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and (after the unfortunate state of the Empire

could not spare aid) to the Saxons, a nation equally barbarous and brave, with the enemies of whom they were so much afraid. Though the bravery of the Saxons repelled the Caledonian nations for a time, yet the latter found means to extend themselves, considerably, towards the South. It is, in this period, we must place the origin of the arts of civil life among the Scots. The seat of government was removed from the mountains to the plain and more fertile provinces of the South, to be near the common enemy, in case of sudden incursions. Instead of roving through unfrequented wilds, in search of subsistance, by means of hunting, men applied to agriculture, and raising of corn. This manner of life was the first means of changing, the national charaćter.—The next thing which contributed to it was their mixture with strangers.

In the countries which the Scots had conquered from the Britons, it is probable the most of the old inhabitants remained. These incorporating with the conquerors, taught them agriculture, and other arts, which they themselves had received from the Romans. The Scots, however, in number as well as power, being the most predominant, retained still their language, and as many of the customs of their ancestors, as suited with

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It was after the accession of territory which the Scots received, upon the retreat of the Romans from Britain, that the inhabitants of the Highlands were divided into clans. The king, when he kept his court in the mountains , was considered, by the whole nation, as the chief of their blood. Their small number, as well as the prefence of their prince, prevented those divisions, which, afterwards, sprung forth into so many separate tribes. When the seat of government was removed to the south , those who remained in the Highlands were , of course, neglečted. They naturally formed themselves into small societies , independent of one another. Each society had its own regulus, who either was , or in the succession of a few enerations, was regarded as chief of their É.”. nature of the country favoured an institution of this sort. A few valleys, divided from one another by extensive heaths and impassible mountains , form the face of the Highlands. In these valleys the chiefs fixed their residence. Round them, and almost within fight of their dwellings, were the habitations of their relations and dependents.

The seats of the Highland chiefs were neither disagreeable nor inconvenient. Surrounded with mountains and hanging woods,

they were covered from the inclemency of

the weather. Near them generally ran a pretty large river, which, discharging itself not Vol. III. B

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