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being the same as the end of the pentameter).
140 ERGO since the more you have the more you covet.

PARATUR III 224 domus.

In this sense partus is in use the participle.

141 RUS NON SUFFICIT UNUM Hor, c. 11 18 23—28. 8. 11 6 89. Teles in Stob. fl. xcvII 31 p. 216 4 the slave desires to be free: 'if I have that' says he 'I have all.' He is set free, straightway he desires to acquire a slave. The slave is gotten, straightway he is eager to acquire yet another; 'for' says he ‘one swallow does not make a spring:' then two, then a field also, then to become an Athenian, then to obtain office, then to reign, then like Alexander to become immortal; but if he should obtain this too, he will, I think, desire to become Zeus.

142 143 on the latifundia cf 159 n.

MAIORQUE VIDETUR ET MELIOR VICINA SEGES Ov. a. a. 1 349 350 fertilior seges est alienis semper in agris | vicinumque pecus grandius uber habet. Pers. vi 13 14. 145 seq. Sen. ep. 90 § 39 licet agros agris adiciat, vicinum vel pretio pellens aeris vel iniuria (151). 146 MACRI LASSOQUE FAMELICA COLLO starved and hard worked, such as will make a thorough clearance cf. cod. xi 60 2. There was a law of the Twelve Tables de pastu pecoris, under which such injuries as are here described were punished Ulp. dig. xix 5 14 g 3. id. ix tit. 1. Iust. inst. IV 9 pr. Plin. XVIII & 12 frugem quidem aratro quaesitam furtim noctu pavisse ac secuisse puberi XII tabulis capital erat, suspensumque Cereri necari iubebant gravius quam in homicidio convictum, inpubem praetoris arbitratu verberari noxiamque duplionemve decerni. 147 HUIUS domini.

MITTENTUR Plut. de superst. 10 p. 170. θηρίον έχων τους καρπούς εφήσει και λυμανείται την οπώραν. .

148 149 SAEVOS IN VENTRES ravenous Hor. s. II 8 5 iratum ventrem. 149 Holyday “Thou’dst think hooks made a spoil so main.'

151 Hesiod op. 346 mîqua kakòs yeltwv K.7.1. 152 SERMONES x 88. Hor. s. 11 1 94 das aliquid famae ?

153 1 48. XIII 92—105. Hor. 8. 1 1 65—7 sordidus ac dives, populi contemnere voces / sic solitus, 'populus me sibilat, at mihi plaudo | ipse domi, simul ac nummos contemplor in arca'. Sen. cited 111 140 n. Pompon. prostib, in Non 18 15 (fr. 153 R) ego rumorem parvi facio, dum sit rumen qui impleam.

INQUIT III 143 n. Cic. Verr. v § 148. Brut. § 287. Att. XIV 12 8 2. Tert. apol. 1 fin. 31. Burm. on Phaedr. III pr. 4.

TUNICAM 'pod', so often in Pliny tunicae porri, tunicis crassioribus faba, cet. Stat. s. Iy 9 30 bulborum tunicae. SO XLT6v.

MIHI MALO Petr. 50 ego malo mihi vitrea.

LUPINI Hor. ep. 1 7 23 nec tamen ignorat quid distent aera lupinis. Lucian cited v 7 n.

156 seq.

SCILICET no doubt! 11 122. ET MORBIS ET DEBILITATE CAREBIS Hor. ep. 1 2 47—9 Obbar non domus et fundus, non aeris acervus et auri, | aegroto domini deduxit corpore febres, non animo curas. id. 8. 1 1 80–91.

159 SI TANTUM CULTI SOLUS POSSEDERIS AGRI IX 54–60. XI 78 n. Sall. Catil. 12 g 3. Sen. de ira 1 21 g 2 of avarice provinciarum nominibus agros colit et sub singulis vilicis latiores habet fines quam quos consules sortiebantur. id. ben. vii 10 g 5. ep. 89 $ 20 quousque fines possessionum propagabitis ? ager uni domino, qui populum cepit, angustus est. quousque arationes vestras porrigetis ne provinciarum quidem sa

161 seq.

MOLOSSOS XII

108 n.

tione contenti circumscribere praediorum modum? sit fundus, quod aliquando imperium vocabatur. ib. 90 § 39 licet in provinciarum spatium rura dilatet et possessionem vocet per suam longam peregrinationem. Colum. 1 3 § 12. Luc. I 167–170. Tac. an. III 53—4. Petron. 48 Burm. Plin. XVIII § 35. XXXIII SS 134–5. Ammian. XIV 6 & 10. [Quintil.] decl. 13 & 11. Becker röm. Alterth. III (1) 322—3. Friedländer 13 204–5. The agricultural writers (Varro II pr. § 4. Colum. I pr. $ 20. cf. Liv. VI 12 $ 5) clearly shew the consequences to agriculture of these domains, grass for corn, slave labour for free. Wallon esclavage 11 377–9. Dureau de la Malle bk. III c. 21.

160 SUB TATIO Ov. medicam. fac. 11 antiquae Tatio sub rege Sabinae. id. a. a. III 118. POPULUS ROMANUS ARABAT VIII 265 n.

XI 77–89 n. VM. IV 4.

162 afterwards even veterans who had served against Carthage or Pyrrhus received at last for their many wounds scarce two iugera a head.

163 VIX IUGERA BINA DABANTUR this was the measure allotted to each colonist. Marquardt Staatsverw. 11 431 n. 4 cites Varr. r. r. 1 10 2 bina iugera, quae a Romulo primum divisa dicebantur viritim : quae quod heredem sequerentur, heredium appellarunt. Paulus Fest. p. 53 M centuriatus ager in ducena iugera definitus, quia Romulus centenis civibus ducena iugera tribuit. Plin. XVIII § 7 bina tunc iugera populo Romano satis erant, nullique maiorem modum adtribuit [Romulus]. quo servorum paulo ante principis Neronis contento huius spatii viridiariis ? piscinas iuvat maiores habere, gratumque, si non aliquem culinas. Siculus Flaccus gromat. p. 153 L antiqui agrum ex hoste captum victori populo per bina iugera partiti sunt. centenis hominibus ducentena iugera dederunt. Hygin. de limit. p. 110. Liv. VI 36 11. VIII 21 § 11. Add Liv. IV 47 § 7. Plut. Popl. 21 § 9. Pers. I 73–5. Namatian i 555–560 Burm. Colum. I pr. § 13 Cincinnatus returned from his dictatorship ad eosdem iuvencos et quattuor iugerum avitum here. diolum. Claud. IV_cons. Hon. 413—8. Sidon. ep. VIII 8. Madvig opusc. I 225 n. 2. Plut. apophth. M'. Curii 1 p. 1940 Wytt. Schwegler I 451 n. 2. 617_620. 750 n. 1 (Mommsen and Huschke assume that though the sums in the Servian census are given in money they represent land, 5000 asses to the iugerum; if so, the fifth class had bina iugera). 11 58 n. 3. 111 67. Moritz Voigt üb. d.-bina iugera der ältesten röm. Agrarverfassung Rhein. Mus. 1869 52—71. iugerum is a rectangle 240 ft. x 120 Plin. XVIII S 9.

164 MERCES HAEC SANGUINIS I 42.

165 on the rhythm cf. x1 68 n.

166 CURTA FIDES or a breach of faith on the part of their thankless country.

167 TURBAMQUE CASAE Ov. m. vi 199 200 non tamen ad numerum redigar spoliata duorum, Latonae turbam. Sen. contr. 9 § 7 non tibi per multos fulta liberos domus est, neque turba lateri circumerrat. SO Atreus says to Thyestes Sen. Th. 979 ora quae exoptas, dabo, | totumque turba iam sua implebo patrem. Luc. 1 86. Mart. x 61 5 6 sic lare perpetuo, sic turba sospite solus flebilis in terra sit lapis iste tua. XII 87 2 3 dum neglegentem ducit ad pedes vernam, ' qui solus inopi restat et facit turbam. Stat. s. IV 8 43–4 circumstat turba tuorum | defensatque patrem. id. Ach. II 236 of three. Paulin, C. 15=19 Felicis nat. iv 339 340 ut illi | turba domus, summa et census, anus una maneret. Phaedrus (1 199) uses turba of a littér of puppies. cf. Plin. cited v 143 n.

PULTIBUS

168 UNUS Plin. XXXIII 26 aliter apud antiquos singuli Marcipores Luciporesve dominorum gentiles omnem victum in promiscuo habebant.

196 VERNULA X 117. cf. v 105 of a fish. How great indulgence was allowed to these slaves born in the house appears from v 74 n. 1x 61. Sen. const. sap. 4 § 3. Stat. s. II 1. Hor. epod. 2 65. Marquardt v 1 173 n. 1026. To lexx, add Sen. cited on v 74 and xi 146. id. fr. § 55 Haáse. Pacat. 31 pr. Namat. i 112 avis. Symm. ep. Ix_78 flumen. Sidon. ep. 1x 16 of verses Mitylenaei oppidi vernulas. Ennod, carm. II 35 3. DOMINI dig. XXVIII 2 11 etiam vivo patre quodammodo domini existimantur. Plaut. capt. pr. 18. Tac. d. 29 coram infante domino.

171 AMPLIOR as for grown men, after a hard day's work. XI 58. 109 n. VM 11 5 § 5 of the ancients erant adeo continentiae adtenti, ut frequentior å pud eos pultis usus quam panis esset. Plin. XVIII Ş 83 pulte autem, non pane, vixisse longo tempore Romanos manifestum, quoniam inde et pulmentaria hodieque dicuntur. § 84 et hodie sacra prisca [Iuv. XVI 39] atque natalium pulte fritilla conficiuntur, videturque tam puls ignota Graeciae fuisse, quam Italiae polenta (of barley). cf. § 62 populum Romanum farre tantum e frumento ccc annis usum Verrius tradit. Afterwards it was chiefly used in sacrifices (farre pio). $ 9 dona amplissima imperatorum ac fortium civium quantum quis uno die plurimum circumaravisset, item quartari farris aut heminae, conferente populo. Hence as this porridge was a national dish of the Romans, pultiphagus barbarus (most. 828) and pultiphagonides (Poen. prol. 54) are used by Plautus as equivalent to Romanus. The puls was made of spelt (far) Plin. l. C. Varro l. 1. v 8 105 de victu antiquissima puls. With this frugal fare the emperor Julian was content Ammian. xxv 2 § 2. Plutarch 11 2010 says of Scipio at Numantia a pooétage åplotāv μεν εστώτας άπυρον όψον, δειπνείν δε κατακειμένους άρτον η πολτον απλώς kai kpéas ÓTTÒV ñ Dobv. Auson. technopaegn. (id. 12) 5–8 mox ador atque adoris de polliné pultificum far, I instruxit mensas quo quondam Romulidum plebs, | hinc cibus, hinc potus, cum dilueretur aqua puls. Titinn. gemina in Non. 81 13 (fr. 2 R) satis esse libram aiebant | ambobus farris. intritae mea plus comest sola uxor. Bibaculus (cited on 111 201) selibra farris, a grammarian's pittance.

GRANDES FUMABANT PULTIBUS OLLAE Non. p. 543 AULA, quam nos ollam dicimus, est capacissimum vas... Varro gerontodidascalo [fr. 10 B] sed simul manibus trahere lanam, nec non simul oculis observare ollam pultis, ne a duratur. Mart. XIII 8 (lemma far) imbue plebeias Clusinis pultibus olla s. On Martial's table (potes esurire mecum) was V 68 9 pultem niveam premens botellus. 172 NUNC MODUS HIC AGRI NOSTRO NON SUFFICIT HORTO 163 n. Plin. XXXVI § 111 cited on xi 89. VM iv 4 8 7 aeque magna latifundia L. Quinti Cincinnati fuerunt, septem enim iugera agri possedit, ex eisque tria...amisit ...et tamen ei quattuor iugera aranti non solum dignitas patris familiae constitit, sed etiam dictatura delata est. anguste se habitare nunc putat cuius domus tantum patet quantum Cincinnati rura patuerunt.

HORTO 1 75 n. C. F. Wuestemann üb. d. Kunstgärtnerei bei den Römern. Gotha 1846. Simonis üb. d. Gartenkunst der Römer. Blankenb. 1865. 4to. 173 INDE from avarice. Aen. III 56-7. Claud. laud. Stil. II 111 calls avarice scelerum matrem.

VENENA cf. 2204. 248-255. VIII 17 n.

174 MISCUIT AUT GRASSATUR cf. Kiaer 202—4 for the tenses.

GRASSATUR III 305 ñ. inter

dum et ferro subitus grassator agit rem. Quintil. xu 1 8 39 si ab homine occidendo grassator avertendus sit.

175 VITIUM vice mixes poison and plays the assassin 11 34 35 nonne igitur iure ac merito vitia ultima fictos | contemnunt Scauros et castigata remordent? 1 74 probitas laudatur et alget. So XIII 23—25 the thief is coordinated with a number of vices.

177 seq. Prop. IV=III 13 48–50 aurum omnes victa iam pietate colunt. | auro pulsa fides, auro venalia iura: | aurum lex sequitur, mox sine lege pudor. Thiele and Cerda on Aen. III 56—7.

180 MARSUS III 169 n. Strabo p. 241 •above Picenum are the Vestini, Marsi, Peligni of the Samnite race. They occupy the high ground, and scarcely anywhere come down to the sea. These nations are but small it is true, yet very brave, and have often proved to the Romans their valour. Sil. VIII 495—6.

HERNICUS in Latium but not of the Latin stock Strabo p. 228; rather Sabellian Schwegler i 181; their capital was Anagnia Liv. Ix 42 g 11. in their war against Rome B.c. 306 they did not justify their high reputation ib. 43 g 5 Hernicum bellum nequaquam pro praesenti terrore ac vetusta gentis gloria fuit. but see Sil. IV 226—7 quosque in praegelidis duratos Hernica rivis į mittebant saxa. 181 VESTINUS Sil. VIII 515—6 haud ullo levior bellis Vestina iuventus | agmina densavit venatu dura ferarum. Liv. VIII 29. the most northern tribe of Sabellian extraction, they occupied a tract lying between the Adriatic and Apennines, separated from Picenum by the Matrinus, and from the Marrucini by the Āternus.

PANEM Hor. $. II 2 17 18 cum sale panis | latrantem stomachum bene leniet. Sen. ep. 25 § 4 Ruhkopf panem et aquam natura desiderat. nemo ad haec pauper est.

ARATRO XI 89 n. 182–4 vi 10. XIII 57 n. Lucr. v 929 seq. Hor. 8. 1 3 100. Verg. g. 17 8 Liber et alma Ceres, vestro si munere tellus | Chaoniam pingui glandem mutavit arista. Ov.f. 1 671—6 frugum matres Tellusque Ceresque. esp. 675-6 consortes operis, per quas correcta vetustas , quernaque glans victa est utiliore cibo. met. v 646—661. Zenob. II 40 (paroem. Gott. 1 p. 42) άλις δρυός : επί των εκ φαυλοτέρας διαίτης ερχομένων επί βελτίoνα είρηται η παροιμία, επειδή το αρχαίον οι άνθρωποι βαλάνοις δρυός τρεφόμενοι, ύστερον ευρεθεισιτης Δήμητρος καρπούς έχρή

Liban. ep. 1082 n. 3. Auson. technopaegnion (idyll. 12) de cibis 3 4 olim communis pecori cibus atque homini glans , ante equidem campis quam spicea suppeteret frux. 182 Voigt (cited 163 n.) shews that far yields in Italy more than four times as much as wheat, and that the produce of one iugerum was abundantly sufficient to sustain 91, grown people. 185 FECISSE VOLET VI 456 liceat fecisse. XI 202 decet adsedisse. Pers. I 91 volet incurvasse. Cato cited 248 n.

186 XI 146 n. PERONE Pers. V 102 peronatus arator. Aen. VII 690 crudus tegit altera [vestigia) pero. rusticum calceamenti genus Serv. ad l. cf. Isid. xIx 34 13. v.l. in Apul. m. vii 18: Cato orig. vii (in Fest. p. 142 M) attributes the use of them to the old Romans. Sidon. ep. IV 20 pedes primi perone setoso talos adusque vinciebantur. id. c. 7 457—8 poplite nudo | peronem pauper nodus suspendit equinum. EUROS Sen. ad Helv. 10 § 2 corporis exigua desideria sunt: frigus submoveri vult. 187 INVERSIS hair inwards.

188 QUAECUMQUE EST whatever it may be, I know not. Aen. V 83 nec tecum Ausonium, quicum. que est, quaerere Thybrim,

σαντο. .

SUMMOVET

PURPURA

MEDIA

IV 31 n. XI 155 n. Sen. exc. contr. 11 7 p. 239 19 K muliebrium vitiorum fundamentum avaritia est ..... ex omni rupe conchylium contrahitur quo vestis cruentetur. Propert. IV=III 13 (esp. ver. 7 et Tyros ostrinos praebet Cadmea colores). Tibull

. II 4_27-32 o pereat, quicumque legit viridesque smaragdos et niveam Tyrio murice tingit ovem. ' hic dat avaritiae causas et Coa puellis | vestis et e rubro lucida concha mari. I haec fecere malas ; hinc clavim ianua sensit | et coepit custos liminis esse canis. 189 HAEC ILLI VETERES PRAECEPTA MINORIBUS dabant xi 5 n.

MINORIBUS I 148. II 146. VIII 234. 190 POST FINEM AUTUMNI Pope Marcellus II (in Muret. v. 1. XVIII 13) compares Plin. ep. III 5 § 8 lucubrare Vulcanalibus (23 Aug.) incipiebat, non auspicandi causa [that he might begin to work by candle-light on the feast of the god of fire], sed studendi, statim a nocte multa. Cic. parad. prooem. 8 5 accipies igitur hoc parvum opusculum, lucubratum his iam contractioribus noctibus: quoniam illud maiorum vigiliarum munus in tuo nomine apparuit. DE NOCTE Gesner 'de cum nominibus temporis significat id tempus nondum plane effluxisse': so Hand Tursell. II 204–5. Censorin, 24 § 2 tempus quod huic [mediae nocti] proximum est vocatur de media nocte. Caecil. in Non. 536 12 fr. 1 R. Pompon. Bonon, asina in Non, 514 3 (13 R) exsilui de nocte ad molam fullonis festinatim.

SUPINUM Hor. 8. 1 5 19 stertitque supinus.

191 CERAS 29 n. 192 193 RUBRAS MAIORUM LEGES the first words of the law were written with vermilion (minium): hence rubrica for “law' Pers. v 90. Prudent. c. Symm. II 462. Quint. xii 3 § 11 alii se ad album [=ius praetorium] ac rubricas [=ius civile] transtulerunt. Petron. 46 emi ergo nunc puero aliquot libra rubricata [sic, for libros rubricatos] quia volo illum ad domusionem aliquid de iure gustare. dig. XLII 1 2 8 3 sub rubrica= sub titulo : Sidon, ep. VII 12 primae titulorum rubricae, where rubrica is the title of an ordinary book. cf Ov. tr. 1 1 7 nec titulus minio nec cedro charta notetur. Terentian. 225. instar tituli fulgidula notabo milto. C. G. Schwarz de ornamentis librorum Lips. 1756 p. 34. Marquardt v (2) 402. 193 VITEM 1 58 n. III 132 n. VIII 247 n. Plin. XIV & 19 quid quod inserta castris summam rerum imperiumque continet centurionum in manu vitis et opimo praemio tardos ordines ad lentas perducit aquilas, atque etiam in delictis poenam ipsam honorat ? Mart. x 26 1 2 Vare, Paraetonias Latia modo vite per urbes | nobilis et centum dux memorande viris. [Quintil.] decl. III § 9 accipiet fortasse vitem, ordines ducet. Luc. VI 145 Corte. Plut. Galba 26 fin. Sil. XII 394–5 Heins Latiaeque superbum | vitis adornabat dextram decus. Becker-Marquardt III (2) 283. Eus. h. e. vii 15 2. dig. XLIX 16 13 & 4. Tac. an. 1 17 and 31 saevitiam centurionum. Hadrian, instead of granting military distinctions by favour, Spartian. 10 § 6 nulli vitem nisi robusto et bonae famae daret, nec tribunum nisi plena barba faceret. Such rigour however was rare. Suet. Tib. 12 quosdam beneficii sui centuriones. Veg. II 3 legionum ... robur infractum est, cum virtutis praemia occuparet ambitio et per gratiam promoverentur milites, qui promoveri consueverant per laborem. Ov. a. a. III 527 dux bonus huic centum commisit vite regendos. In the imperial time young men, who served in the hope of promotion, entered no longer as tribuni militum, but as centurions Suet. gr. 24 M. Valerius Probus, Berytius, diu centuriaIUV. II.

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