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(3) The Tripody or the Trimeter.—Trimeter choriambicus.
catalecticus. The acatalectic trimeter is frequent in the lyric poets and dramatists, as Aesch. Suppl. 57.
Ει δε κυρεϊ τις πέλας οιωνοπόλων. It also receives the basis, as Soph. Ant. 950.
Και Ζηνός ταμιεύεσκε γονάς χρυσoρύτους. It is also provided with logaoedic terminations, as Soph. Oed. Col. 694.
"Έστιν δ' οίον εγώ γάς Ασίας ούκ έπακούω. The Aeolian lyric poets used the verse also by the line:
This rhythm the Aeolian and Roman poets used very frequently by the line and by distichs: the metrum Asclepiadeum majus. In the dramatists it occurs singly, as Soph. Phil. 175.
Χρείας ισταμένω. πως ποτε πώς δύσμορος αντέχει και
Εur. Herc. fur. 637.
Α νεότας μοι φίλον, άχθος δε το γήρας αιεί. This rhythm was used by Anacreon in such a way that he always substituted the iambic dipody for the second choriamb: the Choriambicum polyschematistum, so called :
'Εκ ποταμού 'πανέρχομαι πάντα φέρουσα λαμπρά, in the same manner Eupolis in Athen. VI. 236. As in the diiamb, the middle time appears never to have been put for the first short, the rhythm might also be dactylic logaoedic : Aristophanes Lysistr. 319, 320, has the diiamb for the first choriamb.
Λιγνύν δοκώ μοι καθορών και καπνον, ώ γυναίκες,
"Ωσπερ πυρός καομένου, σπευστέον εστί θάττον. According to Hephaestion, Anacreon, in one poem, resolved the first arsis of every first foot :
'Αναπίτομαι δή προς "Όλυμπον πτερύγεσσι κούφαις. It is found with the anacrusis, Aesch. Sept. 324.
Υπ' ανδρός Αχαιού θεόθεν περθομέναν ατίμως. Sappho used it by the line.
With the basis it was used by the Ionic and Aeolic lyric poets, sometimes by the line, sometimes by distichs. It is also used singly by the dramatists, as Soph. Aj. 1185.
Τις άρα νέατος ες πότε λήξει πολυπλάγκτων ετέων αριθμός ;
With a trochaic dipody following, the trimeter is used among trochaic tetrameters by Terent. Adelph. IV. 4. 3, 4.
Membra metu debilia sunt: animus prae timore
Obstipuit, pectore consistere nil consili quit. The prolongation of the last syllable of the word debilia is here to be noted. The cretic also follows the trimeter :
... Ai Κυθερείας επιπνείτ' όργια λευκωλένου. The catalectic trimeter is more rare, as Arist. Lysistr. 323, where the diiamb stands for the first choriamb:
Tε και Κρίτυλλαν περιφυσήτω.
Ου φορβαν ιεράς γάς σπόρον, ούκ άλλων.
(4) The Tetrapody or the Tetrameter.-Tetrameter cho
catalecticus. The former is frequent in the dramatists, as Soph. Oed. R.
Δεινά μέν ούν, δεινά ταράσσει σοφός οιωνοθέτας,
Ούτε δοκούντ', ούτ' αποφάσκονθ', ότι λέξω δ' απορώ. It receives also logaoedic endings:
.. Soph. Antig. 153. Παννυχίοις πάντας επέλθωμεν, ο Θήβας δ' ελελίχθων.
With the basis the Aeolic lyric poets used this rhythm by the line.
Soph. Phil. 1161.
Μηκέτι μηδενός κρατύνων όσα πέμπει βιόδωρος αία. With the basis the Aeolic lyric poets used it by the line.
The catalectic tetrameter occurs more rarely, as, with the basis, Soph. Phil. 681.
"Αλλον δ' ούτιν έγωγή οίδα κλύων, ουδ' εσίδον μοίρα.
(5) The Pentapody or the Pentameter.—Pentameter cho
catalecticus. Both are rare; the former is used, as Pind. Dithyr. Fragm. III. 10, with the resolution of the first arsis of the second, third and fourth choriambs, and with a cretic following:
Τον Βρόμιον τον Έριβόαν τε καλέομεν. γόνον υπάτων μεν
πατέρων μελπέμεν. With a logaoedic ending:
Philicus and Simmias used it by the line.
The catalectic pentameter is found, as Soph. Trach. 850, with the anacrusis :
Αδ' έρχομένα μοίρα προφαίνει δολίαν και μεγάλαν άταν.
(6) The Hexapody or the Hexameter.--Hexameter cho
catalecticus. The former is very seldom used; with an iambic basis and logaoedic ending it occurs in Eur. Iph. Aul. 172.
'Αχαιών τε πλάτας ναυσιπόρους ημιθέων, ούς επί Τροίαν
ελάταις χιλιόναυσιν. The catalectic hexameter seems not to occur.
(b) Ionici a majore. The Ionic a majore consists of six times, four of which are in the arsis and two in the thesis. The subordinate relations are of the equal kind; that of the arsis 2:2, that of the thesis 1:1.
a: 2 =t:2 2:1=t:1 The principal arsis is accordingly the first ---- (P. 1. ch. 3. p. 13). It has a heavy and coarse character, and hence was called by Aristides Quintilianus ρυθμός φορτικός.
The more elevated lyric poetry rejected it almost wholly. It was used chiefly for satirical and obscene poems (ntolóyot, xivaidolóyou); it was, moreover, never sung, but recited with ludicrous gestures. Hence are explained the many licenses which were permitted in its use.
According to P. 1. ch. 10. p. 37, the ditrochee may be substituted for it; this takes place most frequently at the end. In the pure ionic, the long often stands for the last short
according to the analogy of the second short in the thesis of the dactyl. Sometimes also the shorts of the thesis are contracted; finally, the short seems also to have been put sometimes for the first long; but the passages where this occurs are not of critical certainty. Resolutions of the long, as well in the pure ionic as in the ditrochee, are frequent. The ionic is susceptible of only one catalexis :
in disyllabum: (P. 1. ch. 7. p. 27), with the single exception of the Cleomachean verse, which is a dimet. cat. in trisyll.
The acatalectic rhythms never terminate with a pure ionic, on account of its want of a close, but always with a trochaic dipody.
(1) The catalectic Dipody or the catalectic Dimeter.
Dimeter cat. in trisyllabum.
The versus Cleomacheus :
Τίς την υδρίην υμών
(2) The Tripody or the Trimeter.- Trimeter ionicus.
catal. in disyll. According to Hephaestion, Sappho used the former,
Κρήσσαι νύ ποθ' ώδ' έμμελέως πόδεσσιν