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6. Trim, iamb. acat. ; versus Phalaeceus

226

7. Trim. jamb. claudus; dim, iamb, acat.

227

Tetram, troch. cat. ; Adonius with the anacrusis 227

Trim, iamb, acat. ; Adonius with the anacrusis

227

II. Of the equal kind

228

Dactylic Rhythms

228

1, Hex. her.; dim. iamb. acat.-Pythiambicum primum 228

2. Hex. her.; trim, dact, cat, in syll.--Archilochium pri-

228

3. Hex. her.; dim. iamb. acat. and trim. dact. cat. ir syll.

-Archilochium secundum

229

4. Hex. her.; trim. iamb. acat.-Pythiambicum secundum 229

5. Hex. her.; tetram. dact. cat. in disyll.Alcmaniam . 230

6. Hex. ber.; pentam. elegiac.-Distichon elegiacum 230

7. Hex. her.; hex. meiovpos

233

8. Tetram. dact. acat, and ithyphallic; monom. troch.

with the anacrusis and ithyphallic.-Archilochium

quartum .

233

9. Tetram. dact. acat. and ithyphallic; monom. troch.

with the anacrusis and dact. log. dupl, duplic, troch.

acat.

234

10. Tetram, dact. acat. and ithyphallic; Versus Phalaeceus 235

11. Versus Phalaeceus ; tetram. dact. acat, and ithyphallic 235

12. Two ithyphallics with an anacrusis; tetram, dact.

acat, and ithy phallic

13. Dact, log. simpl, duplic. troch, acat.; monom, troch.

acat. ; a choriamb, and a dact. log. simpl. duplic.

troch. acat.-Sapphicum majus

236

14. Dact. log. simpl. triplic. troch. cat. and dact. simpl.

duplic, troch. cat. ; dact. log. simpl. triplic, troch.

cat. and dact. dupl. duplic. troch. cat.

236

Ill. Of the Choriambic-ionic kind

237

1. Asclepiadeum secundum

237

2. Glyconic; trimet. choriamb. with basis and logaoed.

termination

238

Composition κατά τρίστιχον

238

Polymetric Rhythms .

239

235

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INTRODUCTION.

DEFINITION, DIVISION, UTILITY, HISTORY AND LITERATURE OF

THE METRICAL SCIENCE.

Every work of art contains a subject and a form. The idea constitutes the subject; the form is the manner in which the idea is revealed to the senses.

The material is the substance perceptible by the senses by means of which the artist embodies the idea. A material is to be apprehended with reference either to space or to time. That which receives a form in space is called figure; that which receives it in time is called rhythm.

Although a material as such has by nature a form, yet this form is in most cases of no use for the purpose of the artist, and has, therefore, to be modified by him according to his purpose.

He converts the natural into an artistic form. The chief quality of every work of art being beauty, the artistic figure as well as the artistic rhythm must be beautiful. In this case we say the artistic figure has symmetry, and the artistic rhythm has eurhythmy.

The transformation of the rough material, therefore, into an artistic form takes place according to certain general and necessary laws, all of which must be derived from the idea of beauty.

In a poetical work of art the substance is the poetical idea, but the form in which the poetical idea is embodied, the particular kind of poetic composition. The material is the language, and its form the rhythm, because the perception of language falls in time. The rhythm adapted according to art to the words, is called metre. The metrical science therefore, is the doctrine of artistic rhythm and of its application to poetry.

The metrical science accordingly consists of two parts, a general which treats of the idea and laws of rhythm, and a particular which contains the application which the Greeks and Romans, with whose metrical art we have here to do, made of these laws.

The study of the metrical art of the ancients has a two-fold value. 1. An aesthetic both for the poet who is to derive from the contemplation of the finished form of classical poems the same benefit that the plastic artist derives from the contemplation of ancient works of art, and for the reader of Greek and Roman poets who wishes to understand and judge them correctly with reference also to metrical form. This study has, 2, an historical value to the antiquarian, since the metrical art as a production of antiquity bears on itself the peculiar stamp of its origin. To this is to be added, that a knowledge of the metres is of essential service to the critic, in settling the text of ancient poets.

Rhythm as a part of music was first treated scientifically by the Pythagoreans. We possess single notices only and fragments of their doctrine in the writings of Plato and Aristotle. Most important are the fragments of the Elements of Harmony and Rhythm by Aristoxenus the Tarentine, in Meibom. antiquae musicae auctores VII. Tom. I, and in Aristidis Orat. adv. Leptin. ed. Jac. Morellius Venet. 1785). Various information is found also in Meibom's Antiquae musicae auctores septem, Amstel. 1652. 2 Tomi 4; in Aristides Quintilianus de musica (Meibom. a. m. auct. Tom. II.) in Cicero (Orat. c. 50 sqq.), in Quintilian (Instit. orat. IX. 4), in Dionysius of Halicarnassus (de compositione verborum), in Plutarch (de musica), in Augustinus (de musica), Martianus Capella, and others.

It was not until the Alexandrine age that the metrical science seems to have been treated of separately from music. The grammarians confined themselves generally to a careful observance of the poetical usage. Aristophanes of Byzantium, who was the first to divide the lyric poets into xoda and introduce broken lines, Apollonius o eidoyoápos, and others deserve credit for their metrical labors. The metrical manual of Hephaestion (Ηφαιστίωνος εγχειρίδιον περί μέτρων xoi noinuárov ed. I. C. de Pauw Traj. ad Rhen. 1726, 4; ed. Thom. Gaisford Oxon. 1810, 8; Lips. 1832, 8.), Longinus's Prolegomena to the manual of Hephaestion (Hephaest. ed. Gaisford, p. 137, ed. Lips. p. 140), and Draco's work on metres (Draconis Stratonicei de metris poet. et I. Tzetzae Exeg. in Homer. Iliad. pr. ed. God. Hermann Lips. 1812,8), belong

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