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forty-two, the Governor and Deputy-Governor for the time being, and a}l the magistrates of that jurisdiction, were, with the President, and a number of the Clergy in the said act described, constituted the Overseers of Harvard College: and it being necessary, in this new Constitution of Government, to ascertain who shall be deem? ed successors to the said Governor, DeputyGovernor, and magistrates: it is declared, that the Governor, Lieutenant-Governqr, Council, and Senate of this Commonwealth are, and shall be deemed their successors; who, with the President of Harvard College for the time being, together with the ministers of the congregational churches in the towns of Cam? bridge, Watertown, Charlestown, Boston, Roxbury, and Dorchester, mentioned in the said act. shall be, and hereby arc, vested with all the powers and authority belonging, or in any way appertaining, to the Overseers of Harvard College; provided, that nothing herein shall be construed to prevent the legislature of this Commonwealth from making such alterations \n the government of the said university, as shall be conducive to its advantage, and the interest of the republic of letters, in as full a

planner manner as might have been done by the legislature of the late Province of the MassachusettsBay.

§ 2.

THE ENCOURAGEMENT OF LITERATURE.

WISDOM and knowledge, as well as virtue, diffused generally among the body of the people, being necessary for the preservation of their rights and liberties j arid as these-depend on spreading the opportunities and advantages of education ' in; the various parts of the country, and among the different orders of the people; it shall be the duty of the legislatures and magistrates, in all future periods of this Commonwealth, to cherish the interests of literature and the sciences, and all seminaries of them; especially the university at Cambridge, public schools and grammar-schools in the towns; to encourage private societies and public institutions, rewards and immunities,- for the promotion of agriculture, arts,, sciences, commerce, trades, manufactures, and a natural history of the country to countenance and inculcate the principles of humanity and general benevolence, public and private charity, industry -dustry and frugality, honesty and punctuality in their dealings; sincerity, good-humour, and all social affections and generous sentiments among the people.

CHAP. VI.

Oaths And Subscriptions; IncompatiBility Of And Exclusion From OfFices; Pecuniary Qualifications; Commissions> Writs; Confirmation Of Laws? Habeas Corpus; The EnActing Style; Continuance Of OfFicers; Provision For A Future ReviSal Of The Constitution, &c.

I. ANY person chosenOovernor,LieutenantGovernor, Councillor, Senator, or Representative, and accepting the trust, shall, before he proceed to execute the duties of his place or office, make and subscribe the following declaration, viz.

"I, A. B. do declare, that I believe the Christian religion, and have a firm persuasion of its truth; and that I am seized and possessed, in my own right, of the property required by the Constitution as one qualification for the office or place to which I am elected."

And

And the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, and Councillors, shall make and subscribe" the said declaration in the presence of the two Houses of Assembly; and the Senators and Representatives first elected underthis Constitution, before the President and five of the Council of the former Constitution, and forever afterwards before the Governor and Council for the time being.

And every person chosen to either of the places or offices aforesaid, as also any person appointed or commissioned to any judicial executive, military, or other office under the Government, shall, before he enters on the discharge of the business of his place or office, take and subscribe the following declaration, and oaths or affirmations, viz.

"I, A. B. do truly and sincerely acknowledge, profess, testify and declare, that the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is, and of right ought to be, a Free, Sovereign, and Independent State; and I do swear, that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the said Commonwealth, and that I will defend the same against traitorous conspiracies and all hostile attempts whatsoever: And that I do renounce and abjure all allegiance, subjection, and obedience, to th«

King King, Queen, or Government of Great Britain (as the cafe may be), and every other foreign power whatsoever: And that no foreign Prince, Person, Prelate, State or Potentate hath, or ought to have, any jurisdiction, superiority, pre-eminence, authority, dispensing or other power, in any matter, civil, ecclesiastical or spiritual, within this Commonwealth, except the authority or power which is or may be vested by their constituents in the Congress of the United States. And I do further testify and declare, that no man or body of men hath or can have any right to absolve or discharge me from the obligation of this oath, declaration or affirmation; and that I do make this acknowledgement, profession, testimony, declaration, denial, renunciation and abjuration, heartily and truly, according to the common meaning and acceptation of the foregoing words, without any equivocation, mental evasion, or secret reservation, whatsoever. So help me God."

"I, A. B. do solemnly swear and affirm, that I will faithfully and impartially discharge and perform all the duties incumbent on me as according to the best of my abilities apd understanding, agreeably to the rules

and

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