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τις φύλαξ του δεσπότου ην. επαπώλετο δε και αυτός το Κλαυδία, μέγιστον των τότε ανθρώπων δυνηθείς. μυριάδας τε γάρ πλείους μυρίων είχε, και προσεύχον αυτώ και πόλεις και βασιλείς. this wealth was acquired partly by taking bribes (ib. 16 § 2) partly by contracting for public works (ib. 33 8 6). Sen. n. q. iv pr. § 15. He at first acted in concert with Messalina (Suet. Claud. 37. DCass. Lx 14 $S 3 4 they procure the execution of Silanus, Narcissus declaring that in a dream he had seen σφαττόμενον τον Κλαύδιον υπό του Σιλανου αυτοχειρία) but A.D. 48, on her marriage with Silius (x 330—345 n.), informed Claudius of the fact, and when Claudius was still reluctant to give the order for her death himself took upon him to do so Tac. XI 37 ni caedem eius Narcissus properavisset, verterat pernicies in accusatorem . prorumpit Narcissus denuntiatque centurionibus et tribuno, qui aderant, exsequi caedem; ita imperatorem iubere. 38 nuntiatumque Claudio epulanti perisse Messalinam, non distincto sua an aliena manu, nec ille quaesivit. XII 65. Sen. apocol. 11 g 1 Augustus says to Cl. tu Messalinam, cuius aeque avunculus maior eram quum tuus, occidisti. 'nescio' inquis. di tibi male faciant : adeo istuc .turpius est, quod nescisti, quam quod occidisti. $ 5. 13 Narcissus hurries forward to welcome Cl. to the shades. Suet. CI, 39 inter cetera in eo mirati sunt homines et oblivionem et inconsiderantiam vel, ut Graece dicam, metewplav et åßleylav. occisa Messalina, paulo post quam in tri. clinio decubuit, cur domina non veniret' requisiit. Sen. n. q. IV pr. § 15. Schiller's Nero 83—7. 331 PARUIT IMPERIIS Tac. XII 1 pr. caede Messalinae convulsa principis domus, orto apud libertos certamine quis deligeret uxorem Claudio. cf. 2. 3 fin, nihil arduum videbatur in animo principis, cui non iudicium, non odium erat nisi indita et iussa. 54 55 power of Pallas and Felix. 60 fin. cum Claudius libertos, quos rei familiari praefecerat, sibique et legibus adaequaverit. XIII 4 Nero promises a change of system ea maxime declinans, quorum recens flagrabat invidia, non enim se negotiorum omnium iudicem fore, ut clausis unam intra domum accusatoribus et reis paucorum potentia grassaretur ; nihil in penatibus suis venale aut ambitioni pervium : discretam domum et rem publicam. id. h. v 9 Claudius left the province of Iudaea to Roman knights or to freedmen: e quibus Antonius Felix per omnem saevitiam ac libidinem ius regium servili ingenio exercuit, Drusilla, Cleopatrae et Antonii nepte, in matrimonium accepta, ut eiusdem Antonii Felix progener, Claudius nepos esset. id. an. XII 60 (cf. Suet. Cl. 12. dig. 1 16 9 pr. 11 15 8 & 19) A.D. 53 the jurisdiction in matters pertaining to the fiscus, which had been subject to the ordinary courts, made over to the imperial procurators; a measure which greatly increased the power and wealth of the freedmen, as they could pronounce sentence in cases in which they were concerned as accusers. Zon. XI 9 fin. Narcissus as secretary éyxelpidcov trapesuvvuto. Suet. Claud. 29 his [Pallanti et Narcisso), ut dixi, uxoribus. que addictus, non principem se, sed ministrum egit. ib. 25 fin. sed et haec et cetera totumque adeo ex parte magna principatum non tam suo quam uxorum libertorumque arbitrio administravit, talis ubique plerumque, qualem esse eum aut expediret illis aut liberet. id. Vitell. 2 fin. L. Vitellius, father of the emperor, Claudium uxoribus libertisque addictum ne qua non arte demereretur, pro maximo munere a Messalina petit, ut sibi pedes praeberet excalciandos : detractumque socculum dextrum inter togam tunicasque gestavit assidue, nonnumquam osculabundus. Narcissi quoque et Pallantis imagines aureas inter Lares coluit. Quintil. v3 81 contraria est neganti confessionis simulatio, sed ipsa

quoque multum habet urbanitatis. sic Afer cum ageret contra libertum Claudi Caesaris et ex diverso quidam condicionis eiusdem, cuius erat litigator, exclamasset 'praeterea tu semper in libertos Caesaris dicis :' nec me hercule' inquit quidquam proficio.' Plin. XII § 12 speaking of an evergreen plane-tree in Italiam quoque ac suburbana sua Claudio prin. cipe Marcelli Aesernini libertus, sed qui se potentiae causa Cae. saris libertis adoptasset, spado Thessalicus praedives, ... transtulit; id genus. Sen. apocol. 6 fin. putares omnes esse illius libertos. adeo illum nemo curabat. Plin. ep. VIII 6 § 12 speaking of a large sum of money voted by the senate to Pallas, but declined by him imaginare Caesarem liberti precibus vel potius imperio coram senatu obtemperantem (imperat enim libertus patrono, quem in senatu rogat). ib. VII 29. Ios. ant. xx 6 =4 8 3 Cumanus and the Samaritans by the help of Caesar's freedmen and friends would have defeated the Jews, had not the younger Agrippa applied to Agrippina. ib. xix 9 g 2 Claudius intended, as he had sworn, to appoint the younger Agrippa successor to his father. åld των εξελευθέρων και φίλων οι πολύ παρ' αυτώ δυνάμενοι απέτρεψαν. Philostr. Αp. ν 27 8 1 of Cl. μηλόβοτον γυναίoις την αρχήν ανήκεν. 32 8 2 υπό γυναίων ηττηθείς επελάθετο του άρχειν, αλλά και του ζην (απέθανε γάρ υπ' αυτών, ως φασι). DCass. LX 2 3 4 υπό τε των εξελευθέρων και υπό των γυναικών, αίς συνήν, έκακύνετο, περιφανέστατα γάρ των ομοίων έδoυλoκρατήθη τε άμα και έγυναικοκρατήθη. having been sickly from his childhood and brought up in great terror, he affected a simplicity even beyond the reality ; $ 5 having long lived with his nurse Livia and with the freedmen, oudèv eleve θεροπρεπές εκέκτητο, αλλά καίπερ και των Ρωμαίων απάντων και των υπηków autov kpatwv édedoúlwro. $ 6 they worked on his passions and his fears, $ 7 and reaped such a harvest from him, and struck such terror into others, that a man would decline the emperor's invitation to accept a freedman's. 14 SS 1–3 executions urged by Messalina and ol Kaloápelot. 15 $8 5 6. 24 $ 5. 16 § 2 the guilty bought immunity from Messalina and Narcissus. SS 3—5 the freedmen present at trials in the senate, 17 § 5 Messalina and the freedmen sold the freedom of the city, at first for large sums, but the price fell till at last it could be bought for broken glass. $ 8 they also sold 'all manner of offices. 28 § 2 dovleúorta Mévtol aŭTòv TE γυναικί και τους απελευθέροις ορώντες ήσχαλλον. 29 8 3 a player in the theatre reciting the saw åpópntós éoTLV EÚtvXwv uaotiylas, all the people looked at Polybius, who rejoined, the same poet said Baoilets éyéνοντο χοι πρίν όντες αιπόλοι,’ yet Claudius suffered him to go unpunished. 31 g 2 for a time Messalina and the freedmen acted in concert; but when she overthrew Polybius, though a paramour, they trusted her no more, κάκ τούτου ερημωθείσα της παρ' αυτών ευνοίας εφθάρη. 32 8 2 Agrippina employed the influence of the freedmen with Claudius. LXI 3 8 2 Pallas. 10 § 2 Seneca, though he censured flatterers, so courted Messalina and the freedmen, as to send them from the island [Sardinia, to which he was banished], a book filled with their praises, which he afterwards suppressed for shame. LXIII 12 SS 2 3 the power of the freedmen Helius and Polykletus under Nero. Galba (Suet. 14) regebatur trium arbitrio, quos una et intra Palatium habitantis nec umquam non adhaerentis paedagogos vulgo vocabant : the third was libertus Icelus, paulo ante anulis aureis et Marciani cognomine ornatus ac iam summae equestris gradus candidatus. his diverso vitiorum genere grassantibus adeo se abutendum permi. sit et tradidit, ut vix sibi ipse constaret. ib. 15. cf. Tac. h. 1 7 fin. 37 fin. Plut. Galba 7 § 2. 20 § 3. 29 8 2. DCass. LXIV 2 & 2. LXXII 12 Cleander a freedman of Commodus. Contrast the modest slaves and few IUY. II,

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freedmen of Tiberius Tac. an. IV 7. Yet Agrippa bribed them Ios. ant. XVIII 6=8 § 1. ib. xix 1 $ 10 Callistus, a freedman of Gaius (Caligula), ουδέν άλλο ή ισοτύραννος είχε την δύναμιν, φόβω τε των πάντων και Meyéb el xpnuátwv, ärep éyévetO avtw. Plin. XXXVI $ 60. Spartian. Hadr. 21 § 2 libertos suos nec sciri voluit in publico nec aliquid apud se posse, dicto suo omnibus superioribus principibus vitia imputans libertorum, damnatis omnibus libertis suis, quicumque se de eo iactaverant. § 3 seeing his slave walking between two senators, he sent one to give him a box on the ear with the warning noli inter eos ambulare quorum esse adhuc potes servus. Capitolin. Ver. 8 $ 8 revels of Verus and his freedmen. 9 8 3 influence of his freedmen Geminas and Agaclytus. cf. SS 5 6. Mart. v 13 6 et libertinas arca flagellat opes. inscr. relating to Narcissus in Lehmann Claudius i 24 n. 236—237. AV. epit. 4 § 6 liberti eius potestatem summam adepti stupris exilio caede proscriptionibus omnia foedabant. $ 7 ex quibus Felicem legionibus Iudaeae praefecit, Posidae eunucho post triumphum Britannicum inter militarium fortissimos arma insignia tamquam participi victoriae dono dedit, Polybium inter consules medium incedere fecit. § 8 hos omnes anteibat Narcissus ab epistulis, dominum se gerens ipsius domini, Pallasque praetoris ornamentis sublimatus. Wallon 11 427–430. Forbiger Rom I 139 n. 21–23. 11 18 19 n. 20—25. Plin. pan. 88 § 1 plerique principes, cum essent civium. domini, libertorum erant servi. cf. ib. 45 pr. Lamprid. Alex. Sev. 23 § 3 servos suos semper cum servili veste habuit, libertos cum ingenuorum. § 4 eunuchos de ministerio suo abiecit et uxori ut servos servire iussit. § 5 et cum Heliogabulus mancipium eunuchorum fuisset, ad certum numerum eos redegit nec quicquam in Palatio curare fecit nisi balneas feminarum. Vell. II 73 § 1 Sex. Pompeius was libertorum suorum libertus servorumque servus, literally the papal title. Other parallels in Gebhard on Nep. XIV 5 & 4.

ADDENDA

5 BULLATUS Hesych. genuls.

8 EODEM IURE Sen. ep. 95 § 28" pariter sint, quae disponi solent, uno iure perfusa. nihil intersit: ostrea echini spondyli mulli perturbati concoctique ponantur.' non esset confusior vomentium cibus. 12 BARBATOS MAGISTROS Plut. II 352o. Lucian Icarom. 5. 29. Ath. 162a. Tatian 25. Chrys. II 223 Gaume. Schiller's Nero 565. Friedländer III 559.

17 G. C. Lewis on politics II 27.

20 ANTIPHATES Ov. Pont. II 9 41. 21 22 Cypr. ad Demetr. 8 fin.

24 INSCRIPTA ERGASTULA DS. XXXIV 2 $ 27. DL. IV 46' Bion describing his father, γένος Βορυσθενίτης, έχων ου πρόσωπον αλλά συγγραφήν επί του προσώπου, της του δεσπότου πικρίας σύμβολον. 35 LUTO DL. IX 22 Parmenides taught that men were made é inúos πρώτον.

180 181 ['MARSUS VESTINUS Enn. ann. 280 Marsa manus Peligna cohors Vestina virum vis.' H. A. J. M.]

XV

THE Egyptians, who would deem it sacrilege to taste an onion or a leek, have in our enlightened times been guilty of barbarity which equals that of the monsters of fable (1–32). A festival at Ombi was lately interrupted by the Tentyrites: one of whom, after his party had been put to flight, was overtaken, torn in pieces and devoured (33–92). Other nations are said to have fed on the flesh of man, but only when driven to it by famine: rage and hate move the Egyptians to crimes which others only commit in the madness of despair (93—131). Man is made for society and sympathy; yet man has been known to do what brute beasts will not do, to prey upon his own kind (131–174).

The poet seems to have been led to choose this subject partly by the hatred and contempt which Romans, after the battle of Actium, entertained for the Egyptians (cf. i 26. 130. IV 24. Aen. VIII 685—713. Hor. c. 1 37. epod. 9. Prop. IV=111 11 29–58. Ov. m. xv 826–8. Luc. VIII 541-550. x 58–80. anth. lat. 462 R), and partly by his own observation of their manners (45 quantum ipse notavi).

With the whole satire compare (Quintil.] decl. XII 'pasti cadaveris' (verses 20, 102, 122, with the notes).

On the Egyptian worship cf. xii 28 n. XIII 93 n. exodus 8 26. wisdom 11 15. 12 24 and 27. Rom. 1 23 Wetstein. Hdt. II with Bähr and Rawlinson. Manetho in Ideler's Hermapion I, in Bunsen and in Müller's fragm. hist. II. Cic. n. d. 1 SS 81 82. 101. DS. 1 11—26. 83–90. Strabo p. 803. Mela 1 9 8 7. Plut. Is. et Os. ed. Parthey esp. 71–75. Max. Tyr. VIII 85. Philostr, Apoll. vi 19. Lucian astrol. 17. deor. conc. 10. Iup. trag. 42. Clem. Alex. paed. III 2 & 4. Minuc. Fel. 28 with Le Nourry's appar. p. 514 Migne. Orig. hom. in exod. 4 6. Epiphan. ancorat. 105. Iamblichus de mysteriis Aegyptiacis recogn. Parthey Berl. 1857. Harless das Buch der ägypt. Mysterien München 1858. Döllinger Heidenthum und Judenthum Regensb. 1857 406–456. Gutschmid de rerum Aegypt. scriptt. Graecis ante Alex. in Philologus x 522—542. 636—700. 712—723. XI 140—150. 779—782.

For modern writers see Jolowicz Bibliotheca Aegyptiaca. Leipz. 1858 (suppl. 1861); the description de l'Egypte? Par. 1820—30 (26 vols. 8vo text, 12 vols. fol. plates), and the works of Champollion, Denon, de Rougé, Quatremère, Ritter Erdbeschreibung I, Rosellini, Heeren, Bunsen, Dümichen, Lepsius, Parthey, Brugsch, Birch, Kenrick, Sharpe. Reinisch in Pauly Real-Encykl. 12 241–326. Jablonski pantheum aegyptiacum Frankf. a. 0. 1750 seq. 3 vols. F. S. Zickler de Aegyptiis bestiarum cul

toribus Jena 1756. Klemm Culturgesch. 1 255—473. Prichard analy. sis of the Egyptian mythology? Lond. 1842. Gardiner Wilkinson, the Egyptians in the time of the Pharaohs 1857. manners and customs of the ancient Egyptians 1 ser.? 3 vols. 1842. 2 ser. 2 vols. and plates? 1841 (a new ed. by 8. Birch announced, as also a history of anc. Egypt by G. Rawlinson in 2 vols.). M. Uhlemann Handb. der aegypt. Alterthumskunde Leipz. 1857-8 4 vols. Varges de statu Aegypti provinciae rom. Gött. 1842. Zoega nummi aegypt. imperatorii Rome 1787 253 seq. See R. S. Poole in dict. Bible 'Egypt.' Tiele in theol. Tijdschrift Leiden 1878 xl 261–278 de dierendienst der Egyptenaars.

Marquardt iv 84—89. VM. 1 2 & 3 the senate commands the temples of Isis and Serapis to be demolished; no workmen daring to touch them L. Aemilius Paulus the consul (either 182 or 168 B.c.) lays the axe to the doors. Tert, apol. 6 the consuls Piso and Gabinius B.c. 58 overthrow the altars of Serapis and Isis and Arpocrates cum suo cynocephalo (Anubis). id. ad nat. i 10. Arn. 11 73. Serv. Aen. VIII 698 Varro dedignatur Alecandrinos deos Romae coli. DCass. XL 47 § 3 calls the decree of the senate B.C. 53 for the destruction of temple of Serapis and Isis a tépas. ib. XLII 26 § 2 B.C. 48 they were again destroyed in consequence of prodigies; ib. XLVII 15 § 4 B.C. 43 the triumvirs built the first temple of Isis for public worship, the first solemn state recognition of it. Cf. Luc. VIII 831—3,

DCass. LIV 6 6 B.C. 21 of Augustus rá te lepà Alyúrtla ¿TTEOLÓUTA αύθις ες το άστυ ανέστειλεν, άπειπών μηδένα μηδ' εν τώ προαστεία αυτά εντός oyobov nulotaðlou ToLEîv. Tac. ann. II 85 A.D. 19 actum et de sacris Aegyptiis Iudaicisque pellendis. Sen. ep. 108 g 22 cited on xiv 98. Suet. Tib. 36 externas caerimonias, Aegyptios Iudaicosque ritus compescuit, coactis qui superstitione ea tenebantur religiosas vestes cum instrumento omni comburere. Ios. ant. XVIII 3 & 4 a Roman matron debauched in the temple of Isis by a lover disguised as Anubis. Tiberius crucified the priests, cast the statue into the Tiber, and overthrew the temple.

Of the emperors Otho, Domitian, Commodus, Caracalla, Alexander Severus, are known as devotees of Isis.

Plin. XXXIII § 41 iam vero et Harpocraten statuasque Aegyptiorum numinum in digitis viri quoque portare incipiunt.

Luc. x 17. 175—191 represents curiosity as a main motive for visiting Egypt (177–8 vulgique edissere mores I et ritus formasque deum).

The satire was rejected by G. I. Voss inst. poet. III 97 and D. Heins de sat. rom. 1 62. C. Kempf obss. Berl. 1843. Heinrich, who speaks doubtfully 11 22, acknowledges (498) that in detail, in the vividness of the painting, in wit and expression, it has entirely the character of Iuv. Kempf justly censures the redundance of 24–5. 33—4. 40. 47—8. 55. 95. 101. 129–30. 134–5. 151–2; and the menagery in 159—164; but this redundance appears everywhere in Iuv.

1-32 the Egyptians regard it as a sin to eat an onion or a leek, but feed without abhorrence on human flesh; of all marvellous stories told by Ulixes to the Phaeacians none are so strange as those of Cyclopes and Laestrygones, but, deeds of horror not less atrocious have been witnessed in Egypt, not in a fabulous antiquity, but in our own civilised days.

1 VOLUSI BITHYNICE one Bithynicus in Mart. Vi 50 5.

2 AEGYPTUS PORTENTA COLAT Cypr. quod idola di non sint 4 Aegyptia portenta, non numina. Cic. Tusc. v § 78 Aegyptiorum morem quis ignorat? quorum inbutae mentes pravitatis erroribus quam. vis carnificinam prius subierint, quam ibim aut aspidem aut faelem aut canem aut crocodilum violent, quorum etiamsi impru.

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