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aliqua Sueborum seu, quod saepe accidit, imitatione, rarum et intra iuventae spatium, apud Suebos usque ad canitiem horrentem capillum retorquere suetum, ac saepe in ipso vertice religatur. Tert. virg. vel. 10 among the insignia of various nations cirros Germanorum. Isid. or. xix 23 $ 7.

166 Markland •versus vehementer suspectus.' Tac. cited 164 n. x 110 n.

167 AD "to meet.” Hand Turs. I 84 seq.

THRACUM VOLUCRES NUBEMQUE SONORAM hendiadys x 177. XII 85. XIV 9 10. Lupus 23. THRACUM VOLUCRES Ov. &. a. III 182 Threiciamve gruem. Verg. g. i 120 Strymoniaeque grues. Ov. f. v. 176. Mart. ix 29 8. Phile 239 (x: 5). Opp. aucup. Il 17. Nonn. XIV 232—7. Claud. bell. Gild. 474–8.

168 PYGMAEUS VI 506. Hom. Il. III 3-6 ούτε περ κλαγγή γεράνων πέλει ουρανόθι πρό, αίτ' επεί ούν χειμώνα φύγον και αθέσφατον όμβρον, | κλαγγή ται γε πέτονται επ' Ωκεανοίο ροάων, ανδράσι Ilvypaloiot øóvov kal knpa pépovo au. Ov. m. vI 90—2. Opp. pisc. i 620—5. Even Aristotle accepted these legends as facts (hist. an. viii 12 g 3. probl. x 12 & 2). Strabo treats them as fables 35. 37. 42. 70 we must specially distrust Deimachos and Megasthenes...who have furbished up again και την Ομηρικήν των Πυγμαίων γερανομαχίαν, τρισπαθάμους ELTÁVTES. 299. 711. 821 Pygmies may have been inferred from the smallness of the Ethiopic sheep, goats, oxen, dogs: ėwpakùs uèv ydp oudeis éényeitai twv mlotews áğlwv åvòpw. Plin. IV § 44 Gerania, ubi Pygmaeorum gens fuisse proditur. Catizos barbari vocabant, creduntque a gruibus fugatos. v § 108. VI SS 70. 188. VII S 26 their huts made of mud, feathers and eggshells. x g 58. Philostr, imagg. II 22 Herakles assailed by the Pygmies. id. heroic. 11 § 4 Pygmies and cranes. id. Ap. HII 45 SS 2. 47. vi 1 $S 2. 25. Solin. 10 11. Mela III 81=8. cf. Tzschucke ib. III 8 8 8. 0. Jahn archäol. Beiträge 418-434. Benseler Eigennamen.

172 QUAMQUAM SPECTENTUR XI 205 n. though spectators sit out the same combats, which to us would be so laughable, yet nemo ridet, because spectators and performers are all of one standard.

PEDE UNO Aug. civ. D. XVI 8 & 1 statura esse cubitales, quos Pygmaeos a cubito Graeci vocant. Eust

. Il. Γ6 p. 372 Πυγμαίοι ουδε πηχυαίοι το μέγεθός εισι, παρωνομασμένοι γάρ εισι πυγόνι [rather from πυγμή πυγούσιον δέ έστι διάστημα το από αγκώνος έως του μικρού δακτύλου ή και των δακτύλων συνεσταλμένων. id. p. 1668 19. Apollon. lex. Homer. Plin. VII § 26 ternas spithamas longitudine, hoc est ternos dodrantes, non excedentes. cf. Gell. ix 4 $ 10, who had just been reading Plin. l. c.

174–192 You ask: 'shall the perjured head escape scot-free?' Even if he were given into our hands for execution, the loss remains, you will not secure your deposit; what comfort you can gather from a few drops of blood is cold and odious. But revenge is sweeter than life.' To the ignorant perhaps, who take fire on slight provocation or none; Chrysippus, Thales, Socrates, teach other lessons. Revenge is the delight of a weak and petty spirit: none affect it more than womankind.

174 175 NULLA PERIURI CAPITIS POENA ERIT the dat. would be more regular as in 1 114 nullas nummorum ereximus aras. 174 seq. for the abrupt question cf. x 346 n. Sen. de ira III 26 $$ 1 2 'non possum'inquis'pati: grave est iniuriam sustinere...'' quid ergo?...impune illi erit?' puta te velle, tamen non erit. maxima est enim factae iniuriae poena fecisse (infra 192 seq.), nec quisquam gravius adficitur quam qui ad supplicium paenitentiae traditur. 'Shall perjury'

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asks Calvinus 'go unpunished ? “Suppose the criminal ” is the reply "given over to execution at our will : his death will not repair your prasent loss, nor secure you against a like wrong for the future ; but you will encounter, if you shed but a few drops of blood, the detestation of mankind.” Yet' it may be retorted revenge is sweet.' 180 Achilles Il. XVIII 108–110 calls xólos sweeter than honey. Publil. Syr. 230 Sp inimicum ulcisci, vitam accipere est alteram. Sen. de ira 11 32 g 1.

181 NEMPE true: the ignorant maintain this. on the ellipsis of the verb cf. xi 5 n.

182 LEVIBUS CAUSIS Sen. de ira 11 25 § 1 parum agilis est puer aut tepidior aqua poturo aut turbatus torus aut mensa neglegentius posita. $ 3 quid est enim cur tussis alicuius aut sternutamentum aut musca parum curiose fugata in rabiem agat aut obversatus canis aut clavis neglegentis servi manibus elapsa? § 4 feret iste aequo animo civile convicium,... cuius aures tracti subsellii stridor offendit? perpetietur hic famem et aestivae expeditionis sitim, qui puero male diluenti nivem irascitur ?

183 ADEO =immo Hand Turs. i 153. 184 xv 106 107 melius nos | Zenonis praecepta monent. Zeller III” (1) 316. Langius polyanthea s. vv. ira. ultio. CHRYSIPPUS 11 5. Born B.C. 283; he attended the lectures of Zenon (ob. B.C. 260) and Kleanthes, whom he suceeded as head of the Stoic school DL. VII 183 ei un ràp ñv XpúOLTTOS, oủk av hv otoá. See Sen. de clem. and de ira. Stob. flor. xx.

MITE THALETIS INGENIUM IV 39 n. 81 n. x 75 n. Ammian. XXX 8 & 6 ut Isocratis memorat pul. chritudo. Thales of Miletos, one of the seven wise men. One of the sayings ascribed to him witnesses to the sweetness of revenge DL. I § 36 πώς άν τις ατυχίαν ράστα φέροι; εί τους εχθρούς χείρον πράσσοντας βλέπου. The next maxim however is Christian : how shall we live the best and most righteous lives?' By not doing ourselves what we blame in others.' 8 37 a lesson appropriate to our text μή πλούτει κακώς μηδε διαβαλλέτω σε λόγος προς τους πίστεως κεκοινωνηκότας. His name was proverbial Benseler Eigennamen. Aristoph. nub. 180 tl dîtékeivov Tov Oalîv Davud. Souev; id. av. 1009 XvOpwtos Oalîs. Plaut. Bacch. 122 quem ego sapere nimio plus censui quam Thalem. capt. 271. rud. 1003.

185 DULCI HYMETTO because of its honey Hor. O. 11 6 14 15 ubi non Hymetto | mella decedunt. id. s. II 2 15. In the days of Synesios (ep. 136) 'Athens was more famous for its honey than its philosophy. Meurs. reliq. Att. 10.

SENEX Socrates, who was 70 years of age at the time of his trial B.C. 399 Plat. Kriton 52o. apol. 17d Fischer. On his placability cf. Sen. de ira i 15 § 3 Socrates servo ait caederem te, nisi irascerer.' admonitionem servi in tempus sanius distulit, illo tempore se admonuit. ib. III 11 § 2 Socratem aiunt colapho percussum nihil amplius dixisse quam molestum esse, quod nescirent homines, quando cum galea prodire deberent.' id. const. sap. 18 § 5. ep. 104 § 27 28. Cic. Tusc. I 99. III S 31. Plat. apol. 41d šywye τους καταψηφισταμένους μου και τους κατηγόροις ου πάνυ χαλεπαίνω. Wyttenb. on Plut. 11 10c.

186 ACCEPTAE the technical term for 'taking’ medicine, poison etc. cf. 187 dare. Suet. Nero 33 in quo cibi genere venenum is acceperat. Burman on Quintil. II 312.

CICUTAE VII 206 n. Plato Lys. 219e. Ael. v. h. i 16. IX 21. DL. II 42. cf. St Mark 16 18. Imbert-Gourbeyre de la mort de Socrate par la ciguë, ou recherches botaniques, pbi. lologiques, historiques, physiologiques et thérapeutiques sur cette plante. Paris Baillière 1875.

187 ACCUSATORI Meletos, who in

Plato (196 etc.) appears more prominently than Anytos or Lykon.
DARE I 158 n. Mühlmann col. 486 fin.

187–189 Hor. ep. 1 1 41 42 virtus est vitium fugere et sapientia prima stul. titia caruisse. Sen. ep. 28 § 9 from Epicurus initium est salutis notitia peccati. Obbar on Hor. ep. 1 1 41 42.

190 seq. Sen. de ira i 13 SS 4 5. 20 § 3 iracundia nihil amplum decorumque molitur. contra mihi videtur veternosi et infelicis animi, imbecillitatis sibi conscii, saepe indolescere, ut exulcerata ct aegra corpora quae ad tactus levissimos gemunt, ita ira muliebre maxime et puerile vitium est. at incidit et in viros. nam viris quoque puerilia ac muliebria ingenia sunt. ib. III 5 $S7 8 ille ingens animus et verus aestimator sui non vindicat iniuriam, quia non sentit...ultio doloris confessio est: non est magnus animus, quem incurvat iniuria. ib. II 34 § 1 pusilli hominis et miseri est, repetere mordentem,

191. COLLIGE Pers. v 85 Jahn. Ov. her. 11 88. Gell. VI=VII 3 § 35. lexx. s. v. colligo (also collectio, which occurs Ambr. hexaem, IV 14. Iren. 111 26 § 6).

192—235 How can they be said to have escaped, whom conscience scourges ? 'Tis a punishment more cruel than any devised by Caedicius or Rhadamanthus, to be haunted night and day by an accuser in one's own breast. The Pythian priestess warned the Spartan Glaukos, who had asked, whether or no he should break trust and maintain the cheat by perjury, that he would not escape vengeance. So he returned the deposit; but as his honesty was due to fear, not to principle, he and all his house were swept away. Such is the retribution due to the mere intention of sinning; for he who designs a sin, is guilty of the act. What if he have executed it? he is in constant terror; the daintiest wine cannot drown his care. If he fall into a doze, the god whose altar he has violated, the man whom he has wronged, rise before him in his dreams and drive him to confess. Every flash of lightning seems to such men aimed point-blank at them; every attack of disease a judgement on their sins. They dare not bring an offering in their stead; for what hope is there for the guilty? What victim but is worthier to live ?

192 FEMINA X 321 n. epist. Corneliae matris Gracchorum (Nep. p. 123 Halm) dices pulchrum esse inimicos ulcisci: id neque maius neque pulchrius cuiquam atque mihi esse videtur, ! sed si liceat re publica salvā ea persequi. Sen. clem. 15 § 5 magni autem animi est proprium, placidum esse tranquillumque et iniurias offensiones que superne despicere. muliebre est furere in ira.

CUR TAMEN etc. Cic. paradox. § 18 te miseriae, te aerumnae premunt omnes, qui te beatum, qui florentem putas; te lubidines torquent; tu dies noctesque cruciaris, cui nec sat est quod est et id ipsum ne non diuturnum sit futurum times; te conscientiae stimulant malefici. orum tuorum; te metus exanimant iudiciorum atque legum: quo. cumque adspexisti, ut furiae sic tuae tibi occurrunt iniuriae, quae te suspirare libere non sinunt. Sen. cited 174 n. id. ep. 97 § 14 prima illa et maxima peccantium poena est, peccasse nec ullum scelus...inpunitum est; quoniam sceleris in scelere supplicium est. § 15 consentiamus mala facinora conscientia flagellari et plurima illi tormentorum esse eo, quod perpetua illam sollicitudo urget ac verberat. ib. 87 $S 22–5. 105 SS 7 8. Pers. III 35–43. Boeth. cons. Iv pros. 1. 3. 4. 5.

194 HABET ATTONITOS Ter. haut. 461 Bentley and Gronov omnis sollicitos habuit. Cic. fam. 11 16 & 1 quae non meum animum magis sollicitum habent quam tuum. id. Att. XVII

19 3 Dymaeos agro pulsos mare infestum habere nil mirum. Cato mai. § 66 angere atque sollicitam habere nostram aetatem. Sen. trauquill. 2 3 10 mille Auctus mentis incertae, quam spes incohatae habent suspensam deploratam tristem. Plin. ep. 1 9 § 1 anxium me et inquietum habet petitio. Tac. ann. 1 57 cunctaque socialia prospere composita non ideo laetum Germanicum habebant, ib. 65 nihil aeque Tiberium anxium habebat. Nonius s. v. habere. Gronor. obs. ecel. c. 17 p. 180. Fabri on Liv. XXII 4 & 5. 23 & 2. Ramshorn 918 seq. Mühlmann col. 1049 1050.

ATTOXITOS XII 21 n. SUBDO VERBERE VII 71 n. Plin. XIX $ 20 surdis ictibus, et qui non esaudiantur.

195 ANIMO TORTOBE XIV 21 n. Bentley (cf. Orelli) on Hor. c. IV 9 39 'observandum, optimos quosque scriptores non aliter interdum de animo, quam de persona quapiam loqui. add Sen. ep. 124 & 23 animus aemulator Dei.

FLAGELLUM I 166 167. Aesch. Eum. 155–160. Lucr. III 1017 1018 after speaking of all human instruments of torture quae tamen etsi absunt, at mens sibi conscia factis praemetuens adhibet stimulos terretque flagellis. Munro on Lucr. Ini 1023. v 1154. Cic. p. Rosc. Am. § 67. 05. Ibis 153–60. Luc. VII 771–86 esp. 783 784 hunc infera monstra flagellant. et quantum poenae misero mens conscia donat. Plut. 1 277* is that true, which some Romans affirm? and, as the philosophers of the school of Chrysippos think dalla daquóvla περινοστειν, οίς οι θεοί δημίοις χρώνται κολασταίς επί τους ανοσίους και αδίκους ανθρώπους" ούτως οι Λάρητες ερινυώδεις τινές εισι και ποίνιμοι δαίμονες. . cf. Wyttenb. ib. 276. (Quintil.] decl. XII § 28 meum sane conscientia urunt animum intus scelerum faces; et quoties facta reputavi, flagella mentis sonant, ultrices video jurias. Obbar on Hor. ep. 1 2 59. Pers. 111 39-43. 197 CAEDICIUS gratis with Caedicius as pugnacis with Tulli in v 57 et Tulli census pugnacis et Anci. schol. aulicum Neronis crudelissimum fuisse vult intellegi.' A pleader of the name xvi 46.

RHADAMANTHUS I 10 n. Sosikrates in schol. Aristoph. av. 521 Rh. the most just of men allowed none to swear by the gods, but bad men swear by goose and dog and ram and the like. Lasaulx Studien 200 201. He decided important disputes by taking oaths of the parties Plat. legg. 293. Aen, vi 566 567 (cf. Heyne exc. 11) Gnosius haec Rhadamanthus habet durissima regna, | castigatque auditque dolos cogitque fateri. Ov. m. IV 444 of the occupations of the departed parsque forum celebrat. tr. iv 10 88 shades of my parents, if my fame reaches you et sunt in Stygio crimina nostra foro. In Lucian catapl. 28 Rh. is in doubt, whether to cast the tyrant Megapenthes into Pyriphlegethon or to throw him to Kerberos; by the advice, however, of Kyniskos, he leaves him to the more agonising tortures of remorse, denying him access to the waters of Lethe.

198 NOCTE DIEQUE III 105. Ov, m. II 343. XII 46. Pont. III 1 40. Mart. x 58 11. X1 56 6. Stat. Th. XI 377.

TESTEM 2 n. Sen. ep. 43 & 5 si honesta sunt quae facis, omnes sciant: si turpia, quid refert neminem scire, cum tu scias? o te miserum, si contemnis hunc testem. prov. in Quintil. v 11 g 41 conscientia mille testes.

199 SPARTANO CUIDAM Glaukos, son of Epikydes, was requested by a Milesian, who had heard the fame of his uprightness, to keep in trust for him a sum of money. Long afterwards the sons of the Milesian reclaimed the deposit. Giaukos, denying all recollection of the matter, promised to make inquiries, and give a final answer in four

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months? time. Meanwhile he went to Delphi Hdt. vI 86 (where see Valck. Wess. Bahr) επειρωτώντα δε αυτόν το χρηστήριον ει όρκη τα χρήματα ληΐσεται, η Πυθίη μετέρχεται τοισίδε τoίσι έπεσι: “Γλαύκ' 'Επικυδείδη, το μεν αυτίκα κέρδιον ούτω | όρκη νικήσαι και χρήματα ληΐσσασθαι. | όμνυ'· επει θάνατός γε και εξορκον μένει άνδρα. | αλλ' "Όρκου πάϊς εστίν ανώνυμος, ουδ' έπι χειρες, | ουδέ πόδες" κραιπνος δε μετέρχεται, εισόκε πάσαν | συμμάρψας ολέσει γενεών και οικον άπαντα. | ανδρός δ' ενόρκου γενεή μετόπισθεν αμείνων.' ταύτα ακούσας ο Γλαύκος συγγνώμην τον θεόν παραιτέετο αυτό σχεϊν των ρηθέντων, η δε Πυθίη έφη, το πειρηθήναι του θεού και το ποιήσαι ίσον δύνασθαι. Γλαύκος μεν δη μεταπεμψάμενος τους Μιλησίους ξείνους αποδιδοί σφι τα χρήματα...Γλαύκου νυν ούτε τι απόγονον εστι ουδέν, ούτ' ιστίη ουδεμία νομιζομένη είναι Γλαύκου, εκτέτριπται το πρόρριζος εκ Σπάρτης. Paus. ΙΙ 18 8 2.

VIII 7 § 8 where (as in Hes. op. 285) the last verse of the oracle is given. cf. a like tempting of the oracle Hdt. 1 159 and Balaam.

200 DUBITARET Aen. 1x 188 189 percipe porro quid dubitem et quae nunc animo sententia surgat.

201 202 1URE TUERI IURANDO Hor. S. 11 3 179 180 iure | iurando obstringam. 204 MORIBUS principle Nägelsbach Stylistik § 12 1. TAMEN though he returned it.

205 voCEM ADYTI DIGNAM TEMPLO VIII 126 n. Luc. x 565 of Cato effudit dignas adytis e pectore voces. Hdt. 1 159 8 2 λέγεται φωνήν εκ του αδύτου γενέσθαι. Ov, m. xv 635 636 cortinaque reddidit ima | hanc adyto

206 TOTA CUM PROLE DOMOQUE comm, on exod. 20 5. Ηom. ΙΙ. ΙV 162. Solon. 13 31 32 Bergk. Theogn. 206. Hdt. VII 137. Soph. Αi. 1177 1178 κακός κακώς αθαπτος εκπέσοι χθονός, I γένους απαντος ρίξαν εξημημένος. Εur. Alkm. fr. 83. Nagelsbach nachhomer. Theol. 34 35. Aristoph. ran. 587 588 Dionysos to Xanthos." if I ever take them from you again πρόρριζος αυτός, η γυνή, τα παιδία, Ι κάκισταπολοίμην, where Fritzsche quotes eXX. of such oaths from the orators Antipho caed. Herod. § 11. Aeschin. c. Ktes. § 110. Dem. f. l. p. 363. Lykurg. Leokr. § 79. B0ckh CIG n. 916. 989 seq. 2826 seq. 3044. 3095. 3137. 3562. Lasaulx Studien 169. 176. 190. 196. 197. 199 on the punishment of false swearers and their posterity: Valck, on Εur. Ηipp. 826. Ρh. 941. 'orac. in Ael. v. h. III 43. ibid. XIII 2. oath of the Samnites B.C. 293 Liv. x 38 g 10 in exsecrationem capitis familiaeque et stirpis; of Scipio B.c. 216 ib. xxII 53 § 11. Ios. ant. VIII 18 4. Ρlut. qu. rom. 44 every oath είς κατάραν τελευτα της επιορκίας. Cic. n. d. 111 $ 90 to the Stoics dicitis eam vim deorum esse, ut, etiam si quis morte poenas sceleris effugerit, expetantur eae poenae 1 a liberis, a nepotibus, α posteris. lexx, under εξώλης. πρόρριζος. DCass. LIx 11 3 3 Livius Geminius, & senator, swore that he saw Drusilla ascending to heaven και τους θεούς συγγιγνομένην,...εξώλειαν και εαυτό και τους παισίν, εί ψεύδοιτο, έπαρασάμενος. VFl. IV 33. Pers. II 25 do you think that Iuppiter has forgiven you, because the holm-oak is sooner blasted by his thunder quam tuque domusque ? 207 LONGA though only remotely connected. 208 HAS PATITUR POENAS PECCANDI SOLA VOLUNTAS alliteration as in Ov.m. IV 467 perpetuas patitur poenas. 209 210 SCELUS INTRA SE TACITUM QUI COGITAT ULLUM FACTI CRIMEN HABET comm. On exod. 20 17. DL. Ι 36 Thales was asked ει λάθοι θεούς άνθρωπος άδικών· αλλ' ουδε διανοούμενος' έφη. The saying is ascribed to Pittakos by Theon in Spengel rhet. gr. II 97. 102. cf. VM. VII 2 E 8 mirifice etiam Thales. nam interrogatus an facta hominum deos fallerent ne cogitata quidem'inquit, ut non solum manus, sed etiam mentes puras

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