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NOTES.

VIII

VIRTUE is the only true nobility: if you are just in word and deed, by

these features I recognise you (agnosco 26) as a noble: otherwise your illustrious name may but be applied in mockery, as we call a dwarf an Atlas (1–38). Rubellius may boast of his ancestor Iulus: but if he sits still as a stock, while plebeians are actively serving their country in the law-court or the camp, he must look to be condemned like the lagging horse in the circus, whom no pedigree can save from the mill or the cart (39—70), Would you know how to live as befits your descent? Be a brave soldier, a just judge, an honest governor, as well in unwarlike Corinth as in rude Gaul or Spain. So will high birth be indeed an honour to you; whereas it only brings out in more glaring colours the crimes of the oppressor or debauchee (71– 145). So is it with Lateranus, who, though a consular, lives the life of a vulgar sot: a slave, who should do the same, would be sent to work in chains in the country (146—182). Other nobles, still more completely lost to shame, appear on the stage. Be it so, that they are well paid : what of that? No plea, but that of necessity, can palliate the offence, Nor indeed can that: better were it to die, than to act with Thymele or Corinthus (183—197). Beyond this there is but one lower stage of infamy,—the arena: and even there you may see a Gracchus, and see him too, as though determined to publish abroad his shame, choose those arms which least of all hide the wearer's features. No wonder that the very gladiators are ashamed of so degenerate an antagonist (198—210). None can be of nobler birth than Nero, yet he exceeded the crime of Orestes,

1

JUV, IT,

without the excuse of Orestes (211—230). The high-born Catiline would have laid the city waste with fire and sword, but for Cicero, a new man from a country town; justly then did this new man receive the title of Father of his country (231—244). Marius also and the Decii were plebeian; Servius Tullius was the son of a slave; and these Rome reckons among her chief benefactors (245—268). The sons of Brutus, the deliverer of Rome, would have betrayed their country, had it not been for a slave (261–268). After all, this long pedigree of which you boast, ends at last in some peasant or robber (269–275).

Hor.

Cf. Stob. fl. LXXXVI. Sen. ep. 44. VII. 111 4 and 5. Vell. 11 128.

s. 16. Sall. Iug. 85.

1 40. The imagines themselves, together with the painted lineae which connect them, constitute the stemma or pedigree Becker 11 1 220 seq. Marquardt v 1 247. Plin. xxxv § 6 aliter apud maiores in atriis haec erant, quae spectarentur ; non signa externorum artificum, nec aera aut marmora : expressi cera vultus [veteres cerae Iuv. 19 n.] singulis disponebantur armariis, ut essent imagines quae comitarentur gentilicia funera; semperque defuncto aliquo totus aderat familiae eius, qui umquam fuerat, populus. stemmata vero lineis discurrebant ad imagines pictas. Sen. de ben. 111 28 § 2 nemo altero nobilior, nisi cui rectius ingenium, et artibus bonis aptius. qui imagines in atrio exponunt et nomina familia e suae longo ordine ac multis stemmatum illigata flexuris in parte prima aedium collocant, non noti magis quam nobiles sunt? Mart. cited on 20. Suet. Galb. cited on 5. id. Ner. 37 obiectum est .... Cassio Longino iuris consulto ac luminibus orbato, quod in vetere gentili stemmate C. Cassi percussoris Caesaris imagines retinuisset. cf. Forcellini. FACIUNT... PRODEST Mart. III 75 3–4 sed nihil erucae faciunt. improba nec prosunt iam satureia tibi. 2 CENSERI LAUDE exx, in Freund to take rank by.' 'to be rated at' as in parvo aere censeri. Apul, apol. 57 fin. pro studio bibendi quo solo censetur. M. Sen. contr. 24 % p. 244 26 mendicitate censentur.

PICTOS Macrob. Sat. Il 3 clypeatam imaginem eius ingentibus lineamentis usque ad pectus ex more pictam., Polyb. vi 53 ~ od elkúv & OTL a póo w Tov [a mask] εις ομοιότητα διαφερόντως εξειργασμένος και κατά την πλάσιν και κατά την ÚToypaońv. he adds that at funerals the ancestors of the deceased were personated, and their imagines worn, by persons resembling them in stature and bearing. There were special slaves to attend to the imagines Bianchini camera ed iscrizioni sepulcrali de' liberti Rom. 1727 n. 32.

3 STANTES etc. triumphal statues vii 125 n. x 59. The enemies of the Jews set up such a statue of Caligula in the principal proseucha of Alexandria Phil. leg. ad Gaium 20. AEMILIANOS the son of L. Aemilius Paulus, when adopted by the son of Scipio Africanus the elder, received the name of P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus Africanus minor.

4 CURIOS XI 78 n. M'. Curius Dentatus, the opponent of Pyrrhus. Luc. yır 359—60 si Cu.

name.

rios his fata darent reducesque Camillos | temporibus. The family was now extinct Marquardt hist. equit. rom. 50. DIMIDIOS mutilated xv 5. Mart. x 2 10 dimidios Crispi mulio ridet equos.

UMEROS MINOREM Sil. III 42 frontemque minor truncam amnis Acarnan. the abl. is in Luc. II 717. 5 CORVINUM I 108 n. Luc. cited on 9. GALBAM Suet. Galb. 2 Neroni Galba successit, haud dubie nobilis. simus magnaque et vetere prosapia ; ut qui ... imperator .. ctiam stemma in atrio proposuerit, quo paternam originem ad Iovem referret. Tac. h. i 15. ib. 11 76 Galbae imagines. ib. 48. Plut. Galb. 3. comp. Arist. c. Cat. 1. The most eminent of this family were (Suet. 3) P. Sulpicius Galba Maximus (cos. B.C. 211 and again 200), who conducted the war with Philip of Macedon; and Ser. Sulpicius Galba the orator, consul B.C. 144. 6 seq. 135 seq.

7 several mss. omit this verse : it cannot have followed upon 6 i because Corvinus has been mentioned just before ; ii because the tablet need not be capax to contain a single

CONTINGERE XI 62. VIRGA variously explained i schol. multis fascibus, dignitate. ii Rup. the lineae or rami (Pers. III 28), which connect the imagines. iii Heinr. who however rejects the verse, a broom Ov. f. iv 736. iv K. F. Hermann (who retains 7, but strikes out 5–6, Rhein. Mus. 1848, p. 454 seq.) the wand with which the noble points to (cont.) the imagines. 8 FUMOSOS 1 120 n. Sen. ep. 44 g 4 non facit nobilem atrium plenum fumosis imaginibus. Cic. in Pis. & 1 obrepsisti ad honores .. commendatione fumosarum imaginum. Boeth. de cons. phil. i pros. 1 ante med. quarum speciem, sicut fumosas imagines solet, caligo quaedam neglectae vetustatis obduxerat. The imagines stood in the atrium

Serv. ad Aen. I 726 ibi [in atrio] et culina erat, unde et atrium dictum est: atrum enim erat ex fumo. Mart. II 90 5-S differat hoc patrios optat qui vincere census | atriaque immodicis artat imaginibus. I me focus et nigros non indignantia fumos | tecta iuvant. Isidor. orig. xv 3 4. Marquardt v 1 246. St. Luke 22 55.

9 CORAM Sen. ep. 97 g 1 numquam apertius quam coram Catone peccatum est. LEPIDIS VI 265—7 dicite vos neptes Lepidi caecive Metelli | Gurgitis aut Fabii, quae ludia sumpserit umquam | hos habitus ? A noble family of the Aemilia gens Cic. Phil. XIII § 8 magnis et multis pignoribus M. Lepidum respublica illigatum tenet. summa nobilitas est homi. nis. ib. & 7. Vell. 11 114 § 5. Tac. an. 111 22. Luc. VII 583—6 nobilitas venerandaque corpora ferro | urgentur. caedunt Lepidos caeduntque Metellos | Corvinosque simul Torquataque nomina, regum | saepe duces summosque hominum.

MALE VIVITUR VM. 11 9 8 1 quid prodest [Iuv. 1] foris esse strenuum, si domi male vivitur ?

EFFIGIES Quo i.e. quo pertinet habere efjigies etc. 142 n. XIV 135. xv 61. Cic. fam. VII 23 & 2 hlartis vero signum quo mihi pacis auctori ? Hor. ep. 1 5 12 Bentl. and Obbar (not. crit.). Or. her. Is 53 Heing, and Ruhnk. ib. iv 157 Heins. id. amor. 111 4 41. Quintil. v 10 g 70 quo schema, si intellegitur ? quo, si non intellegitur ? M. Sen. contr. 2 § 1 p. 68 2 quo mihi sacerdotem?

20 § 2 quo mihi lumen? Phaedr. III 18 9. app. Burm. 17 9. Mart. v 53 2 quo tibi vel Nioben, Basse, vel Andromachen?. ib. ix 66 2. XIV 27. 116. Sen. q. n. 1 16 Gron, unde is similarly used Iuv, xiv 56 n. 10 ALEA I 88 n.

11 ANTE 9. 144.

19 n.

.

NUMANTINOS Scipio Africanus the younger, who forced Numantia to surrender B. C. 133 App. VI 98 καλούσι γούν αυτόν οι Ρωμαίοι μέχρι νύν από των συμφορών, ας επέθηκε ταϊς πόλεσι, 'Αφρικανόν τε και Noμαντίνον. Prop. V=iv 11 29—30 si cui fama fuit per avita tropaea decori, | Afra Numantinos regna loquuntur avos. Apul. apol. 66 fin. hoc ego Aemiliano, non huic Afro, sed illi Africano et Numantino et praeterea censorio, vix credidissem. Ov. f. 1 596. Sulpic. 45. Plin. ep. viii 6 § 2 speaking of the senate's fulsome flattery of Pallas conferant se misccantque, non dico illi veteres, Africani, Achaici, Numantini, sed hi proximi, Marii, Sullae, Pompeii, ... infra Pallantis laudes iacebunt.

DORMIRE etc. Sen. ep. 122 & 9 seq. lucet: somni tempus est: quies est: nunc exerceamur, nunc gestemur, nunc prandeamus ... dies publicus relinquatur: proprium nobis ac peculiare mane fiat .. cum hos versus recitasset (Montanus Iulius] ‘incipit ardentes Phoebus producere flammas, . . .' Varus

exclamavit `incipit Buta dormire.' deinde cum subinde reci. tassctiam sua pastores stabulis armenta locarunt, | iam dare sopitis nox nigra silentia terris | incipit,' idem Varus inquit quid dicis ? iam no. est ? ibo et Butam salutabo is erat ex hac turba lucifugarum etc. Cic. fin. II § 23 Dav. [asotos], qui solem, ut aiunt, nec occidentem umquam viderint nec orientem. id. in Pis. § 67 ubi galli cantum audi. vit, avum suum revixisse putat: mensam tolli iubet. id. p. Sest. § 20. Hor. s. 1 3 17. Plin. XIV § 142 interea, ut optime cedat, solem orientem non vidént et minus diu vivunt. Sil. XI 42-3 ortu convivia solis deprensa. Mart. vii 10 5. Gal. ad Hippocr. progn. II XVIII 2 p. 129 αλλ' επί των Ιπποκράτους χρόνων ουκ άλλο μεν ην το κατά φύσιν, άλλο δε τα έθη, νυν δ' έμπαλιν οι πλούσιοι δρώσιν έν άλλοις τε τισι και κατά τους ύπνους, της μέν ημέρας κοιμώμενοι, νύκτωρ δε è yonyopótes. Lamprid. Elag. 28 traiecit et dierum actus noctibus et nocturnos diebus, aestímans hoc inter instrumenta luxuriae, ita ut sero de somno surgeret et salutari inciperet, mane autem dormire inceptaret. Tac. xvi 13. Sen. Thyest. 466. anthol. Meyer 1138 1 fit de nocte dies, tenebrae do luce serena. Suid. Truárlos. Plaut. Menaechm. 175. Hor. C. 111 21 23. Mart. 1 28. Claud. in Eutr. II 84.

12 Quo etc. at whose rising your ancestors at the head of their troops

broke up their camp. 13 ALLOBROGICIS Liv. epit. LXI Q. Fabius Maximus consul [B.C. 121] Pauli nepos adversus Allobrogas et Bituitum Arvernorum regem feliciter pugnavit ... Allobroges in deditionem accepti. Vell. ir 10 § 2 Fabio ... ex victoria cognomen Allobrogico inditum. cf. Plin. h. n. VII S 166. Strab. IV p. 185. Claudius in his speech on the ius honorum of the Gauls in Nipperdey Tac. II p. 225 tot ecce insignes iuvenes, quot intueor, non magis sunt paenitendi senatores, quam paenitet Persicum...inter imagines maiorum suorum Allobrogici nomen legere. The Allobroges occupied the tract between the Rhone and the Isère (Dauphiné and Savoy). Their chief city was Vienne. MAGNA ARA the ara maxima Herculis, built, as was believed, by Hercules himself, or in honour of Hercules by Evander : it stood between the Tiber and the circus maximus (Serv. Aen. VIII 271 ingens enim est ara Herculis, sicut videmus hodieque post ianuas circi maximi) and the cattle-market DH. 1 40. Ov. f. 1 581–2 constituitque sibi, quao maxima dicitur, aram | hic, ubi pars urbis de bové nomen habet. In the great fire in Nero's time Tac. xv 41 magna ara fanumque, quae praesenti Herculi Arcas Evander sacraverat, . . .ex

usta. cf. Liv. 1 7 SS 10-11. Prop. V=IV 967 seq. Plut. qu. Rom. 60. Macrob. Sat. III 6 SS 10—17. Sil. vir 48 when the Fabii marched out to Cremera maximaque Herculei mugivit numinis ara. Becker 1 469. 476. Schwegler 1 353 3. Metzger in Pauly 111 1176—7. Burn Rome and the Campagna 32. 40, 194. 14 HERCULEO Fabius, a degenerate descendant of Hercules, the model of rigid virtue x 361 n. Ovid (to Fabius) Pont. 11 3 98-9 conveniens animo genus est tibi: nobile namque | pectus et Herculeae simplicitatis habes. Kleomed. meteor. II 1 $ 92 oủk olo 0a, ti ń pilooopia “Ηρακλέα και άνδρας Ηρακλείους καλεί, αλλ' ουχί, μα Δία, κινείδους. On the descent of the Fabii from Hercules and Vinduna daughter of Evander cf. Plut. Fab. Max. 1. Ov. f. 11 237 seq. Sil. 11 3. esp. vI 627 seq. VII 34. 44. VIII 217. On the greatness of the Fabii Liv. II 42 § 8. 49. Drumann i 59. Haakh in Pauly 11 366. Such a Fabius (cos. 34 A. D.) is described by Seneca de ben. IV 30 & 2 quid nuper Fabium Persicum, cuius osculum etiam impediret viri vota boni, sacerdotem non in uno collegio fecit, nisi Verrucosi et Allobrogici? cf. ib. 11 21 SS 4–5. Iuv. 191 n.

15 EUGANEA Liv. 11 3 Euganeisque qui inter mare Alpesque incolebant pulsis, Henetos Troianosque eas tenuisse terras. Their name is derived by Pliny from củveveis (h. n. III § 134 praestantesque genere Euganeos, inde tracto nomine ; caput eorum Stocnos) and still remains in that of the Euganean hills, nine miles south-west of Padua, in the delegation of Verona. Their chief towns were Verona (Plin. 111 & 130), Patavium (Sidon. speaking of Livy's works paneg. Anthem. 189 vel quidquid in aevum | mittunt Euganeis Patavina volumina chartis. Luc. VII 193), and Altinum Mart. iv 25 1–4. id. xiv 155 velleribus primis Apulia, Parma secundis | nobilis : Altinum tertia laudat ovis. Colum. VII 2 § 3 nunc Gallicae [oves) pretiosiores habentur, earumque praecipue Altinates.

MOLLIOR AGNA Mart. v 37 1—2 puella . . agna Gaiaesi mollior Phalantini. ib. 41 2. Wetst. on 1 Cor. 6 9.

16 schol. Catina oppi. dum Siciliae usque ad probra dissolutum notatur, ut ct Bibaculus Osce senex Catinaeque puer, Cumana meretrix.' Catina was founded (about 728 B.c.) by Chalkidians from Naxos Thuc. vi 3. The volcanic pumice-stone abounded there, as it lay at the foot of Aetna to the south-east Sil. xiv 196 Catane nimium ardenti vicina Ty. phoeo. Serv. Aen. Ix 584 urbe Catinensi. There are considerable remains at Catania.

PUMICE 114-5 n. 11 12. 1x 14. 95. XI 157 n. Plin. XXXVI S 154 ii pumices, qui sunt in usu corporum levandorum feminis, iam quidem et viris,... laudatissimi sunt in Melo Nisyro et Aeoliis insulis. Mart. xiv 205 1 sit nobis aetate puer, non pumice levis. ib. v 41 6. Ov. a. a. 1 506 nec tua mordaci pumice crura teras. Cic. in Clod. 5 p. 105 Beier qui cffeminare vultum, attenuare vocem, levare corpus potes. Phaedr. IV 5 22 glabros. Sen. brev. vit. 12 g 5. Pers, IV 35 seq. Plin. ep. 11 11 g 23 Cort. Auson. epigr. 131. Pitch was also used as a depilatory Philostr. Apoll, iv 27 & 1 Ap. seeing the men at Sparta Selous ta okéln, persuaded the ephors to issue an edict τήν τε πίτταν των βαλανείων εξαιρούντας και Ta's mapatıdtplas eženaúvovtas. id. soph. i 25 g 12 describes the sophist Skopelianus ως εκδεδωκότα εαυτόν πίστη και παρατιλτρίαις. Jacobs addit, ad Athen. 109 seq. and on Ael. n. 2. XII 28. Meineke on Menand. p. 376. Marquardt v 1 152. 17 SQUALENTIS XVI 31 n.

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