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Liv. II 7 § 4 matronae annum, ut parentem, eum luxerunt. Of like honour this slave shewed himself worthy; but the sons of Brutus died by public execution, after having been flogged like slaves (v 173 n.). For Valerius also (Liv. II 16 § 7) and Augustus (DCass. LVI 43), the matrons wore mourning during a year.

VERBERA Liv. III 55 § 14 tergo ac capite puniretur.

268 LEGUM the first legal, as opposed to arbitrary (regni securis), execution. Liv. II 1 §1 imperia legum potentiora quam hominum. Luc. vII 441-2 de Brutis, Fortuna, loquor. quid tempora legum | egimus aut annos a consule nomen habentes? IX 265-7. Sen. de ira 1 16 § 5 etsi perversa induenda magistratui vestis et convocanda classico contio est, procedam in tribunal non furens nec infestus, sed vultu legis et illa sollemnia verba leni magis gravique quam rabida voce concipiam et agi iubebo non iratus, seveet cum cervicem noxio imperabo praecidi,......sine ira...



269-275 Holyday 'It were better to be the son of an unworthy Thersites, so that one's self were an Achilles, than to be a Thersites, though one were the son of an Achilles. But, says he, by way of jeer, to the noblest Roman, thou canst not properly derive thyself better than from the company which assembled at Romulus's Asylum.'

269 THERSITES Il. II 216 αἴσχιστος δὲ ἀνὴρ ὑπὸ Ιλιον ἦλθεν. cf. 212 seq. Achilles killed him Quint. Smyrn. 1 746 seq. aîya d' ävaλkis áñò μελέων φύγε θυμὸς | ἀνέρος οὐτιδανοῖο· χάρη δ ̓ ἄρα λαὸς ̓Αχαιῶν· | τοὺς γὰρ νείκεε πάμπαν ἐπεσβολίῃσι κακῇσιν, | αὐτὸς ἐὼν λωβητός· ὁ γὰρ Δαναῶν πέλεν alows. Soph. Phil. 439 seq. Encomium of Th. (also of a quartan ague) school paradoxes by Favorinus Gell. XVII 12 § 2. cf. Quintil. x 1 § 47 1. 6 n. DUMMODO VII 222. 225. 270 AEACIDAE a Homeric (II. XVIII 221) name of Achilles, son of Peleus, the son of Aeacus. Achilles is contrasted with Thersites (xI 30 31 n. exc. rhet. in Halm rhet. ant. 588 2 ceterum ridiculum videtur, si Achilles in specie vel viribus Thersitae comparatur. cf. Theon progymn. 9 in Waiz rhet. gr. I 232. After death Luc. Char. 22 Θερσίτῃ δ ̓ ἴσος Θέτιδος Tαîs nüкóμolo. cf. quom. hist. conscr. 14. Plotin. enn. III 3 to censure the whole from the parts is like taking a hair or toe as a sample of a man, or Thersites of humanity), as being not only the bravest, but the fairest of the Greeks Il. 11 674. 769.

VULCANIA ARMA when, after the death of Patroclus, the arms of Achilles had been borne off by the Trojans, Thetis besought Hephaestus to supply her son with a new suit Il. XVIII 369-616. Aen. XII 739 of the suit of Aeneas arma dei ad Vulcania. Cic. Tusc. II § 33 Davies tectus Vulcaniis armis, id est fortitudine. Liban. ep. 125. 272 TAMEN UT x 240. Halm on Cic. p. Sest. § 140.

With 272-5 cf. Sen. ep. 44 § 3 Plato [Theaet. 175a] ait: neminem regem non ex servis oriundum, neminem non servum ex regibus. LONGE REPETAS Cic. fam. XIII 29 § 2 exspectare te arbitror, haec tam longe repetita principia quo spectent. de legg. I § 28. Luc. 1 94 nec longe fatorum exempla petantur. Quintil. v 7 8 17 longius interrogatione repetita. Plin. ep. 18 § 8 ne longius exempla repetantur. So rep. alte etc. cf. Klotz repeto II A b, and μaкpółεv. Aus. grat. act. p. 1115 b Walker deductum ab heroibus genus ad deorum stemma replicare.

REVOLVAS Sen. contr. 1 6 § 4 quemcumque volueris revolve nobilem; ad humilitatem pervenies. quid recenseo singulos [he had

named Marius, Servius], cum hanc urbem possim tibi ostendere?

273 ASYLO Liv. 1 8 locum, qui nunc saeptus descendentibus inter duos lucos est, asylum aperit: eo ex finitimis populis turba omnis sine discrimine, liber an servus esset, avida novarum rerum profugit. Strab. v p. 230 'having established an asylum between the arx and the Capitol.' DH. II 15 the place between the arx and the Capitol, which is now called between the two groves.' Vell. 1 6 § 8 asylo facto inter duos lucos. Becker 1 386-7. 410. II 19. Schwegler 1 459-60. 464-8. Pauly 12 1948. Preller röm. Myth. 237. Winer Realwörterbuch s. v. Freistatt. On the right of sanctuary and its abuses Höck 13 94 5. in Ephesus Strabo 641. On the asylum itself, cf. Liv. II 1 § 4 illa pastorum convenarumque plebs, transfuga ex suis populis, sub tutela inviolati templi aut libertatem aut certe impunitatem adepta. August. c. Crescon. II 16=13 non igitur, sicut conviciaris, tamquam in asylum Romuli vestros nocentes recipimus. id. de cons. ev. I § 19 in primordia sua recolant, facinorosorum asylum...asylum constituerunt Remus et Romulus, ut quisquis cuiuslibet sceleris reus eo confugisset, inultum haberet commissum. Plut. Rom. 9. DCass. XLVII 19. Flor. I 1 § 9. Verg. Aen. VIII 342. esp. Ov. f. III 431 seq. Iustin XXXVIII 7 § 1 conluvie convenarum. That the Romans were (DH. I 5) ἐκ τῶν φαυλοτάτων ἐθνῶν συνεληλυθότες, Rome's founders (ib. 4) ἀνέστιοί τινες καὶ πλάνητες καὶ βάρβαροι, Rome's original population (ib. VII 70) čovη Bápßapa kaì ȧvéσтia, and ancient Rome itself (ib. 1 89) a καταφυγὴ βαρβάρων καὶ δραπετῶν καὶ ἀνεστίων ἀνθρώπων, are to DH. slanders 1 89. 11 8. IV 26. Minuc. Fel. 25 § 2 asylo prima plebs congregata est. confluxerant perditi facinerosi incesti sicarii proditores. 275 PASTOR Schol. 'quos collegit Romulus.' Iustin XXVIII 2 § 8 quos autem homines Romanos esse? nempe pastores, qui latrocinio iustis dominis ademptum solum teneant. DCass. Lx 29 § 3 βασιλεῖς ἐγένοντο χοὶ πρὶν ὄντες αἰπόλοι, QUOD etc. schol. 'servus aut infamis vel latro.'



The following was accidentally omitted in s. x n. 1 after 'to the ancients.'

Sen. n. q. 1 pr. § 13 quantum enim est, quod ab ultimis litoribus Hispaniae usque ad Indos iacet? paucissimorum dierum spatium, si navem suus ferat ventus, implebit. Plin. 11 § 242 pars nostra. terrarum...longissime ab ortu ad occasum patet, hoc est ab India ad Herculis columnas Gadibus sacratas. §§ 243-4 two measure. ments are given, each starting from the Ganges. He gives many other measurements always reckoning from Gades to the west, Ganges to the east (Sillig's ind.) and places Gades v § 76 extra orbem. Claud. names Gades as the furthest west IV cons. Hon. 43. bell. Gild. 159. in Eutr. 1 353. Sidon. c. 5 286-7. Ambr. de Abraham II § 40 ab Indiae quoque litoribus ad Herculis, ut aiunt, columnas.

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MEN pray for eloquence, strength, wealth, and thus invite their own ruin upon themselves (1-27). Well might Democritus and Heraclitus in this vanity of human wishes find matter, the one for laughter, the other for tears (28-53). For what may we pray (54-5)? Vaulting ambition o'erleaps itself: witness Seianus, Crassus, Pompeius, Caesar (56-113). The schoolboy envies the eloquence of Demosthenes and Cicero; yet it had been well for Cicero, if he had only been known as the meanest of poets: for Demosthenes, if he had never left his father's smithy (114-132). How passing is military glory, and how uncertain military power, appears in Hannibal and Xerxes; Alexander, for whom the world was all too strait, found rest at last in an urn (133-187). Length of days does but bring decay of body and mind. Peleus and Nestor, had they died early, would not have mourned the loss of Achilles and of Antilochus. Priam, Hecuba, Croesus, Mithridates, Marius, Pompeius were spared to their own hurt (188—288). Beauty is dangerous even to the chaste; example of Silius (289—345). Leave to the gods, who know what is best for you, to order your lot as they will pray only for health of mind and body, that you may bravely bear the worst (346-365).

Cf. [Plat.] Alcib. II. Pers. II. VM. vir 2 E § 1. Sen. ep. 10 §§ 4-5. 32 §§ 4-5. 60 § 1. 118 §§ 4-9. Lucian. navig. 13 seq. id. Icaromen. 25. Max. Tyr. 11-30. Euseb. ap. Stob. flor. 1 85. Fr. Jacobs verm. Schriften III 107-112. Lasaulx Studien d. class. Alterthums 137-158. Döllinger Heidenthum u. Judenthum 199-202.

Our satire is referred to by Chaucer Troilus and Creseide rv 25 'O Juvenall lord, true is thy sentence, | that little wenen folke what is to yerne, that they ne finden in hir desire offence, | for cloud of errour ne lette hem discerne | what best is.' Warton-Hazlitt hist. engl. poetry Iv 414 In 1617 one W. B. produced the earliest attempt at an english Juvenal...That which seems best is worst. Exprest in a paraphrastical transcript of Juvenal's tenth_satyre.' A few verses are

borrowed by Hall. There is a fine version by Sir John Beaumont, Chalmers british poets v1 43-7; and another in Hen. Vaughan's works, ed. Grosart, 11 31-55. Johnson's 'Vanity of human wishes' is an imitation.

1-11 In every land, from furthest west to furthest east, few only can discern true blessings from their counterfeits, clear from all mist of error. For what do we with reason fear, covet with reason? what do you undertake with foot so right, with a start so lucky, but you rue your attempt and the success of your desire? Whole houses have fallen on their own petition, when indulgent gods have taken them at their word. In peace, in war, men crave what will only harm them; his flood of speech is often the orator's death-warrant; rash trust in his thews, the wonder of the world, made Milo a prey of wolves. VM. vII 2 E § 1 (a passage which, as also Plat. Alc. II and Pers. II, Iuv. had before him) 'mind of mortals, wrapt in thickest darkness [Iuv. 4 nebula], over how wide a field of error dost thou throw thy prayers broadcast: thou seekest wealth, which has been the destruction of many [12-27]: thou lustest after honours, which have ruined not a few [133-187]; thou broodest over dreams of sovereignty, whose issue is often seen to be pitiable [56-113]: thou graspest at splendid marriages [350-3]; but they, though sometimes they add glory to families, yet not seldom overthrow them utterly' [funditus domos evertunt. cf. 7].

1 GADIBUS XI 162. Cadiz, beyond the pillars of Hercules (Herodot. IV 8 § 1), was the western boundary of the world, the ne plus ultra, to the ancients Pind. Nem. Iv 69 Γαδείρων τὸ πρὸς ζόφον οὐ περατόν. Anacreontic. XIII Bergk = xxxII 25-6 καὶ τοὺς Γαδείρων ἐκτὸς | τοὺς Βακτρίων Te Kivov [cf. here 2 Gangen]. Sil. 1 141 finem hominum Gades. Vell. I 2 §4. Stat. s. III 1 183 solisque cubilia Gades. Solin. 23 § 12 extremus noti orbis terminus. Aristid. II p. 354 Jebb. Paroemiogr. ed. Leutsch II 661 n. 19. Avien. descr. orbis 98-100. St Paul (Clem. Rom. ep. 1 5) 'went to the boundary of the west,' i. e. he fulfilled his declared intention of visiting Spain. On the alliteration in Gadibus usque see 122 n. USQUE without ad before the names of towns usually, before other nouns in Plin. Stat. Iust. 2 AURORAM Ov. m. 1 61 Eurus ad Auroram Nabataeaque regna recessit. GANGEN ib. IV 20-1 oriens tibi victus ad usque decolor extremo qua tinguitur India Gange. Luc. II 229-234. Stat. Th. 1 686. Here were the pillars of Bacchus Avien. descr. orbis 824-8. supra p. 63. PAUCI 19. 112. 337. II 53' only few.' To limit pauci, unus, Cic. either uses modo (sometimes solus) or has no particle; Liv. and the writers of the silver age (e.g. Quintil. 1 12 § 2) often add tantum (Krebs-Allgayer Antibarbarus 706. 969). Caes. b. c. II 43 § 3 horum fuga navium onerariarum magistros incitabat: pauci lenunculi ad officium imperiumque conveniebant. DINOSCERE In other compounds the initial g of the second member is preserved, ignosco, cognosco etc. See Corssen über Aussprache u. s. w. 12 82. 437. Pers. v 105, 107 veri speciem dinoscere calles |...quaeque sequenda forent, quaeque evitanda vicissim. DL. VI § 42 Diogenes blamed men for their prayers, saying that they asked for what they thought good, not for the true goods.' Sen. ep. 45 §§ 6. 7 res fallunt: illas discerne. pro bonis mala amplectimur: optamus contra id, quod optavimus. pugnant vota nostra cum votis...adulatio quam similis est amicitiae!...doce quemadmodum



hanc similitudinem possim dinoscere...vitia nobis sub virtutum nomine obrepunt. ib. 1 10 §§ 5. 7 nemo nostrum, quid veri esset, excussit...nihil videmus, nec quid noceat, nec quid expediat. ib. 32 §§ 4-5. 118 §§ 5-9. Obbar on Hor. ep. 1 10 29. Arrian. Epict. II 3 §§ 1. 5.

3 ILLIS i. e. veris bonis dat. as in VFI. Iv 157-8 diversa que regi corda gerens. So Hor. Vell. Luc. Curt. and Quintil. often (Mühlmann col. 459). So the dat. is found with differre, distare, abhorrens.

ILLIS MULTUM DIVERSA i.e. mala. So recte an secus, recte secusne, bene an secus, τὰ καλὰ καὶ τὰ μή, τὰ χρηστὰ ἢ τὰ ἕτερα (Wytt. ad Plat. Phaed. 114 cited by Heinrich). 4 ERRORIS NEBULA from [Plat.] Alc. 11 150deas Homer [E 127 seq. cf. P 643-9] says that Athena removed the mist [ax\uv] from the eyes of Diomedes, that he might well distinguish a god and a man, so you too, as it seems to me, must first remove the mist from the soul, which is now upon it, and then apply the means whereby you are to distinguish the good and the bad.' See Max. Tyr. DCass. Eus. in HSt. dxλús ad fin. Theodoret. gr. aff. cur. 14 p. 41. 48 we must discover every method to dispel the fog [òuíxλnv] that weighs them down, and to shew them the brightness of the intellectual light.' Lact. v 10 § 5 tenebrarum et errorum nubes hominum pectora obduxit. Prud. hamart. 88 sunt animis etiam sua nubila crassus et aer. cf. the context. RATIONE on principle,' 'by reason's rule.' Plin. ep. Ix 7 § 1 aedificare te scribis. bene est: inveni patrocinium; aedifico enim iam ratione quia tecum. Generally cum is prefixed to the abl. modi, when not accompanied by pron. or adj.; a few substantives however are used almost adverbially without cum, as vi, more, modo, iure, dolo, silentio Zumpt § 472 n. 1. Madvig § 258 n. 2. TIMEMUS AUT CUPIMUS Obbar on Hor. ep. 1 6 9, 10. Munro and Lachmann on Lucr. vI 25. Sen. ep. 82 § 6 sciat, quo iturus sit, unde ortus, quod illi bonum, quod malum, quid petat, quid eritet, quae sit illa ratio, quae adpetenda ac fugienda discernat, qua cupiditatum mansuescit insania, timorum saevitia compescitur. ib. 88 §§ 3-4. Philosophy teaches us to discriminate true from false pleasures and pains, Xaipei Kai Xuπeîσlaɩ oîs deî Aristot. eth. Nic. 2 § 9-3 § 2. Berkeley minute philos. VII 34. Sen. ep. 123 § 13 debemus itaque exerceri ne haec [labour, death, pain, reproach, spare diet] timeamus, ne illa [riches, pleasures, beauty, ambition] cupiamus. ibid. 121 § 4.

5 DEXTRO PEDE Petron. 30 after we had been sated with these pleasures, as we were about to enter the dining-room, one of the slaves, appointed to the express function, cried out dextro pede.' Sil. VII 171-2 attulit hospitio...pes dexter et hora Lyaeum. Prudent. c. Symm. II 79 feliciter et pede dextro. Vitruv. III 3 § 4 the steps to a temple should always be odd in number, that the worshipper may mount the first step dextro pede, and also enter the temple right foot foremost. cf. Iambl. vit. Pyth. § 156: [Eur. Bacch. 943-4 év dežiậ Xpǹ Xaμa değių modì | aipei viv (the thyrsus) J. E. S.] Apul. Met. 1 5 p. 27 having set out left foot foremost (sinistro pede profectum), I was, as usual, disappointed.' Cf. Ov. Ibis 101 ominibusque malis, pedibusque occurrite laevis. The gods are entreated to come pede secundo (i. e. Serv. Aen. VIII 302 omine prospero) Aen. x 255. Aug. ep. 17 44 § 2 'What does Namphanio [a Punic word] mean but a man of good foot, i.e. one who brings luck with him; as we commonly say that he has entered secundo pede, whose entrance has been followed by some prosperity?' Cf. Prop. III-IV 1 6 quove pede ingressi? Ov. fast. I 514 felici pede. heroid. xx1 69, 70. Plin. XXVIII § 28 some spat into their

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