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way to Emmaus, and at that village. Luke bas likewise added many edifying parables to those which had been recorded by the other evangelists. Of this number are the parable of the creditor who had two debtors; of the rich fool who hoarded up his increase, and, when he had not one day to live, vainly exulted in the

prospect of many happy years ; of the rich man and Lazarus ; of the reclaimed profligate ; of the Pharisee and the publican praying in the temple; of the judge who was prevailed on by a widow's importunity, though he feared not God nor regarded njan ; of the barren fig-tree'; of the compassionate Samaritan; and several others; most of which so early a writer as Irenæus has specified as peculiarly belonging to this Gospel ; and has thereby shown to all afterages, without intending it, that it is, in every thing material, the same book which had ever been distinguished by the name of this evangelist till his day, and remains so distinguished to ours.

11. In regard to Luke's character as a writer, it is evident, that though the same general quality of style, an unaffected siinplicity, predominates in all the evangelists, they are, nevertheless, distinguishable from one another. Luke abounds in Hebraisms as much as any of them; yet it must be acknowledged, that there are also more Grecisms in his language than in that of any of the rest. The truth is, there is greater variety in his style, which is probably to be ascribed to this circumstance-bis having been more, and for a longer time conversant among the Gentiles, than any other evangelist. His ordinary place of abode, if not the place of his birth, appears to have been Antioch, the capital of Syria, the seat of gorernment, where people of the first distinction in the province had their residence, and to which there was great resort of strangers. Here the Greek language had long prevailed. Besides, Luke's occupation, as a physician, may very probably have occasioned his having greater intercourse with those of higher rank. Not that the profession itself was then in great esteem in that country ; for it has been justly observed, that in Rome, as well as in Syria, slaves who gave early signs of quickness of parts and manual dexterity, were often instructed in physic, who, if they proved successful, were commonly rewarded with their freedom. That Luke himself, whatever may have been his early condition in life, was, when a Christian minister, a freeman and a master of his time, is evident from his attendance on the apostle Paul in his peregrinations for the advancement of the gospel. But the profession of medicine and surgery (for these two were then commonly united) not only proved the occasion of a more general intercourse with society, but served as a strong inducement to employ some time in reading. This may sufficiently account for any superiority this evangelist may be thought to possess above the rest, in point of language.

12. His name, douxās, Luke, rendered in one place in the common translation Lukas, (Philem. 24), is supposed to have been a contraction of the Roman name Lucilius, or of Lucanus, in like manner as Demas is contracted from Demetrius, and Epaphras from Epaphroditus. Names thus contracted from the master's name were commonly given to slaves, but not peculiarly to such. That a considerable portion of Luke's time bad been spent in Rome, or at least in Italy, has been argued from some Latinisms discovered in his style ; such as, dos tuyoolav, da operam, endeavor, ch. 12: 58; and xalws noctite rois ploovoi vuas, Benefacite his qui oderunt vos, with the dative case, Do good to them who hate you, ch. 6: 27; whereas, in the parallel place in Matthew, ch. 5: 44, the verb is construed more in the Greek manner with the accusative, καλώς ποιείτε τους μισούντας υμάς. But I see no reason why, in the evangelist Luke, by birth a Syrian, this should be accounted a Latinism rather than a Syriasm, as in Syriac the 5 prefixed (which is necessary in the expression of this precept) is always considered as corresponding to the dative in Greek and Latin. That he has also a greater variety in bis words and pbrases than any of the evangelists, will be quickly discovered by an attentive reader of the original. I mention one evidence of this, from a circumstance I have had particular occasion to attend to, which is this : Each of the evangelists has a considerable number of words which are used by none of the rest; but in Luke's Gospel, the number of such peculiarities, or words used in none of the other Gospels, is greater than that of the peculiar words found in all the other three Gospels put together. Again, some expressions which are frequent in the other Gospels, in Luke, occur but rarely. The Hebrew word Amen as an affirmative adverb joined with deya vuiv, and used for ushering in solemnly the instructions given by our Lord, is employed by Luke much seldomer than by any of the other evangelists. Instead of it he sometimes says álnios, sometimes ναι, and once επ' αληθείας λέγω υμίν, phrases never used by the rest. On the other hand, he, oftener than they, employs the neuter article tó, in reference not to a noun, but to a sentence, or part of a sentence. Of this there are at least seven instances in bis Gospel : Luke 1: 62. 9: 46. 22: 2, 4, 23, 24, 37. I recollect but two in the rest, one in Matthew 19: 18, and one in Mark 9: 23. As to these two, they are not parallel places to any of the passages wherein this mode of construction has been adopted by Luke. It may be observed in passing, that the terms peculiar to Luke are for the most part long and compound words. The first word of his Gospel, énELDV neq, is of the number. So much for what regards his words and idioins.

13. As to the other qualities of his style, we may remark, that there is more of composition in the sentences than is found in the other three. Of this the very first sentence is an example, which occupies no fewer than four verses. In the passages, however, wherein those incidents are related, or those instructions given, which had been anticipated by Matthew or by Mark, there is sometimes, not always, a perfect coincidence with these evangelists in the expression, as well as in the sense : sometimes, however, the coincidence in translations is more complete than in the original. I have observed that there are degrees, even in the simplicity of the sacred writers; for though all the evangelists are eminent for this quality, there are some characteristic differences between one and another, which will not escape the notice of a reader of discernment. Matthew and John have more simplicity than Mark; and Luke has, perhaps, the least of all. What has been observed of the greater variety of his style, and of his more frequent use of complex sentences, may serve as evidence of this. And even as to ihe third species of simplicity formerly mentioned,* simplicity of design, he seems to approach nearer the manner of other historians, in giving what may be called his own verdict in the narrative part of his work. I remember at least one instance of this. In speaking of the Pharisees, he calls them qedoyupoe, lovers of money, ch. 16: 14. The distinction with regard to Judas, which it was proper

in them all to observe, as there were two of the name among the apostles, is expressed by Luke, ch. 6:16, with more animation, ös xai żyéveto npodorns, who proved a traitor, than by Matthew, ch. 10: 4, who says, ó xai nupadous avtov, or by Mark, ch. 3: 19, whose expression is, ός και παρέδωκεν αυτόν; both which phrases, strictly interpreted, imply no more than who delivered him up. The attempt made by the Pharisees to extort from our Lord what might prove matter of accusation against him, is expressed by Luke, ch. 11: 53, in language more animated than is used by any of the rest, ήρξαντο δεινώς ενέχειν, και αποστοματίζειν αυτον περί πλειόνων, began vehemently to press him with questions on many points. On another occasion, speaking of the same people, he says, ch. 6: 11. Avroi čakroonoav avvias, But they were filled with madness. In the moral instructions given by our Lord, and recorded by this evangelist, especially in the parables, none can be happier in uniting an affecting sweetness of manner with genuine simplicity. Of this union better instances cannot be imagined, than those of the humane Samaritan, and of the penitent prodigal.

14. To conclude, though we have no reason to consider Luke as, upon the whole, more observant of the order of time than the other evangelists, he has been at more pains than any of them to ascertain the dates of some of the most memorable events, on which, in a great measure, depends the date of all the rest. In some places, however, without regard to order, he gives a number of detached precepts and instructive lessons, one after another, which probably have not been spoken on the same occasion, but are introduced as they occur to the writer's memory, that nothing of moment might be omitted. In regard to the latter part of the life, and to the death of this evangelist, antiquity has not furnished us with any accounts which can be relied on.

* Diss. III. sect. 18, etc.




1. FORASMUCH as many have undertaken to compose a

varrative of those things which have been accomplished amongst 2 us, as they who were from the beginning eye-witnesses, and af3 terwards ministers of the word, delivered them to us; I have

also determined, having exactly traced every thing from the first,

to write a particular account to thee, most excellent Theophi4 lus; that thou mayest know the certainty of those matters

wherein thou hast been instructed.


I Chr. 24; 10.

Ex. 30; 7. Loy. 16: 17.

5 IN the days of Herod, king of Judea, there was a priest

named Zacharias, of the course of Abijah ; and his wife, narned 6 Elizabeth, was of the daughters of Aaron. They were both

righteous before God, blameless observers of all the Lord's 7 commandments and ordinances. And they had no child, be

cause Elizabeth was barren, and they were both advanced in

years. 8 Now when he came to officiate as priest in the order of his 9 course, it fell to him by lot, according to the custom of the 10 priesthood, to offer incense in the sanctuary. And while the

incense was burning, the whole congregation were praying with11 out.

Then there appeared to bin a messenger of the Lord, 12 standing on the right side of the altar of incense. And Zacha13 rias was discomposed at the sight, and in great terror. But

the angel said to him: Fear not, Zacharias ; for thy prayer is

heard, and Elizabeth thy wife shall bear thee a son, whom 14 thou shalt name John.* He shall be to thee matter of joy

and transport; and many shall rejoice because of his birth. 15 For he shall be great before the Lord: and he shall not drink

wine, nor any fermented liquor ; but he shall be filled with 16 the Holy Spirit, even from his mother's womb. And many

* The Lord's favor.

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