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The acatalectic dimeter appears sometimes to be repeated by systems; but it commonly occurs intermingled with tetrameters, as Plaut. Capt. III. 2, 6. Rud. I. 5, 6.
Puéllae sed unde. The catalectic resembles the dochmius. It occurs singly among tetrameters and other rhythms, as Plaut. Capt. III. 3; I. 9, 10 (according to Hermann's emendation).
Quid est suaviús.
(2) The Tretrapody or the Tetrameter. - Tetrameter bac
catalecticus. The former occurs very frequently, partly repeated several times, as Ennius Hect. Lustr.
Quid hóc hic clamoris? quid hóc hic tumulti est ?
Nomén qui usurpat meum ? quid in castris strépiti est? partly singly among cretic, iambic, trochaic and anapaestic rhythms.
The catalectic occurs in Plautus joined with the acatalectic in distichs, Menaechm. V. 6.
Spectámen bonó servo id ést, qui rem herílem
Procurat, vidét, collocát, cogitát,
Tutétur, quam si ipse assit, aut rectiús.
Potiora esse, quoi cor modeste sitúmst,
RHYTHMS THE GROUND FOOT OF WHICH IS SIX-TIMED.
A. Falling Rhythms.
(a) Choriambs. The choriamb consists of six times, of which three are in the arsis, and three in the thesis. The subordinate relation in the thesis is rising, and contrasts, therefore, with the principal relation (P. 1. ch. 3. p. 13).
a:2=t:1 t:1=a:2 The arrhythmy which hence arises is softened by transforming the choriamb either in a dimeter dactyl. cat. in syllab. or by substituting, according to a peculiar license, the iambic dipody (P. I. ch. 10. p. 37).
The form -vu- is unquestionably choriambic when the iambic dipody corresponds to it as antistrophe, but dactylic when the single choriambs are strictly separated by the diaeresis. Thus Horace, who had the nicest sense for rhythmical harmony, separates almost always by the diaeresis the single choriambs in the asclepiadean verses, so called :
--- -luu-uMaecenas atavis edite regibus.
-1 Nullam, Vare, sacra vite prius severis arborem. to indicate thereby that he took them as dactylic and supplied after each choriamb a pause of two shorts; but Alcaeus and Catullus seem to have measured these originally choriambic verses by choriambs, because with them the diaeresis after the choriambs is not essential.
The character of the choriamb is different according as its form is dactylic or choriambic. The soft arrhythmy which belongs to the choriamb, renders it particularly suitable for the Aeolian poetry. The comic and later tragic poets, too, use it frequently: Pindar and Aeschylus more rarely.
The choriamb of dactylic rhythm partakes of the character of the dactylic kind.
The usual form of the choriamb is that in which both arses are contracted: -uv-. The first arsis, however, occurs sometimes resolved, as Arist. Av. 1372.
Αναπότομαι δή προς "Όλυμπον πτερύγεσσι κούφαις.
Υπό τε γερόντων ολέθρων. compare also Pind. Fragm. Dith. III. 10.
The resolution of the second arsis is more rare, as Eur. Hel. 1489, 1506.
Βάτε Πλειάδας υπό μέσας.
Δύσκλειαν δ' από συγγόνου. The resolution of both arses is still more rare. quotes as an example Eur. Bacch. 410, 425.
Cv (Glycon. polysch.)
Εκείσ' άγε με, Βρόμιε Βρόμιε.
Κατά φάος νύκτας τε φίλας. The two shorts are not perinitted to be contracted. Catullus only and Seneca have taken the liberty of using in glyconic and pherecratean verses the molossus for the choriamb.
The choriamb is capable of one catalexis only, namely,
(P. I. ch. 7. p. 27). Choriambic rhythms were sometimes provided with lagaoedic terminations :
By a kind of paracataloge the long is sometimes used for the short in the first iamb in these logaoedic verses,
in Aeolian lyric and in the dramatic poets.
The choriamb receives frequently the cretic as a kind of close.
Choriambic rhythms can be preceded by anacrusis and basis, both trochaic and iambic.
On account of its terminating with the arsis the choriambic rhythm is more inclined to the diaeresis than to the caesura (P. I. ch. 11. p. 39). The following measures are the most common: (1) The Monopody or the Monometer.-Monometer
It occurs often in connexion with other rbythms, as Pind. Olymp. VI. 2.
Κίονας, ως ότε θαητόν μέγαρον. Soph. Oed. R. 1090=1102.
Ταν αύριον πανσέληνον.
Τις θυγάτηρ, Λοξίου, τω. With a cretic following in Hephaestion :
Ιστοπόνοι μείρακες. With the anacrusis and cretic close, as Pind. Olymp. IV. 9.
Ολυμπιονίκαν δέκευ. With a trochaic basis: Eur. Hec. 473.
Τάν Ζευς αμφιπύρη.
With the iambic basis : Soph. Aj. 605, 606.
Κακάν ελπίδ' έχων.
the versus Adonius, see above. It receives also the anacrusis, as Soph. Oed. R. 468=478.
Φυγά πόδα νωμάν
Πέτρας άτε ταύρος.
Of the dactylic pherecratean we have treated above. The choriambic ought, according to the analogy of the glyconics, to admit of a polyschematist form:
polyschematist pherecratean. It is to be doubted, however, whether the polyschematist form really exists; for the few passages in which it correspond to the original form, prove nothing, being corrupt
. In the Priapean verse alone the original form is sometimes exchanged for the polyschematist.
Owing to the variations of the basis, the original form assumes the following shapes: