapody beat.

If also we assume in the dactylic kind, the short at } beat, then the dactyle and anapaest, as metre, correspond to our

beat; the anapaestic dipody, to our beat. The cretic is similar to our 2 beat; the ionic and choriambic rhythms, to the è beat.

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Irrationality, Middle Time. A relation which is measurable by the unit, is a rational one (onzóv). But there is also an irrational (@doyov) relation which cannot be measured by the unit. The irrational time in rhythm stands between the arsis and thesis, in metre between the long and the short. If we set down the thesis =l, the arsis = 2, the irrational time is = 13. In like manner in metre, where the short is = 1, the long 2, the middle time is = 11. The middle time, when standing for the short of the thesis, is marked J.

Irrationality takes place in the double kind in the thesis, in the equal in the arsis. Thus from a trochee - a Xopelos TQOXOEL8ńs, so called, arises, and by the solution of the

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the trochoidic anapaest ; and from an iamb the χορείος ιαμβοειδής : and by the solution of the long of the

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arsis the iamboidic dactyl. In all these feet the arsis has two times, and the thesis one and a half. In consequence of the increased extension of the thesis and the diminished intensity of the arsis, the irrational trochee and iamb approach the anapaestic and dactylic rhythm. If in the dactyl and anapaest the arsis is shortened by a

11 2 half time,

we obtain what is called the light or irrational dactyl and anapaest. What the arsis has lost by extension, is to be made up by an increased intensity, in order to restore the equilibrium between arsis and thesis. Thus the rhythm of irrational dactyles and anapaests approaches the trochaic and iambic rhythm.

With regard to the application of irrational feet, the following is to be observed.

The last foot of a trochaic and the first of an iambic series may become irrational. The middle time, therefore, can take place in a trochaic dipody only in the second foot, and in an iambic in the first :

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