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EFFODIT MEDIO DE LIMITE SAXUM the land-mark or statue of the god Terminus. Hor. C. 11 18 23—26 quid quod usque proximos / revellis agri terminos et ultra | limites clientium | salis avarus ? Ov. f. 11 641–4 Termine, sive lapis sive es defossus in agro | stipes, ab antiquis tu quoque numen habes. \ te duo diversa domini pro parte coronant | binaque serta tibi binaque liba ferunt. cf. ib. 639—684. Terminus cannot be evoked' nor his temple exaugurated' Liv. 1 55 $8.3–5. Cato in Fest. 'nequitum'p. 162 M (origg. i 24 p. 59 Peter) fana in eo loco conpluria fuere. ea exauguravit praeterquam quod Termino fanum fuit : id nequitum exaugurari. Lact. I 20 SS 37–42. Aug. civ. D. IV 29. v 21. Sen. Hipp. (Phaedra 536—7) nullus in campo sacer | divisit agros arbiter populis lapis. He who removed his neighbour's land-mark' was accursed among the Romans (inscr. on a terminus in Orelli 4332 quisquis hoc sustulerit aut laeserit, ultimus suorum moriatur. Paulus Fest. 368 M. esp. grom. 350_1 L from Vegoia cum autem Iuppiter terram Etruriae sibi vindicavit, constituit iussitque metiri campos signarique agros. sciens hominum avaritiam vel terrenum cupidinem, terminis omnia scita [fortasse saepta vel sancita L] esse voluit. quos quandoque . ob avaritiam prope novissimi octavi saeculi [Iuv. XIII 28 n.] data sili [fortasse lascivi L] homines malo dolo violabunt contingentque atque movebunt. sed qui contigerit moveritque, possessionem promovendo suam, alterius minuendo, ob hoc scelus damnabitur a dis. si servi faciant, dominio mutabuntur in deterius. sed si conscientia dominica fiet, celerius domus extirpabitur gensque eius omnis interiet. motores autem pessimis morbis et vulneribus afficientur membrisque suis debilitabuntur. tum etiam terra a tempestatibus vel turbinibus plerumque labe movebitur. fructus saepe taedentur decutienturque imbribus atque grandine, cariculis interient, robigine occident. erunt multae dissensiones in populo. fieri haec scitote, cum talia scelera committuntur. Rudorff ib. 11 236-250. dig. XLVII 21 de termino moto.' Preller röm. Myth.1 227—231. E. C. Clark Roman law 52 53) as amongst the Israelites (deut. 19 14 Grotius. 27 17. prov, 22 28. Job 24 2. Hos. 5 10. Sibyll. III 240) and Greeks (Plato legg. 8434 K. F. Hermann de terminis eorumque religione apud Graecos. Gött. 1847. 4to).

39 CUM PATULO PULS ANNUA LIBO originally it was forbidden to offer bloody offerings to Terminus Plut. qu. Rom. 15. DH. 11 74 teldνους δε Δήμητρος και άλλας τινάς καρπών απαρχάς. These were offered on the Terminalia (ANNUA) Febr. 23 at the end of the ancient year.

PULS ANNUA XI 58. xiv 171 n. Varro in Non. 'mactat' kaler.dis Iuniis et publice et privatim favatam pul. tem diis mactat. Plin. XVIII § 84 et hodie sacra prisca atque natalium pulte fritilla conficiuntur. Tert. spect. 12 fin. idem de apparatibus interpretabimur in ipsorum honorum suggestu deputandis, quod purpurae, quod fasces, quod vitiae, quod coronae, quod denique contiones et edicta et pultes pridianae sine pompa diaboli, sine invitatione daemonum non sunt. Arn. II 21 ipse autem qui infertur cibus sit unus atque idem semper, nihil materia differens nec per varios redintegratus sapores, sed aut fitilla de milio aut sit panis ex farre, aut, ut saecula imitemur antiqua, ex cinere caldo glandes. VII 24 quid fitilla, quid frumen, quid africia, quid gratilla ? . • . ex quibus duo, quae prima, sunt pultium nomina sed genere et qualitate diversa, series vero quae sequitur liborum signifo cantias continet ..... non magmenta, non augmina, non mille species .. fitillarum, quibus nomina indidistis obscura vulgoque ut essent augustiora fecistis.

LIBO III 187 n.

Verg. ecl. 7 33 34 haec te liba, Priape, quotannis I expectare sat est.

40 XIII esp. 135 seq.

PERGIT NON REDDERE Cic. in lexx. Fabri on Liv. XXI 22 $ 9.

41 =XIII 137. cf. XIV 315 316 n.

42 43 The civilian cannot, like the soldier (49), choose his own time, he must wait until, among the suits of the whole people, his turn comes. Actions between civilians (before the centumviri) were heard in the order in which application had been made to the praetor.

42 EXPECTANDUS ERIT ANNUS Cic. de prov. cons. § 17 hoc tempore amisso annus est integer vobis exspectandus. The courts are so choked with business, that we must wait a year for the beginning of the hearing—not of our own individual suit, but of the whole nation's litigation, Serv. Aen. 11 102 'suo ordine uno reatu : et est de antiqua tractum scientia, quia in ordine dicebantur causae propter multitudinem vel tumultum festinantium, cum erat annus litium, Iuvenalis exspectandus ... annus.' Iuv. however does not warrant the term annus litium. Ter. haut. 240 dum moliuntur, dum conantur, annus est. Sen. apocol. 12 22 23 quis nunc iudex | toto lites audiet anno?

LITES INCHOET dig. XLII 1 54 8 1 si litem inchoatam deseruit.

LITES TOTIUS POPULI how long the settlement of a cause might be deferred, appears from Suet. Vesp. 10 iudicia centumviralia, quibus vix suffecturu litigatorum aetas videbatur. 44 TAEDIA Neue 12 424.

MORAE properly Plin. ep. 1 18 $ 6 iudicium centumvirale differri nullo modo ... potest. Yet a whim of the praetor (ib. v 9=21 § 1 descenderam in basilicam Iuliam, auditurus quibus proxima comperendinatione respondere debebam. § 2 sedebant iudices, decemviri venerant, obversabantur advocati, silentium longum, tandem a praetore nuntius. dimittuntur centumviri, eximitur dies, me gaudente, qui numquam ita paratus sum, ut non mora laeter. 8 3 causa dilationis Nepos praetor, qui legibus quaerit), or the want of the full number of iudices, might cause delays.

SUBSELLIA 14. 45 STERNUNTUR the apparitores put the cushions on the bench. When the pleader Caedicius is already laying aside his lacerna (111 148 n. Suet. Cl. 6 lacernas deponere solebat, a compliment to a prince), and preparing to address the court in the toga:' 1x 28 29 lacernas, | muni. menta togae. Sen. contr. x pr. § 2 p. 460 K=291 B of Scaurus dicebat neglegenter ; saepe causam in ipsis subselliis, saepe dum amici. tur discebat. Plin. ep. II 3 § 2 surgit amicitur incipit. so of an exiled orator ib. iv 11 g 3 cum Graeco pallio amictus intrasset (carent enim togae iure, quibus aqua et igni interdictum est), postquam se composuit circumspexitque habitum suum, 'Latine' inquit 'declamaturus

dices, tristia et miseranda. Quintilian's direction to pleaders XI 3 § 156 leniter est consurgendum, tum in componenda toga. paulum commorandum. The toga was worn in court as the distinctive dress of Romans III 127 n. cf. 11 66–82. VIII 240 n. Liv. XXII 26 § 1 is iuvenis, ut primum ... pecunia a patre relicta animos ad spem liberalioris fortunae fecit, toga que et forum placuere, $ 2 proclamando pro sordidis hominibus causisque adversus rem et famam bonorum primum in notitiam populi, deinde ad honores pervenit. Suet. Claud. 15 illud quoque a maioribus natu audiebam, adeo causidicos patientia eius solitos abuti, ut descendentem e tribunali non solum voce revocarent, sed et lacinia togae retenta,

sum.

VII

interdum pede apprehenso detinerent. Plin. ep. 122 3 6 in toga negotiisque versatur ; multos advocatione, plures consilio iuvat. Flor. II 30= IV 12 § 32 of the Germans ut primum togas et saeviora armis iura viderunt, duce Arminio arma_corripiunt. Lyd. de mag. III 8. Also worn in rhetorical exercises Hier. C. Rufin. i 30 (11 486b) et quo magis stupeas, nunc cano et recalvo capite saepe mihi videor in somnis comatulus et sumpta toga ante rhetorem controversiolam declamare.

46 CAEDICIO one of the name XIII 197.

FUSCO perhaps the husband of a drunken wife xII 45; probably the advocate opposed to Caedicius, and the Fuscus for whom Martial hopes VII 28 5 6 sic fora mirentur, sic te palatia laudent | excolat et geminas plurima palma fores.

MIOTURIENTE VI 309. schol. Pers. i 112. C. Titius a contemporary of Lucilius in Macr. Sat. III 16 g 15 dum eunt, nulla est in angiporto amphora, quam non impleant, quippe qui vesicam plenam vini habeant. § 16 veniunt in comitium, tristes iubent dicere. quorum negotium est dicunt, iudex testes poscit, ipsus it mic. tum. ubi redit, . vix prae vino sustinet palpebras.

PARATI ‘when equipped for the fray we part combat and fight in the law's dilatory lists.'

47 LENTAQUE FORI PUGNAMUS HARENA Mart. II 13 et iudex petit et petit patronus. | solvas censeo, Sexte, creditori. 65 lis te bis decimae numerantem frigora brumae conterit una tribus, Gargiliane, foris. I a miser et demens / viginti litigat annis | quisquam, cui vinci, Gargiliane, licet ?

PUGNAMUS VII 173 n. paneg. in Pis. 27-9 licet exercere togatae munera militiae, licet et sine sanguinis haustu | mitia legitimo sub iudice bella movere. Ov. Pont. IV 6 29 Marte forensi. cf. f. iv 188.

48 BALTEUS a sword-belt (Serv. Aen. v 313) worn over the shoulder Aen. XII 941—2 umero cum apparuit alto | balteus et notis fulserunt cingula bullis. made of leather Varro 1. I. IV § 116 baltoum quod cingulum e corio habebant bullatum balteum dictum. Prop. v=IV 10 22. Also used as a purse Spartian. Hadr. 10 § 5 sine auro balteum sumeret. Vopiso. Aurelian. 7 § 6 stipendium in balteo, non in popina habeat. cf. Tao. h. II 88.

49 AGENDI XIII 32 agentem.

50 Holyday their means ne'er, without fruit, 1 are gall’d with the long trigger of a suit.'

RES ATTERITUR the property in dispute is worn away, 'wasted.' Plin. ep. v 10=11 8 3 perfectum opus absolutumque est nec iam splendescit lima, sed atteritur. ix 33 g 10 confluebant omnes ad spectaculum magistratus, quorum adventu et mora modica res publica novis sumptibus atterebatur.

SUFFLAMINE VIII 148 n. Sen. exc. contr. iv praef. § 7 tanta erat illi velocitas orationis, ut vitium fieret. itaque divus Augustus optime dixit 'Haterius noster sufflaminandus est.'

Herm. vis. IV 2. 51-60 Third privilege of soldiers, the castrense peculium III 189 n. A son, who was in manu patris, had no property of his own, strictly speaking: what he was allowed to enjoy as such (his peculium) was held on a precarious tenure, and might be taken from him by his father ; but in the imperial times this law was relaxed in favour of soldiers. inst. 11 12 pr. non tamen omnibus licet facere testamentum. statim enim hi, qui alieno iuri subiecti sunt, testamentum faciendi ius non habent, adeo quidem, ut, quamvis parentes eis permiserint, nihilo

magis iure testari possunt ; exceptis his, quos antea enumeravimus, et praecipue militibus, qui in potestate parentum sunt, quibus de eo, quod in castris acquisierint, permissum est ex constitutioni. bus principum testamentum facere. cf. tit. 11. Puchta Institutionen 118 385 dates this privilege 'probably' from Augustus (cf. Ulp. fr. xx 10]: by it whatever a filius familias gains qua soldier, his žit, pay, prize-money, or from his comrades, he gains not for his father, but as his own absolute property, as though he were paterfamilias [dig. XIV 6 2]. He can carry on a suit against his father. dig. XLIX 17 de castrensi peculio' 2. Rein Privatr. 494. 788. E. C. Clark Roman law 122–4.

51 52 SOLIS TESTANDI MILITIBUS IUS VIVO PATRE DATUR Gaius 11 106. Paull. sent. III. 4A 3. dig. xxIx 1'de testamento militis ' 11 88 1 2. 17 g 3. 40 pr. a soldier's will in short-hand. XXXVI 118 6. XXXVII 1 3 8 5. XXXIX 5 7 $ 6. Afterwards, by a fiction like that of the ius trium liberorum, civilians were by special grace admitted to share the privilege dig. XXXVII 6 1 8 15 quasi castrense peculium. inst. 11 11 § 6 Schrader. cod. Iust. XII 30=31 a defence of the extended privilege.

52 53 PARTA LABORE MILITIAE dig. XLIX 17 castrense peculium est, quod a parentibus vel cognatis in militia agenti donatum est vel quod ipse filius familias in militia adquisiit, quod, nisi militaret, adquisiturus non fuisset. nam quod erat et sine militia adquisiturus, id peculium eius castrense non est. CORPORE CENSUS dig. IV 2 20 corpus patrimonii. Dirksen manuale.

54 OMNE TENET CUIUS REGIMEN PATER DH. VIII 79 Ρωμαίοις γαρ ούθεν ίδιον εστι κτήμα ζώντων έτι των πατέρων, αλλά και τα χρήματα και τα σώματα των παίδων και τι βούλονται διατιθέναι τοίς πατράσιν αποδέδοται. Sen. ben. VII 4 6 omnia patris sunt, quae in liberorum manu sunt: quis tamen nescit donare aliquid et filium patri? Suet. Tib. 15. Ulp. fr. xIx 18 19. Gaius 11 86. 87 igitur (quod] liberi nostri, quos in potestate habemus, mancipio accipiunt vel ex traditione nanciscuntur, sive quid stipulentur vel ex aliqualibet causa adquirant, id nobis adquiritur : ipse enim, qui in potestate nostra est, nihil suum habere potest; et ideo si heres institutus sit, nisi nostro iussu hereditatem adire non potest; et si iubentibus nobis adierit, hereditatem nobis adquirit proinde atque si nos ipsi heredes instituti essemus ; et convenienter scilicet legatum per eos nobis adquiritur. ib. 89. III 163. Rein Privatr. 488–9.

54-56 CORANUM CAPTAT PATER from Hor. 8. II 5 55–69 where the father-in-law Nasica is bilked by the son-in-law Coranus 57 captatorque dabit risus Nasica Corano. 55 CASTRORUM AERA MERENTEM Ov. am. 1 9 44 in castris aera merere. Hor. a. p. 345 hic meret aera liber Sosiis. often stipendia merere, or merere alone. See Non. p. 344 MERET militat ... Lucil. lib. XI [9 M]

annos hic terra iam plures miles Hibera | nobiscum meret'. Varro rer. hum. lib. xx 'qui in ordine erat, is a es militare merebat.' Dirk. sen manuale.

56 CAPTAT XII 93 n.

FAVOR (fabor) Ruperti conj. for labor. Claud. Mall. Theod. cons. 262—3 certusque merenti | stat favor.

57 PROVEHIT Plin. ep. x 13=8 dignitati ad quam me provexit indulgentia tua. IX 14 in lucem famamque. cod. Th. in Dirksen manuale. Tac. e. g. h. 11 75 e gregario ad summa militiae provectum. III 44 milites a Vitellio provecti. vita Iuv. (above p. xi 15) provehebantur.

60 PHALERIS ET TORQUIBUS XI 103 n. Flor. I 1=5 § 6 borrowed from the Etrus

6

98 n.

cans. Polyb. vi 39 § 3 to the foot-soldier who has laid an enemy low and spoiled him, a goblet, to the horseman pádapa are given.' DH. x 37 L. Siccius Dentatus won 83 golden collars (otpertol) for the neck and 25 párapa étionua. cf. Gell. II 11 g 2. Ios. bell. vir 1 g 3. Sil. xv 254–6 tum merita aequantur donis ac praemia virtus / sanguine parta capit. phaleris hic pectora fulget, | hic torque aurato circumdat bellica colla. Tac. h. II 89 militum phalerae torquesque splendebant. Capitolin. Maximin. 2 & 4. 3 & 5. PHALERIS ė before r as in camera, Camerina (cf. Roby 1 73 § 230 3). In 1858 phalerae were discovered at Lauersfort near Crefeld (0. Jahn die Lauersforter Phalerae. Bonn 1860 4to. A. Rein de phaleris in annali dell' inst. 1860 161—204). They are bosses of thin bronze, silver or gold, chased in relief, filled in with pitch, and worn as medals are now, on the breast, fastened to a belt by a back-piece of copper. On some stones soldiers appear wearing 9 phalerae on a network of thongs across the breast. In inscr. torquibus armillis phaleris donatus is common (Orelli and CIL ind. under officia militaria ' s.v. donis, e.g. CIL v 7495 L. Coelius Q. f. miles leg. VIIII. signifer ob virtutes palaris torquibus armillis don[atus]. Marquardt Staatsverw. II2 556—7. Becker-Marquardt III (2) 440—1. v (2) 267—8. Rich companion. Forc.).

TORQUIBUS worn over the breast; borrowed from the Gauls (S, Birch on the torc of the Celts in archæol. journ. II 368-380. III 27–38). We find ala bis torquata Orelli inscr. 516. Marquardt 1. c. Rich. Capitolin. Maximin. 2 $ 4. 3 $ 5. Tac. ann. II 9.

III 21.

BOILEAU l'art poëtique 11 155—165

Juvénal, élevé dans les cris de l'école,
poussa jusqu'à l'excès sa mordante hyperbole.
ses ouvrages, tout pleins d'affreuses vérités,
étincellent pourtant de sublimes beautés :
soit que sur un écrit arrivé de Caprée
il brise de Séjan la statue adorée ;
soit qu'il fasse au conseil courir les sénateurs,
d'un tyran soupçonneux pâles adulateurs ;
ou que, poussant à bout la luxure latine,
aux portefaix de Rome il vende Messaline.
ses écrits pleins de feu partout brillent aux yeux.

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