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by the freeholders of each city and county reflectively, that is to fay, two or more persons may be chosen for each ward, township, or district, as the law shall hereafter direct: and their names shall be returned to the President in Council, who shall commissionate one or more of them for each ward, township, or district so returning, for seven years, removable for misconduct by the General Assembly. But if any city or county, ward, township, or district in this Commonwealth, shall hereafter incline to change the manner of appointing their Justices of the Peace, as settled in this article, the General Assembly may make laws to regulate the fame, agreeable to the desire of a majority of the freeholders of the city or county, ward, township, or district so applying. No Justice of the Peace shall fit in the General Assembly, unless he first resign his commission; nor shall he be allowed to take any fees, nor any salary or allowance, except such as the future legislature may grant.

XXXI. Sheriffs and Coroners (hall be elected annually in each city and county by the freemen; that is to fay, two persons for each office, one of whom for each, is to be commissioned stoned by the President in Council. No person (hall continue in the office of Sheriff more than three successive years, or be capable of being -again elected during four years afterwards. The election mall be held at the fame time and place appointed for the election of Represen. tatives: and the Commissioners and Assessors, and other officers chosen by the people, shall also be then and there elected, as has been usual heretofore, until altered or otherwise regulated by the future legislature 9s this State.

XXXII. All elections, whether by the people or in General Assembly, mall be by ballot, free and voluntary: and any elector who mall receive any gift or reward for his vote, in meat, drink, monies, or otherwise, shall forfeit his right to elect for that time, and suffer such other penalty as future laws mall direct, And any person who shall directly or indirectly give, promise, or bestow any such rewards to be elected, shall be thereby rendered incapably to serve for the ensuing year.

XXXIII. All sees, licence money, fines, and forfeitures heretofore granted or paid to the Governor, or his deputies, for the support of Government, (hall hereafter be paid in to the public treasury, unless altered or abolished by the future legislature.

XXXIV. A Register's office for the probate of wills, and grantingletters of administration, and an office for the recording of deeds, shall be kept in each city and county: the officers to be appointed by the General Assembly, removeable at their pleasure, and to be commissioned by the President in Council.

XXXV. The printing presses shall be free to every person who undertakes to examine the proceedings of the legislature, or any part of government.

XXXVI. As every freeman, to preserve his independence (if without a sufficient estate), ought to have some profession, calling, trade or farm, whereby he may honestly subsist, there can be no necessity for, nor use in establishing offices of profit; the usual effects of which are dependence and servility, unbecoming freemen, in the possessors and expectants ; faction, contention, corruption, and disorder among the people. But if any man is called into public service* to the prejudice of his private affairs, he has a right to a reasonable compensation: and whenever an office, through increase of fees or otherwise, becomes so profitable as to occasion

many many to apply for it, the prosits ought to be lessened by the legislature.

XXXVIT. The future legislature of this State shall regulate entails in such a manner as to prevent perpetuities.

XXXVIII. The penal laws as heretofore ■ used, shall be reformed by the legislature of this State as soon as may be, and punishments made in some cases less sanguinary, and in general more proportionate to the crimes.

XXXIX. To deter more effectually from the commission of crimes, by continual visible punishmentof long duration, and to make sanguinary punishments less necessary, houses ought to be provided for punishing by hard labour, those who shall be convicted of crimes not capital; wherein the criminals shall be employed for the benesit of the public, or for reparation of injuries done to private persons: and all persons at proper times shall be admitted to see the prisoners at their labour.

XL. Every officer, whether judicial, executive, or military, in authority under this Commonwealth, shall take the following oath or affirmation of allegiance, and general oath of office, before he enter on the execution of his office:


The oath or affirmation of allegiance: "I do swear (or affirm\ that I will

be true and faithful to the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania: and that I will not directly or indirectly do any act or thing prejudicial or injurious to the Constitution or Government thereof, as established by the Convention."

The oath or affirmation of office: "I do swear (or affirm), that I will faithfully execute the office of for the

of and will do equal right and justice to all men, to the best of my judgement and abilities, according to law."

XLI. No public tax, custom, or contribution shall be imposed upon, or paid by the people of this State, except by a law for that purpose: and before any law be made for raising it, the purpose for which any tax is to be raised ought to appear clearly to the legislature to be of more service to the community than the money would be, if not collected; which being well observed, taxes can never be burdens.

XLII. Every foreigner of good character who comes to settle in this State, having firsts


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