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oeuvres v 72). nunc (P. Jahn) is vapid. x 246 n. 249 n. Varro 1. 1. vi § 11 saeculum spatium annorum centum vocarunt. Serv. ecl. 4 5. Censorin. 17 § 15 was writing in the tenth saeculum. On the Etruscan doctrine of the world's ages Suid. Etias (=DCass. fr. 102 Bekker). Plut. Sulla 7. Serv. ecl. 9 47 on Dionaei Caesaris astrum' Vulcatius haru. spex in contione dixit cometen esse, qui significaret exitum noni saeculi et ingressum decimi. Varro's work de saeculis (Serv. Aen. VIII 526) is unhappily lost. Preller röm. Myth.1 472–8. ['Greswell origines Italicae II 633.' J.C.]

AETAS SAECULA TEYPORIBUS X 9 n.

29 SCELERI abstract Halm on Cic. p. Sest. $ 86. Nägelsbach § 17 1 (Weidner).

30 METALLO VI 23 24 omne aliud crimen mox ferrea protulit aetas: / viderunt primos argentea saecula moechos. Xy 70 n. According to Hesiod there were five ages: the golden (op. 109-126), the silver (127—142), the brazen (143—155), heroes or demi-gods (156—173), the iron (174—201). Aratus mentions three: the golden (phaen. 100—114), the silver (115—128), the brazen (129—134): Ovid, four: the golden (m. 189—112), the silver (113–124), the brazen (125– 127), the iron (127—150). Claud. laud. Stil. 11 446–50 hic habitant vario faciem distincta metallo | saecula certa locis : illic glomerantur aena, | hic ferrata rigent, illic argentea candent; | eximia regione domus, contingere terris ! difficiles, stabant rutili, grex aureus, anni. Serv. ecl. 4 4 ultima Cumaei venit iam carminis aetas : 'Sibyllini, quae Cumana fuit, et saecula per metalla divisit: dixit etiam quis quo saeculo imperaret et solis ultimum, id est decimum, voluit.' Sibyll. 1 22–86 first race; 87–103 second; 104—108 third ; 109–119 fourth; 120—282 fifth, the giants, who refuse to repent at Noah's preaching; 283—305 sixth, golden or heavenly; 306–319 Titans. 11 15 16 on Tóte kal γενεή δεκάτη μετά ταύτα φανείται | ανθρώπων, when the Thunderer, who shakes the earth, shall break idolatry. 17–19 laóv Te Tláčelo | Pouns επταλόφοιο, μέγας δέ τε πλούτος όλείται | δαιόμενος πυρί πολλά υπό φλογος 'HpaloTOLO. (Here however the tenth generation A.D. is meant). There shall be wars, plagues and dearths 161 162 uéya dello | cotatins gevens pônes, Kakoeprées, alvol. Macrob. comm. II 10 § 6 who can believe that the world has existed for ever, remembering the late discovery of many arts, even of agriculture, cumque ita exordium rerum et ipsius humanae nationis opinemur, ut aurea primum fuisse saecula credamus, et inde natura per metalla viliora degenerans ferro saecula postrema foedaverit? Hakewill apology Iv 3 $ 1.

31 HOMINUM DIVUMQUE FIDEM di immortales, obsecro vestram fidem. di vestram fidem. tuam fidem, Venus. pro deum atque hominum fidem (Brisson de formulis i 132. VIII 20 21). Plaut. Men. v 8 4. aul. 297–9 quin divom atque hominum clamat continuo fidem, I suam rem perisse seque eradicarier, 1 de suo tigillo fumus si qua exit foras. ib. 684 Wagner. Joined with auxilium, clientela ; in fidem accipere etc. Mühlmann 276 277. CIEMUS Liv. xxi 17 g 7 modo Saguntum oppugnari indignando non ho. mines tantum, sed foedera et deos ciebamus. 32 QUANTO i.e. tanto, quanto il 225.

x 14 n. FAESIDIUM LAUDET SPORTULA III 87–91. VII 106–136. schol. 'ut ostendat Faesidium conductos habuisse, qui eum agentem causas magna voce laudarent.' see Plin. cited on vii 44. Hor. ep. 1 19 37 38 Obbar. II 2 87–89. Mart. Vi 48 quod tam grande sophos clamat tibi turba togata, / non tu, Pomponi, cena diserta tua

est. Αnth. Ρal. XI 394 ποιητής πανάριστος αληθώς έστιν εκείνος, | όστις δειπνίζει τους ακροασαμένους. | ήν δ' αναγιγνώσκη και νήστιας οίκαδε TTÉury, 1 eis aútòV TPETTÉTW Thu lõlav uaviny. Gell. cited on 220. AGENTEM XVI 49.

33 SPORTULA I 128 n. X 46 n. As it is only for the sake of the dole that the clients applaud, the dole itself is called vociferous. cf. 1. 20 silva. xiv 14 culina. x 45 n. officia.

SENIOR 17 n. See lexx. and Stat. s. III 3 43 senior placidissime. 208. Pers. I 22 vetule.

BULLA V 164 n. XIV 5. The bulla was dedicated to the Lares on the assumption of the toga virilis. Prop. V=Iv 1 131 132 mox ubi bulla rudi dimissa est aurea collo, | matris et ante deos libera sumpta toga. Pers. v 31 bullaque succinctis Laribus donata pependit. VM. 111 1 g 1 to Aemilius Lepidus ą, statua bullata et incinctu praetexta was set up in the capitol, because when a boy he had slain an enemy, saved a countryman. schol. Cruq. on Hor. s. 1 5 65. Becker Gallus 11 55.

SENIOR BULLA DIGNISSIME schol. ex proverbio Graeco δις παίδες οι γέροντες.'

34 VENERES charms Sen, ben, 11 28 $ 1 ille non est mihi par virtutibus nec officiis, sed habuit suam venerem. The plur. also in Quintil. (of style). 36 Xen. anab. II 6 § 22 the Thessalian Menon thought perjury, lying, fraud, the shortest way to his ends; simplicity and truth he held to be all one with folly. § 25 perjurers he feared as men well armed. PUTET 91.

37 75–89. II 149–153. Tibull. 1 3 51 52 timidum non me periuria terrent, ' non dicta in sanctosin pia verba deos.

ARAE RUBENTI Pollux 1 27 αιμάσσειν τους βωμούς. The blood was poured on the altar from a vessel (o pájkov) Eust. Od. III 445.

33-59 In such honest sort lived the first-born of earth before luppiter had driven Saturn, resigning his crown for a sickle, to fly for his life, while Iuno was a girl and Iuppiter still lived in the nursery of Ida's caves, when as yet were no feasts in heaven, no Ganymedes or Hebe to fill the cups, no Vulcan when the nectar is racked off scouring his arms dingy from the smithy of Lipara. Each god dined apart, and the crowd of gods was less. The stars satisfied with few divinities weighed but slightly on poor Atlas. Not as yet had the gloomy realm of the deep been by partition-treaty made over to one brother; grim Pluto as yet had no Sicilian wife; Ixion's wheel was not, nor Furies, nor stone of Sisyphus, nor vulture preying on Tityus; the ghosts made merry, for they owned no king or queen of hell. Dishonesty was a portent in that age, when it was counted a deadly sin not to rise before your elders, though you might boast more strawberries or larger hoards of acorns. Such reverence was accorded to four years' precedence. And children, in the springing down, revered | the sacred promise of a hoary beard. With the scoffing tone cf. i 10 n. 84 n.

38 INDIGENAE aúróxoves Aen. VIII 314. On the golden age when Saturn ruled in heaven, cf. sat, vi 1—24. Verg. ecl. 4 6. g. 1 125-8. 11 536–540. Aen. VIII 319–325. Tibull. 1 3 35–50 Broukh. Prop. III=11 32 52 hic mos Saturno regna tenente fuit. Ov. her. 4 131–3 ista vetus pietas, aevo moritura futuro, / rustica Saturno regna tenente fuit. i Iuppiter esse pium statuit, quodcumque iuvaret. Aetna 9-15. Preller röm. Myth. 1 408—418, who accepts Varro's derivation from satio (Saeturni pocolom is found in an inscription; thence Sāturnus). Marquardt iv 10. 15. Praises of earlier times sat. III 67 n. 137 seq. 312. IV 103. v 57. 110. VI 1--20. 45. 164, 287–91. 342—6 et quis tunc hominum contemptor numi.

VI 55.

nis? etc. VII 207–12. VIII 12. 98 99. X 79.

XIV 160–89. 239. esp. of country life III 2. 190—2. 223–31.

x 299 n. XI 143—161.

39. DIADEMATE VIII 259 n. Aetna 9 aurea securi quis nescit saecula regis?

FALCEM Verg. g. II 406 curvo Saturni dente. Ov. f. 1 233—6 where falcifer. v 627. Ibis 214. Mart. XI 6 1. Macrob. Sat. 17 8 24 Jan "Janus ordered that Saturn should be worshipt as the founder of a better life, of which the sickle, bori by his statue, is an emblem. cf. 8 & 9. The sickle fell to earth in Sicily; hence its fertility (ib. $ 12). cf. Ap. Rh. IV 984. Pausan. VII 23 & 4. Arn. III 29 Hildebrand procreatorem deorum vitisatorem fal. ciferum. Aug. civ. Dei vii 19. de cons. evang. I § 34 of Saturn nonne ipsis ostendit agriculturam, quod falce demonstrat ? Schwegler 1 223–5. comm. on Fulgent. myth. 1 2.p. 628 Staveren. The falx is also an attribute of Priapus Verg. Tib. Ov.

40 SATURNUS FUGIENS Aen. VIII 319 320 primus ab aetherio venit Saturnus Olympo, | arma Iovis fugiens et regnis exul ademptis. 41 PRIVATUS 1 16 n. )( imperial. add to lexx. Tac. XI 31 where )( imperii potens. id. h. 1 49 fin. of Galba maior privato visus, dum privatus fuit. Suet. Aug. 28. Plin. ep. ii 1 § 2. Eutr. 19. 11. VII 16. 17. 19. vii 1 saying of Trajan talem se imperatorem esse privatis, quales esse sibi imperatores privatus optasset. 8. IX 13 fin. 27. 28. X 2. 6.

PRIVATUS ADHUC IUPPITER XII 107. vi 14–16 multa pudicitiae veteris vestigia forsan | aut aliqua exstiterint vel sub love, sed love nondum i barbato.

IDAEIS IUPPITER ANTRIS Ap. Rh. III 132—4 the beautiful toy of Zeus, which his dear nurse Adrasteia made for him άντρα εν Ιδαίω έτι νήπια κουρίζοντα. Μarkland expressum videtur ex Ap. Rh. I 508 509 όφρα Ζεύς έτι φρεσ νήπια ειδώς | Δικταίον valeokev ÚTTÓ Oséos.' Claud. 4 cons. Hon. 197 ab Idaeis primaevus Iuppiter antris.

IDAEIS the Cretan Ida (xiv 271. Aen. III 104 105. Ov. met. VIII 99 Iovis incunabula Creten. id. amor. 11 10 20), not the Phrygian Prop. Iv=III 1 27 Idaeum Simoenta Iovis. Jahn's Florus p. xlii l. 15 Creten, patriam tonantis. schol. Ap. Rh. III 134. Steph. Byz. Skrys.

42 CONVIVIA 46 n. 1 141 n.

43 PUER ILIACUS v 59 r. IX 47.

x 171 n. From Ov. tr. II 405 406 huc Herculis uxor, | huc accedat Hylas Iliacusque puer. Cic. Tusc. I § 65 non enim ambrosia deos aut nectare aut Iuventa te pocula ministrante laetari arbitror, nec Homerum audio, qui Ganymeden ab dis raptum ait propter formam, ut Iovi bibere ministraret: non iusta causa cur Laomedonti tanta fieret iniuria. fingebut haec Homerus et humana ad deos transferebat; divina mallem ad nos. cf. n. d. 1 g 112. Mart. II 43 13 14 grex tuus Iliaco ppterat certare cinaedo: 1 at mihi succurrit pro Gany. mede manus. Hom. II. XX 232-5 αντίθεος Γανυμήδης, | δς δή κάλλιστος γένετο θνητών ανθρώπων | τον και ανηρείψαντο θεοί Διι οινοχόεύειν kalleos eiveka olo, lu' alavároLoc Metein. Serv. Aen. i 28. Lucian dial. deor. 4 and 5.

HERCULIS UXOR Hom. Od. XI 602 603 of Herakles αυτός δε μετ' αθανάτοισι θεοίσιν | τέρπεται έν θαλίας και έχει καλλίσφυρον"Ήβην. ΙΙ. ΙV 2 3 μετά δέ σφισι πότνια "Ήβη νέκταρ εωvoxoei. Ov. Pont. 1 10 11 12.

44 AD CYATHOS Prop. V=IV 8 37 Lygdamus ad cyathos. Auson. idyll. 12 .de histor. 19 stat Iovis ad cyathum, generat quem Dardanius Tros. Hand (Turs. 1 120 seq.) corpares Aen. Ix 648 ad limina custos. Liv. XXXIV 6 § 13 servos ad remum.

ET 55. XV 125 n.

nec would be more regular, but it is not necessary. Ov. m. x 92 nec tiliae molles

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nec fagus et innuba laurus. ib. III 492 Burman. Obbar in Philologus vi 152. Aen. IV 236 Forbiger. Hand Tursell. 11 499. 536.

IAM SICCATO NECTARE ["comparing in Forcell. or Freund the medical use of sicco; and exsiccatus in Cicero as explained by Forcell. and compared by him with what precedes; from which it seems that the word means 'to do away with the bad humours in the blood and body,' and hence is metaphorically applied to other similar effects, I cannot help thinking the scholiast explains these

wor rightly exsiccato faeculento, aut liquefacto (nectare):' after he has first racked off,' cleared away the dregs of the nectar,' and prepared it for drinking the Spanish seco' and our dry' applied to sherry is not less curious, though the force is different." H. A. J. M.].

44 45 TERGENS BRACCHIA in Homer when visited by Thetis II. XVIII 414 σπόγγω δ' αμφί πρόσωπα και άμφω χείρ απομόργνυ. It was only by way of exception that he acted as cup-bearer (Il. 1 596-600) and provoked inextinguishable laughter in Olympus.

45 BRACCHIA LIPARAEA NIGRA TABERNA X 130—2. Stat. s. 15 6 7 regemque corusci | ignis adhuc fessum Siculaque incude rubentem. VFI. 11 96. Lucian deor. dial. 5 § 4 Hera having cast Ganymedes in the teeth of Zeus, he retorts : *I suppose your son Hephaestos ought to pour out our wine, limping, still all over sparks from the forge, just after he has laid aside the tongs; and from those his fingers we ought to take the cup, and draw him to us now and then for kiss, whom even you his mother would not care to kiss with his face all begrimed with the soot.' Hera replies § 5 now Zeus, Hephaestos is lame, and his fingers unworthy of your cup, and he is covered with soot, and you sicken at the sight of him, since Ida bred up for us Tėv kalòv kouhrnu Toûtov. but you used not to see all this, nor did the ashes or the forge prevent you from drinking at his hand.' ib. 15$ 1, where Hermes asks Apollo how this limping smith has married the fairest of the fair, Aphrodite and Charis. It is luck, Hermes. Claud. rapt. Pros. II 174 175. LIPARAEA I 8 n. x 132. VFI, II 96. Kallim. Dian. 46 seq. Theokr. II 133 134 Altapalw... 'Hpalotolo. Strabo 275 cl. 246.

46 PRANDEBAT SIBI QUISQUE )( 42 convivia. Quintil. vi 3 8 16 sibi ludentium.

TURBA DEORUM Cic. n. d. II § 84 numerus... deorum... innumera bilis. Plin. II § 16 maior caelitum populus etiam quam hominum intellegi potest, cum singuli quoque ex semetipsis totidem deos faciant, Iunones genios, que adoptando sibi. Petron. 17 nostra regio tam praesentibus plena est numinibus, ut facilius possis deum quam hominem invenire. Sen. ep. 110 g de superstitione fr. 33 Haase (in Aug. civ. Dei vı 10) quid ergo tandem ? veriora tibi videntur T. Tatii aut Romuli aut Tulli Hostilii somnia ? Cloacinam Tatius dedicavit deam, Picum Tiberinumque Romulus, Hostilius Pavorem atque Pallorem, taeterrimos hominum adfectus, quorum alter mentis territae motus est, alter corporis ne morbus quidem sed color : haec numina potius credes et caelo recipies ? fr. 39 omnem istam ignobilem deorum.turbam, quam longo aevo longa superstitio congessit, sic adorabimus, ut meminerimus cultum eius magis ad morem quam ad rem pertinere. Aug. ib. 111 17 § 3 fin. tantae numinum turbae diu frustra fuerat supplicatum. IV 8 quaeramus, si placet, ex tanta deorum turba, quam Romani colebant, quem potissimum vel quos deos credant illud imperium dilatasse atque servasse. In this one ch. he names Cloacina, Volupia, Lubentina, Vaticanus, Cunina, Rusina, Iugatinus, Collatina, Vallonia, Segetia, Tutilina, Proserpina, Nodutus, Volutina, Patelana, Hostilina, Flora, Lacturnus, Matuta, Runcina (here Aug. re

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marks nec omnia commemoro, quia me piget quod illos non pudet). Men place one porter at the gate, et quia homo est, omnino sufficit: tres deos isti posuerunt, Forculum foribus, Cardeam cardini, Limentinum limini. ita non poterat Forculus simul et cardinem limenque servare. Tert. apol. 10 nunc ergo per singulos decurram, tot ac tantos, novos, veteres, barbaros, Graecos, Romanos, peregrinos, captivos, adoptivos, proprios, communes, masculos, feminas, rusticos, urbanos, nauticos, militares ? ib. 25. Arn. III 38. IV esp. 3 quod nobis catervas ignotorum alias inducitis deorum, existimare non possumus, utrumne istud serio atque ex rei compertae faciatis fide an fictionibus ludentes cassis ingeniorum lasciviatis per luzum. Prud. c. Symm. 11 343–67 e.g. sed quia Romanis loquimur de cultibus, ipsum | sanguinis Hectorei populum probo, tempore longo | non multos coluisse deos rarisque sacellis contentum paucas posuisse in collibus ara s. Marquardt iv 18. 38. 41. 82—92. Boissier la religion romaine d'Auguste aux Antonins (Paris 1874 2 vols) book in c. 2 ‘les religions étrangères’ (1 374—450). Friedländer 111 444–58. There may be a sarcastic allusion to the consecratio principum, but chiefly to (Lucian Icaromen. 27) TOUS LETOL KOUS TOÚTOUS kai šuoißólovs ecous, the Korybantes, Attis, Sabazios, Isis, Osiris, Anubis, Serapis etc. id. Iupp. trag. 7. 13 (where Hermes proposes to make proclamation by signs to the gods, as he is not linguist enough to make himself understood by Skythians and Persians and Thrakians and Kelts'). id. deorum concilium e.g. 9 seq. 14 15 speech of Momos against the new comers: Mithras who knows no Greek; the dog-beaded Anubis; the steer Apis; there is already a scarcity of nectar and ambrosia; he proposes a commission of seven established gods to examine the credentials of all the gods. cf. Sen. apocol. 9.

48 ATLANTA VIII 32. Aen. IV 247 Atlantis duri caelum qui vertice fulcit. Hes. th. 517. Hygin. fab. 150,

49 PROFUNDI the sea schol. (whose view is confirmed by aliquis cf. x 171 n. and aut); others (less probably, unless indeed with Hertzberg we omit aut, cl. Hor. C. 111 4 46 regnaque tristia) the abyss'=hell.

50 Aut the negation is carried on cf. Verg. g. iv 9–11 neque ... neque ... aut. R. Johnson (Bentley's enemy) additions to the grammatical comm. (Nottingham n. d.) praef. has many exx, from Caes. Hor. Iustin. Hand 1 544 seq. So in verse 51.

SICULA CUM CONIUGE Proserpina (x 112), who having been carried off by Pluto from the fields of Henna (Claud. rapt. Pros. Ov. f. iv 421 seq.) is named Hennaea (Sil. xv 245) or Aetnaea (id. XIII 431. Firm. Matern. 7).

51 Lucian de luctu 8 of the wicked in hell υπό γυπων εσθιόμενοι και τροχώ συμφερόΗ μενοι και λίθους ανακυλίοντες.

ROTA Ixionis. Sen. ep. 24 g 18 non sum tam ineptus, ut Epicuream cantilenam hoc loco persequur et dicam vanos esse inferorum metus nec Ixionem rota volvi nec saxum umeris Sisyphi trudi in adversum nec ullius viscera et renasci posse cotidie et carpi. nemo tam puer est, ut Cerberum timeat.

FURIAE Lucr. III 10 11 Munro. Aen. vi 570–2. 605—7.

SAXUM of Sisyphus or Tantalus ib. 602 603 Heyne.

VULTURIS ATRI of Tityus ib. 595–600. Hor. C. III 4 77–9 incontinentis nec Tityi iecur , reliquit ales nequitiae additus | custos. Sen. Thyest. 9 10 aut poena Tityi, qui specu vasto patens | visceribus atras pascit effossis aves. 52 REGIBUS Lucian de luctu 6. king and queen xı 105 n. Drakenb. on Liv, 1 39 & 2 and 11 2 fin. Liv, XXXVII 3 SS 9 10. Sen. cons. Marc. 19 § 4 cogita nullis defunctum malis adfici, illa quae nobis inferos faciunt terri

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