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habere vellemus, cum secretis cogitationibus nostris caeleste numen adesse credidissemus. Xen. mem. 11 § 19 Sokrates differed from the vulgar in believing that God knows all things said and done kal tå ocyn βουλευόμενα. Clem. Al. str. vi 2 § 23 p. 749 illustrates the story of Glaukos from Aristoph. fr. 553 δύναται γάρ ίσον το δράν το νοεϊν. Ον. amor. 111 4 4 5 quae, quia non liceat, non facit, illa facit. | ut iam servaris bene corpus, adultera mens est, VM. vi 1 § 8 Metellus Celer was stuprosae mentis acer poenitor, accusing and procuring the conviction of Cn. Sergius Silus for promising money to a married lady: non enim factum tunc, sed animus in quaestionem deductus est, plusque voluisse peccare nocuit quam non peccasse profuit. Sen. de ira 1 3 8 1 verum est, irasci nos laesuris ; sed ipsa cogitatione nos laedunt et iniuriam qui facturus est iam facit. id. ben. v 14 2 exercetur et aperitur opere nequitia, non incipit. id. const. sap. 7 § 4 omnia scelera etiam ante effectum operis, quantum culpae satis est, perfecta sunt. | Ael. v. h. XIV 28 ου γαρ μόνον ο αδικήσας κακός, αλλά και ο εννοήσας αδικήσαι. Gell. xi 8 S 23 furtum sine ulla quoque adtrectatione fieri posse, sola mente atque animo, ut furtum fiat, adnitente. Cicero's freedman siro blamed Cato for denying this position ib. VI=VII 3 $$ 35–37. 42. 47. Apul. flor. IV 20 (p. 98 Oud. with the notes) etiam cogitata scelera non perfecta adhuc vindicantur, cruenta mente, pura manu. Serv. Aen. VI 624. Dorville on Char. v 7 p. 487 Lips. Wetstein on Matt. v 8. 28.' In law however dig. XLVIII 19 18 cogitationis poenam nemo patitur (yet see ib. 16 § 8. cod. Theod. ix 26 1 cum pari sorte leges scelus quam sceleris puniant voluntatem).

SCELUS COGITAT on the construction cf. Beier on Cic. off. 1 $ 24. The deliberate purpose a main part of the guilt also in Cic. off. i § 27 in omni iniustitia permultum interest utrum perturbatione aliqua animi, quae plerumque brevis est et ad tempus, an consulto et cogitata fiat iniuria. INTRA SE lexx. Aen. I 455 456 artificumque manus intra se operumque laborem | miratur.

210 FACTI CRIMEN HABET Prop. III =II 32 1 2 qui videt, is peccat : qui te non viderit ergo | non cupiet : facti lumina crimen habet. Ov, amor, II 5 6. a. a. I 586. II 272. 634. rem. 328 cet.

CEDO, SI VI 503–5 Andromachen a fronte videbis ; | post minor est: credas aliam. cedo si breve parvi | sortita est lateris spatium? Ter. Andr. 150 qui cedo? how so pray?' 383. “What if he have carried out his design?'

211 PERPETUA ANXIETAS Sen. ep. 105 S$ 7 8. Quintil. XII 1 § 7 nihil est enim tam occupatum, tam multiforme, tot ac tam variis adfectibus concisum atque laceratum quam mala mens. nam et cum insidiatur, spe, curis, labore distringitur, et, etiam cum sceleris compos fuerit, sollicitudine, paenitentia, poenarum omnium exspectatione torquetur. NEC II 152, IX 49.

212 MOLARES μύλαι. μυλίται οδόντες.

213 DIFFICILI CRESCENTE CIBO Ov. her. 16 226 crescit et invito lentus in ore cibus. Sen. ep. 82 g 21 non in ore crevit cibus, non haesit in faucibus, non elapsus est manibus : alacres et ad prandium illi promiserunt et ad cenam.

SETINA V 34 n. x 27 n. plur. as Tibull. III 6 6 Falerna.

214 ALBANI VETERIS PRETIOSA SENECTUS IV 81 n. Crispi iucunda senectus. Jani art. poet. 329 (where Phaedr. colli longitudinem. corvi stupor. maiestas ducis). 475. comm. on Phaedr. 1 13 12. Lambin on Hor. C. III 5 13. Heindorf on Hor. 8. 1 2 32. Barth advers. 52 3.

ALBANI V 33 n.
SENECTUS V 30 n. 31 n. 34,

- 215 OSTENDAS

89 n.

you may shew him choicer wine, he frowns at that too. constr. 1 100. Hor. ep. i 10 24 cited 239 n.

216 FALERNO this wine needed to be mellowed by age (15 years Cic. Brut. § 287. Plin. XXIII § 34) Hor. 8. II 3 115 Heindorf veterisque Falerni. It was mixt with honey (ib. 2 15. 4 24 Aufidius forti miscebat mella Falerno) or Chian wine (ib. 1 10 24 Heindorf), being severum (Hor. c. 1 27 9), ardens (ib. 11 11 19).

217 cf. Theokr. XXI 4 5 καν ολίγον νυκτός τις επιμύσσησι τον ύπνον, αιφνίδιον θορυβεύσιν εφισ. táueval ueledwval. Sall. Catil. 15 g 4. Cic. p. Rosc. Am. § 66. in Pis. § 46. Sen. ep. 97 SS 12–16. 105 SS 7 8. 218 VERSATA TORO MEMBRA 111 279 280. Catull. 50 12. Prop. 1 14 21. ! Sen. de tranq. 2 8 6 qui non aliter, quam quibus difficilis somnus est, versant se et hoc atque illo modo conponunt, donec quietem lassitudine inve. niant. Suet. Calig. 50. DCass. LXI 14 § 4. 219 TEMPLUM ET VIOLATI NUMINIS ARAS same position of gen. Ix 68. XIV 16. 20. 109 (Kiaer).

VIOLATI NUMINIS ARAS

220 SUDORIBUS 1 167 n. Gell. ix 15 8 9 a wealthy student, practising for the bar, asked the rhetor Iulianus to hear him declaim. Gellius, who was with Iulianus at Naples for the summer holidays, was of the party. The controversy' set for the extemporary display was of the kind called åtropov "inexplicabile'; yet he started off with wonderful rapidity, pouring forth sensuum verborumque volumina, amidst the applause of his 'cohort', Iuliano autem male ac misere rubente et sudante.

221 TE VIDET IN SOMNIS VIII 213 n. Ios. b. I. VII 11 § 4 of Catullus a persecutor δείμασι γάρ εξεταράττετο και συνεχώς ανεβόα βλέπειν είδωλα των υπ' αυτού πεφονευμένων εφεστηκότα και κατέχειν εαυτόν ου δυνάμενος εξήλλετο της εύνης ως βασάνων αυτώ και πυρός προσφερομένων. Cic. parad. II § 18. Ov. Ibis 141–160. her. 2 136. 7 72. Hor, epod. 5 92—96. Suet. Cal. 59 the body of Gaius was secretly conveyed into the gardens of Lamia, there half-burnt and slightly covered with soil; his sisters afterwards gave it a decent funeral: satis constat, prius quam id fieret, hortorum custodes umbris inquietatos; the house in which Gaius was slain, was haunted nightly until it was burnt down. id. Nero 34 (sat. VIII 213 n. DCass. LXI 14 & 4. LXIII 28 & 1) Nero endeavoured to lay his mother's ghost facto per magos sacro evocare manes et exorare temptavit. id. Otho 7 dicitur ea nocte per quietem pavefactus gemitus maximos edidisse, repertusque a concursantibus humi ante lectum iacens per omnia piaculorum genera manes Galbae, a quo deturbari expellique se viderat, propitiare temptasse. The haunted house in Plin. ep. vii 27. los. ant. xv 7 7 and xvi 7 § 2 remorse of Herod. DCass. LXVII 16 g 1 Domitian in a dream saw Rusticus coming upon him with sword drawn, while his patron Minerva had thrown away her armour and plunged into a gulf on a chariot drawn by black horses. Procop. b. G. 11 fin. shortly after the execution of Symmachus, the head of a large fish served up to Theoderic took in his guilty imagination the features of Symmachus, with teeth set, eyes wildly glaring. Quaking with a sudden chill, he ran to his bedroom, ordered many cloaks to be piled on the bed and summoned his physician. B. Büchsenschütz Traum u. Traumdeutung im Alterthume Berl. 1867. Aen. 11 773 nota maior imago. Suet. Claud, 2 species barbarae mulieris humana amplior. Tac. xi 21 Lipsius. 223 QUI TREPIDANT ET AD OMNIA FULGURA PALLENT order of words as III 187 188. vI 79. Pers. II 35. III 66. v 110 (Kiaer).

MAIOR IMAGO HUMANA

AD OMNIA FULGURA PALLENT X 230. Cicero does not use ad thus, to denote the occasion of fear etc. Hand Turs. i 101. Suet. Cal. 51 qui deos tanto opere contemneret, ad minima tonitrua et fulgura conivere, caput obvolvere, at vero ad maiora proripere se e strato, sub lectumque condere solebat. DCass. Lix 28 & 4 lightning destroyed the vessel which was to have conveyed the image of Olympian Zeus to be turned into a likeness of Caligula; but when the workmen approached the pedestal, they were affrighted by a loud laugh. 8 6 Caligula's mock thunder and lightning. Sen. n. q. 11 59 § 11 pavescis ad caeli fragorem et ad inane nubilum trepidas. id. de ira 11 2 8 1. III 35 § 3. Luc. v 766 Corte. vi 11. Quintil

, decl. 9 g 16 p. 204 sunt qui ad omnium sanguinem pallescant. ib. tremit ad. ib. 258 p. 474 ad omnes terreor strepitus. Tert. ad Scap. 2 nos unum Deum colimus, quem omnes naturaliter nostis, ad cuius fulgura et tonitrua contremiscitis. Wagner (or Forbiger) on Verg. ecl. 8 3. FULGURA Cic. divin. II SS 149 seq. Sen. n. q. vi 2 S$ 4–6. Plut. II 555“. Suet. Aug. 90 tonitrua et fulgura paulo infirmius expavescebat, ut semper et ubique pellem vituli marini circumferret pro remedio, atque ad omnem maioris tempestatis suspicionem in abditum et concamaratum locum se reciperet, consternatus olim per nocturnum iter transcursu fulguris.

224 QUOQUE even at the first rumbling in the air.

225 FORTUITUS possibly trisyllabic, cf. Manil. i 182. Stat. Th. VII 449. Petron. 135 9. L. Müller de re metr. 258 and Mühlmann make the i here short, as in gratuitum in hendecasyllables Stat. 8. 1 6 16. pituita (Hor. ep. 1 1 108. S. 11 2 76. Pers. II 57) un. doubtedly suffers synizesis. Cf. Voss. de arte gramm. II 37.

On the question whether thunder be accidental (fortuitum) (divinum Cic. fam. vii 5 $ 2), cf. Lucr. II 1100—4. Vi 83—422. Hor, 8. 1 5 101–3. Plin. II SS 112 113 e.g. posse et conflictu nubium elidi, ut duorum lapidum, scintillantibus fulgetris. sed haec omnia esse fortuita. hinc bruta multa fulmina et vana, ut quae nulla veniant ratione naturae; his percuti montes, his maria, omnesque alios irritos iactus. illa vero fatidica ex alto statisque de causis et ex suis venire sideribus. Sen. n. q. vi 3 § 1 proderit praesumere animo nihil horum deos facere, nec ira numinum aut caelum concuti aut terram. suas ista causas habent nec ex imperio saeviunt. Tert, apol. 29.

VENTORUM RABIE cf. the albépios Aîvos of Aristoph. nub. 380—408. Aristot. meteorol. 11 9 & 6. Sen. n. q. 11 SS 4–9. 124-15. Minuc. Fel. 5 § 9 nimbis collidentibus tonitrua mugire, rutilare fulgora, fulmina praemicare; adeo passim cadunt, montes inruunt, arboribus incurrunt, sine delectu tangunt loca sacra et profana, homines noxios feriunt, saepe et religiosos. ib. § 10.

226 IRATUS IGNIS 93. Pind. Nem. v 90 šakotov byxos. Aristoph. nub. 397 of the thunderbolt TOÛTOV gap on pavepws • Zevs ino' é tous é T Lópkous, where follows the argument, 'why then does he spare Simon, Kleonymos, Theoros ? why strike his own temple and oaks?' On udgeme see Hom. Od.

Cic. harusp. resp. 88 62 63 the gods speak to men in earthquakes. Prop. III =11 16 47–56 esp. 52 nec sic de nihilo fulminis ira cadit. Strabo 19 fin. we tell children pleasant tales to encourage them, tales of terror to deter them: * TE γάρ Λάμια μυθός έστι και η Γοργώ και ο Εφιάλτης και η Μορμολύκη...so legislators encourage men to exertion by the tales of Herakles and Theseus, and deter them, όταν κολάσεις παρά θεών και φόβους και απειλές ή διά λόγων ή διά τύπων αοράτων τινών προσδέχωνται, ή και πιστεύωσι περιπεσείν τινας... κέραυνος γάρ και αιγίς και τρίαινα και λαμπάδες και δράκοντες και θυρσό

72 n.

loyxa Tŵr Dev la vớool. Suet. Tib. 69 tonitrua praeter modum expavescebat et turbatiore caelo numquam non coronam lauream capite gestavit, quod fulmine afflari negetur id genus frondis. Tac. 1 28–30 an eclipse. XIII 17 on the same night Britannicus was murdered and buried adeo turbidis imbribus, ut vulgus iram deum portendi crediderit. Plut. II 5555. Serv. Aen. IV 209. Lear III 2 49–58. Hor. c. 1 3 40 iracunda...fulmina.

228 SERENO VII 179.'. Luc. 1x 423 of Libya nostris reficit sua rura serenis. Sen. n.q.13 14. Plin. XI § 14. XVIII § 362. Stat. Th. XI 135. VFl. II 403. Obseq. 1=55. Ambr. de Cain 1 & 21. Claud. IV cons. Hon. 425. bell. Get. 49. Forcellini. cf. sudum. nubilum, esp. abl. to which sereno is often opposed.

229 VIGILI FEBRE V1 42 sollicitas...portas. Ov. m. III 396 curae vigiles. 230 231 MISSUM AD SUA CORPORA MORBUM INFESTO CREDUNT A NUMINE Cels. prooem. p. 1 20 Daremberg we may learn from Homer morbos tum ad iram deorum immortalium relatos esse et ab isdem opem posci solitam.

232 TELA Sen. ben. IV 19 § 1 deos nemo sanus timet. furor est enim metuere salutaria : nec quis. quam amat, quos timet. tu denique, Epicure, deum inermem facis: omnia illi tela, omnem detraxisti potentiam. Tac. XIV 22 fin. Nero swam in the aqua Marcia, and was thought potus sacros et caerimoniam loci corpore loto polluisse. secutaque anceps valetudo iram deum adfirmavit. Suet. Nero 48 in his last flight tremore terrae et fulgure adverso pavefactus. DCass. LVII 14 § 7 A.D. 15 some regarded an inundation of the Tiber, as a portent, but § 8 Tiberius appointed commissioners to regulate the flow of water. cf. comm. on Hor. C. II 8 1. Casaubon lect. Theocr. c. 10. PECUDEM Pers. v 167 agnam.

233 LARIBUS XII 113.

PROMITTERE XII 2. 101. Tibull. III 5 33 nigras pecudes promittite Diti.

GALLI XII 96. Plin. x $ 49 speaking of the auspices from chickens hi maxime terrarum imperio imperant, extis etiam fibrisque haud aliter quam opimae victimae dis grati. cf. § 156. Cocks were sacrificed to Apollo (anthol. Pal. Vi 155 3) and to Asklepios (Artemid. v 9 nožató tis tą ’Aokinnių, el dià Toll έτους άνοσος έλθοι, θύσειν αυτώ άλεκτρυόνα. cf. the last words of Sokrates Plato Phaed. 118* where see Wyttenb., Fischer, Gottl. w Kpitwr, TQ 'Ασκληπιό οφείλομεν άλεκτρυόνα: αλλ' απόδοτε και μη αμελήσητε. Τert. ad nat. Ii 2. de an. 1). Arn. Vii 8 e.g. quae causa est, ut si ego porcun occidero, deus mutet adfectum animosque et rabiem ponat, si gallinulam, vitulum sub illius oculis atque altaribus concremaro, oblivionem inducat iniuriae? ib. 16. Costly birds were sacrificed to Caligula DCass. LIX 28 $ 6.

235 contrast viII 255—8 the Decii acceptable as an atoning sacrifice for whole armies, being of greater value than what they died to save. DL. VI 28 Diogenes was moved to wrath by those who offered sacrifices to recover health, and in the very sacrifice feasted against health.

2364249 The wicked are unstable; bold in the flush of sin, alive to its guilt when it is done; still remorse does not mend inbred habits nor restore a blush to the brazen forehead. No man stops at the first crime: our treacherous friend will be shared and suffer execution or live a convict on some Egean rock swarming with great exiles. You will triumph in your revenge, and confess at last that heaven is neither deaf nor blind. 236 MOBILIS NATURA MALORUM Sen. de otio 1=28 8 2 inter cetera mala illud pessimum est, quod vitia ipsa mutamus...aliud ex alio placet vexat.

que nos hoc quoque quod iudicia nostra non tantum prava, sed etiam levia sunt. Auctuamus aliudque ex alio conprehendimus. petita relinquimus, relicta repetimus. § 3 alternae inter cupiditatem nostram et paenitentiam vices sunt. id. ep. 47 g 21 hoc habent inter cetera boni mores, placent sibi, permanent: levis est malitia, saepemutatur, non in melius, sed in uliud. 237 seq. Quintil, decl. 3 14 esp. pp. 623 624 tu fortasse, cum miserum patrem trucidares, tollentem ad sidera manus risisti. inane hoc supra nos vacuumque cura caelestium putabas : sunt illa vera, quae extremo miseri spiritu dicebantur : dabis mihi, scelerate, poenas: persequar quandoque et occurram'... nec tamen illa mihi vana quorumdam esse videtur persuasio, qui credunt non extrinsecus has furias venire, nec ullius deorum impulsu hanc mortalibus incidisse dementiam, sed nasci intus : conscientiam esse, quae torqueat...repetita toties confessio est. ecquid concipitis animis imaginem illam, quae hoc coegit? stabat profecto ante oculos laceratus et adhuc cruentus pater. Plut. II 554' seq. 5 yep itajórns ékelun kai θρασύ της κακίας άχρι των αδικημάτων ισχυρόν εστι και πρόχειρον, είτα του πάθους ώσπερ πνεύματος υπολείποντος, ασθενές και ταπεινόν υποπίπτει τους poßous kai tais decoidaluovlais. Cic. legg. I $ 40. p. Rosc. Am. SS 65—67. 237 ADMITTUNT X 340 n.

SUPEREST 109. CONSTANTIA 77.

238 1 166 n. III 50. 239 AD MORES NATURA RECURRIT X 303 n. Hor, s. II 7 74. ep. i 10 24 25 Obbar naturam expellas furca, tamen usque recurret et mala perrumpet furtim fastidia victrix. Sen. brev. vit. 6 § 3 sed his querellis nec alios mutaverunt nec se ipsos. nam cum verba eruperunt, adfectus ad consuetudinem relabuntur. id. ep. 25 § 3. 2 Pet. 2 22 Grotius. Wetstein.

242 ATTRITA DE FRONTE Cic. Tusc. III § 41 cum os perfricuisti. Calvus to Vatinius in Quintil. ix 2 § 25 perfrica frontem et dic te digniorem, qui praetor fieres, quam Catonem. Mart. xI 27 7 at cum perfricuit frontem posuitque pudorem. Lucian vit, auct. 10 pue dT680 Toũ pocoToc TapTeÀôs. Victorius (v. 1. VIII 6) compares Ath. 213c (where Athenio, who of a poor philosopher became tyrant of Athens, having described the successes of Mithradates, Ipiyas to uÉT W TOV, persuaded the Athenians to revolt from Rome) and Strabo 603 speaking of audacious critics of Homer: éxoay yap kai τούτο πλάσαι παρατριψα μένους το μέτωπον και μη χωλόν εάν και έτοιμος προς έλεγχον άπαξ ήδη αποτετολμηκότας.

FRONTE II 8. VIII 189. Pers. v 103 104 if a ploughman, ignorant of astronomy, were to seek cornmand of a vessel, exclamet Melicerta perässe | frontem de rebus. Hier. ep. 18 = 22 (IV 2 p. 41) quae rubore frontis abstrito parasitos vincunt mimorum.

RUBOREM XI 54 55. 244 DABIT VESTIGIA Cf. dare colla sub iuga. 245 CARCERIS UNCUM X 66 n. Ov. Ibis 164. Burn Rome and Camp. 80.

245—247 CARCERIS UNCUM AUT MARIS AEGAEI RUPEM SCOPULOSQUE FREQUENTES EXULIBUS MAGNIS I 73 n. aude aliquid brevibus Gyaris et carcere dignum. x 16 n. 170 n. Plin. ep. III 9 § 33 Norbanus Licinianus in insulam relegatus est. Philo in Flacc. 21 (1 543 M). legat. 43 (1 595) Gaius (Caligula) sent orders to Andros and elsewhere for the execution of the exiles. Tert. spect. 23 pr. cum igitur humana recordatio etiam obstrepente gratia voluptatis damnandos eos censeat ademptis bonis dignitatum in quendam scopulum famositatis. Holtzendorff die Deportationsstrafe im röm. Alterthum Leipz. 1859.

248 NOMINIS Bentley on Hor. c. III 27 34.

249 NEC SURDUM NEC TIRESIAM v 138

Fr. v.

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