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A .consolatio' (trapauvântikós cf. Sen. cons. ad Polyb. ad Helv. ad Marc. Plut. cons. ad Apollon. ad uxor. a beautiful tribute to his daughter's memory) addressed to Calvinus, who had been cheated of ten sestertia.

Guilt meets its due punishment, if not from corrupt judges, yet from the conscience of the sinner and the reprobation of honest men (146). But there are other considerations, Calvinus, which should mollify your wrath. True, the friend whom you trusted has defrauded you; but your fortune can well support so trifling a loss. Look about you, and see how rife such crimes are. In the golden days of Saturn's rule falsehood was unknown, but now it is honesty that is the prodigy (7—85). Never was perjury so universal: for, while many believe no God, others hope for a long reprieve, if not a final pardon (86–119). To raise an outcry then, as though your case were hard and strange, is as unreasonable as to wonder at blue eyes in a German, the goître among the Alps, dwarfs in the land of pygmies (120–173). Are you then to look for no redress ? Philosophy will teach you that none but little minds delight in revenge: but, in any case, you may be well content to leave the delinquent to his own remorse and to that law by which crime breeds crime. If such be your desire, you may yet see him condemned to exile or to death (174—249).

cf. Quintil. decl. 314.

This satire was written in the year 127 A.D. 17 n. Its lofty Stoicism has made it a favorite with moralists; many of the lines are as vigorous as any in Iuv., but the effect is marred by verbosity. The aged poet forgets the caution : manum de tabula. Recitations had spoilt taste;

the sense of proportion was lost; the whole was sacrificed to the parts. It is true, not only of Seneca, but of all silver age writers, that they look best in quotations. The epigrams of Martial are the most perfect works of silver age art, because in them point is in place, and there is no temptation to digress. In 1575 Muretus spent at Rome three lectures on this satire vol. II or. 12 . et iucunda autem et utilis illius evolutio futura est. continet enim multas graves et utiles senten.

tias, optimis verbis et genere quodam dicendi salso festivo hilari et, ut ita dicam, vivido, quod huic poetae proprium ac perpetuum est, explicatas.' This is all: die hohen Lobsprüche,' of which Düntzer talks, do not exist. Verses 39–52, 64–70, 78–85, extracts from a common place book on mythology and portents, remind one of Lucan's misplaced encyclopaedic learning e.g. on Thessalian witchcraft (v1 630—829), on Antaeus (1v 590—655), portents (v 540—556), the battle of the winds (v 5984612). 'cf. Stat. Th. vi 88—117 with his prototype Aen. vi 180—182.

1-22 Sin stands condemned by the sinner: he may bribe the praetor's court, but he cannot silence the judge within. What says the world, Calvinus, to this breach of trust? Your estate can bear it; it will not sink you; 'tis a hackneyed, every day mishap, a 'stale trick of chance.' Play the man then, and stifle your sobs. Scorn to wince at a trifling wound. What, born under Fonteius, with sixty years behind your back, and yet startled and fuming at perjury and fraud ? Wisdom, by her heavenly maxims, enables men to master fortune. Even experience, that mistress of fools, might have enured your shoulders to the yoke. 1 EXEMPLO MALO Petr. 104 illi qui sunt, qui nocte ad lunam radebantur pessimo medius fidius exemplo. Mühlmann col. 954.

2 DISPLICET AUCTORI 192 n. IV 8. Sen. ep. 42 § 2 nec ulla maior poena nequitiae est, quam quod sibi ac suis displicet. ib. 97 § 11. Macrob. comm. i 10 $ 12.

ULTIO Aus. VII sap. sent. Thales' turpe quid ausurus te sine teste time. 2 3 SE IUDICE NEMO NOCENS ABSOLVITUR not like the following passages from Plaut. Cic. Nep. Plaut. mil. 559 si ego me sciente paterer vicino meo inferri apud me iniuriam; for here the construction is infertur vicino meo me sciente iniuria. Cic. in Pis. § 23 quae omnia ornamenta etiam in Sex. Clodio te consule esse voluisti. p. Scaur. 34 se consule neque repelli fratrem volebat. Nep. Paus. 2 & 4 Graeciam sub tuam potestatem se adiuvante te redacturum pollicetur. Compare rather Ov, amor. 11 12 13 me duce ad hunc voti finem, me milite veni. Quintil. 2 S 2 ille, qui in actione . hibericas herbas,'se solo nequi. quam intellegente, dicebat. Suet. Tib. 31 Burm. Oud. negante eo...impetravit. iterum censente...optinere non potuit.

Cal. 35 edente se munus... animadvertit. Censorin. 17 § 11 sextos autem [ludos] fecit Ti. Claudius Caesar se IIII et Vitellio III coss..., septimos Domitianus se XIIII et L. Minucio Rufo coss. Aus. id. 2 14 ipse mihi numquam iudice me placui. Symm. laud. in Val. sen. Aug. 1 13 nec quisquam se ipso iudice impune la edatur. id. in Gratian. 8 me ipso principe militavi. Scribon. 97 ne hic quidem ulli se vivo compositionem dedit. Many exx. in Sanctii Minerva II 7. Duker on Florus iv 12 § 28. Haase on Reisig 760. Kühner gr. Gr. 112 666. se iudice='at the bar of his own conscience, and the abl. is necessary.

3 iv 8. 192—239. Publil. Syr. 259 Sp illo nocens se damnat quo peccat die. Philo 11 635. 642. 649. Sen. de ira ili 26 § 2.quid ergo' inquis impune illi erit ?' puta te velle, tamen non erit. maxima est enim factae iniuriae poena fecisse, nec quisquam gravius adficitur quam qui ad supplicium paenitentiae traditur. ib. II 30 § 2 iam sibi dedit [poenas), qui peccavit. id. Hippol. (or Phaedra) 164–9 Peiper e.g. scelus aliqua tutum, nulla securum tulit. Ambr. in ps. I § 20 etiamsi hominem fefellit, testem refugit, accusatorem evasit; se tamen sui accusatorem vitare non poterit, quem mascime debet timere ; quia et accusatorem habebit et confitentem reum.

4 FALLACI PRAETORIS VICERIT URNA Cic. fin. II § 54 of L. Tubulus: qui, cum praetor quaestionem inter sicarios exercuisset, ita aperte cepit pecunias ob rem iudicandam. The iudices in criminal causes were generally appointed by sortitio: that is, the president of the quaestio drew out of an urn containing the names of all his iudices (selecti) the number necessary for the trial: the parties were allowed to challenge a certain proportion, in whose place other names were drawn (subsortitio). In this ballot the praetor had opportunities for foul play (Geib Criminal. process 184–6). dig. XLVIII 8 1 pr. lege Cornelia de sicariis et veneficis tenetur, qui,......cum magistratus esset publicove iudicio praeesset, operam dedisset, quo quis falsum indicium profiteretur, ut quis innocens conveniretur condemnaretur. The praetor's urna here may be that used for this purpose or rather that in which the tablets A (absolvo), C (condemno), or NL (non liquet) were thrown. Geib 365 366. If the first, the praetor has packed the jury. cf. Aen. Vi 431–3 (where Servius quotes Iuv.) nec vero hae sine sorte datae, sine iudice sedes : 1 quaesitor Minos urnam movet, ille silentum | conciliumque vocat vitasque et crimina discit. If the latter, he has in the course of the proceedings won their votes. cf. Cic. Att. i 16. Apul, met. x 8 cum iam sententiae pares, cunctorum stilis ad unum sermonem congruentibus, ex more perpetuo in urnam aeneam deberent conici, quo semel conditis calculis iam cum rei fortuna transacto nihil postea commutari licebat. Cic. ad Qu. fr. 11 4 8 6 Baiter (=I1 6 fin.). Prop. y=iv 11 19. 49. Ov, met. XV 44. Hor. C. II 3 26. 11 1 16. S. 11 1 47. Sil. ix 26 27 qui te I legibus atque urna e dira eripuere minanti.

7 TENUIS III 163 n. Cic. inv. I § 35 pecuniosus an tenuis.

8 MERGAT X 57 n. Pers. III 34. Amm. XXXI 9 § 5. Vell, II 91 $ 3 Heins.

NEC RARA VIDEMUS 16. 126-173. Menand. fr. inc. 2 (in Plut. 11 103d) if, Trophimos, you alone of all man. kind had been born to unbroken prosperity, ορθώς αγανακτείς· έστι γάρ σ' έψευσμένος | άτοπον τε πεποίηκ', but if you drew the common air by the same laws with us, you must bear this loss better. où d'oð o'Útepβάλλοντα, Τρόφιμ', απώλεσας | αγαθά, τα νυν δ' έστι μέτριά σοι κακά. wor' dvà Mérov tov kai XOLTTOV on pépe. Gataker on Antonin. vii g 58. Hamlet i 2 72_106 thou know'st 'tis common.' 9 COGNITUS XII 26.

10 71 seq. i.e. drawn at random. Plin. ep. 1x 13 § 13 omnes Certum nondum a me nominatum ut nominatum defendunt crimenque quasi in medio relictum defensione suscipiunt.

11 PONAMUS XI 191 192. 12 VIRI Hor, epod. 10 17 illa non virilis eiulatio.

13 QUAMVIS however light. QUE MALORUM PARTICULAM 159 190. Cic. fin. v $ 78 ea nos mala dicimus, sed exigua et paene minima. acad. 11 & 127 ut exigua et minima. Lucr. v 591=595 exigua maioris parte brevique.

14 SPUMANTIBUS Sen. Oed. 362 Peiper felle nigro tabidum spumat iecur.

15 SACRUM 72 sacrilega.

16 DEPOSITUM 60. cf. 71 seq. dig. XVI 3 ( depositi vel contra') 1 pr. depositum est, quod custodiendum alicui datum est, cod. Iv 34. Hor. s. 1 3 94 95 qui faciam, si [amicus] furtum fecerit aut si prodiderit commissa. Sen. ben. "IV 26 § 3 the good man will not trust him with a deposit, depositum committet ei, qui iam pluribus abnegavit. Vi 5 § 5. 6 § i. The Christians in Bithynia, a few years before the date of this satire (Plin. ep. x 96=97 § 7) took a mutual oath ne furta, ne latrocinia, ne adulteria committerent,




ne fidem fallerent, ne depositum appellati abnegarent.

STUPET HAEC IV 119 n. Plin. pan. 31 fin. stupebant agricolae-plena horrea, quae non ipsi refersissent. 17 FONTEIO CONSULE NATUS 28 n.

157 n.

Clinton (f. R. ann. 118) and Lipsius (quaest. epist. Iv 20) understand C. Fonteius Capito cos. A.D. 59. Tac. XIV 1. Plin. II § 180. IRN 3067. But this Capito stands second to his colleague C. Vipstanus Apronianus, and therefore Borghesi (oeuvres v 74–76) understands the Fonteius Capito of A.D. 67, who is named before his colleague Iunius Rufus. This is the legatus of lower Germany, who was put to death B.C. 68 with the connivance of Galba (Tac. h. 1 7. 37. 52. 58. III 62. IV 13). When a single consul is named to date a year, the first is regularly named, except when that first is Caesar or emperor. Thus the date of this satire, like that of the 15th (xv 27 n.) is 127 A.D. 18-25 126–173. xv 106—9.

18 IN MELIUS Luc. vi 60 Corte. Plin. ep. Iv 18 1 Corte in deterius. ib. 28 g 3 longe difficillima est imitationis imitatio.

a qua rogo ut in melius quidem sinas aberrare. IX 39 § 1 reficienda est mihi aedes Cereris in praediis in melius et in maius. x 70=75 g 1 quae sunt vetustate sublapsa relaxentur in melius. Tac. IV 20 in melius flexit. Flor. IV 7 § 9 Duker. Hand Turs. III 331. [experience helps on to something better.' H. A. J. M.]

19 [' MAGNA QUIDEM (sunt) praecepta agrees more closely with vita didicere magistra of 22 than magna (est) sapientia.' H. A. J. M.]

SACRIS Sen. ep. 14 & 11 numquam in tantum convalescet nequitia, numquam sic contra virtutes coniurabitur, ut non philosophiae nomen venerabile et sacrum maneat. 55 & 4. Cie. Tusc, I $$ 64 65.

20 VICTRIX FORTUNAE SAPIENTIA X 52. 363–6 n. Hor. 8. II 7 83–88. Sen. ep. 71 § 30 sapiens quidem vincit virtute

fortunam. 82 § 5 philosophia circumdanda est: inexpugnabilis i est murus, quem fortuna multis machinis lacessitum non transit.

cons. Helv. 13 2. const. sap. passim e.g. 5 § 4. 6 & 8 the munimenta of the sage et a flamma et ab incursu tuta sunt, nullum introitum praebent, excelsa, inexpugnabilia, dis aequa. 8 $ 3 fortune, quoties cum virtute congressa est, numquam par recessit.

22 IACTARE IUGUM to fret under ) ( vi 207 208 of the patient husband summitte caput cervice parata | ferre iugum. MAGISTRA in the school of life ['with reference to the special use of magister as a trainer.' J. C.] cf. experientia stultorum magistra. Cic. Tusc. v § 5 of philosophy magistra morum et disciplinae.

23–37 No day too sacred to discover thieves, treachery, embezzlement, gain gotten by the dagger or the bowl. Good men are scarce, scarce as gates of Thebes or mouths of Nile. 'Tis Rome's ninth century, sunk below the iron age; Nature's self, baffled, has no metal to express the baseness of the times. We cry to men and gods for mercy, with a din deafening as the applause sold to Faesidius for a dole. Dotard, know you not the charms of a neighbour's gold ? know you not, how the world flouts your innocence, who bid any man eschew perjury for fear of some avenger watching in temples and blood-stained altars ? 23 seq. 1 112 seq.

QUAE TAM FESTA DIES, UT CESSET PRODERE FUREM Suet. Tib. 61 nullus a poena hominum cessavit dies; ne religiosus quidem ac sacer.

Markland 'FESTA vel fausta. non enim tam festi habendi sunt dies in quibus haec scelera non occurrunt, quam fausti.'


24 25 OMNI EX CRIMINE LUCRUM QUAESITUM Nägelsbach § 30 2 (Weidner).

25 PUXIDE 1 70 n. 158 n. II 41 pyxide medicine box. VIII 17 n. Cic. p. Cael. 8 65 veneni pyxidem. Corvus was ridiculed for a sentence (in a controversia Sen. suas. 2 & 21 de ea quae apud matronas disserebat liberos non esse tollendos') inter pyxides et redolentis animae medicamina constitit mitrata contio. Sen. ep. 95 g 18. ben. v 13 8 3 quaedam, etiamsi vera non sunt, propter similitudinem eodem vocabulo comprensa sunt. sic pyxidem (properly of box] et argenteam et auream dicimus. id. ap. Lact. 111 15 § 13 of some philosophers, who need to apply their own rebukes of vice to themselves quos non aliter intueri decet quam medicos, quorum tituli remedia havent, pyxides venena. Plin. xxix 8 20 of the medical profession quid enim venenorum fertilius aut unde plures testamentorum insidiae ? Hermas vis. 3 8 9 nolite similes fieri maleficis et malefici quidem venena sua in pixides [sic] baiulant. vas autem venenum vestrum et medicamentum in corde continetis. 26 rhythm as 35. 225.

RARI BONI Porphyr. vit. Pythag. 42 maxim of Pythagoras, 'avoid the beaten path,' tàs lewe pópous un Badiçelv (cf. Rittersh. p. 229 Kiessling. Matt. 7 13 14 the broad way). Theogn. 150. Bias in DL. I $ 87 Menage pidev ws mongovtas Toùs yàpalelotous elval kakoús. Xen. Kyrop. 11 2 24. DL. VI SS 27. 32. 40 41 Menage the lantern of Diogenes, and his frequent complaints that he could not find .men.' Sen. vit. beat. 2 § 1 cum de beata vita agetur, non est quod mihi illud discessionum more respondeas : haec pars maior esse videtur.' ideo enim peior est. non tam bene cum rebus humanis agitur, ut meliora pluribus placeant: argumentum pessimi turba est. id. ben. 1 10 3 idem semper de nobis pronuntiare debebimus, malos esse nos, malos fuisse, invitus adiciam et futuros

id. n. q. iv praef. § 19 with citations from Verg. Ov. Menander. id. ep. 42 g 1 the vir bonus is a phoenix, born once in 500 years. Plut. Il 4134 Plin. ep. VIII 22 & 3 maxim of Thrasea qui vitia odit, homines odit. Hor. S. 1 3 68 69. Lucian Tim. 25 Plutos complains that Zeus has sent him, blind as he is, to find an honest man, duo eúpetov OÚtw xpñua kai apò πολλού εκλελοιπός εκ του βίου, which even Lynkeus could not easily find, å uavpòv oŰtw kai ulkpòv óv. As then the good are few, and crowds of bad fill all the streets in the cities, I more readily light upon these latter in my roamings. Philo 1 84. 255. 316 M. Chrys. hom. 10=9 in Rom. (ix 5175) πολλοίς των ανθρώπων, κατά την παροιμίαν, αρέσκει τα χείρω, και ταύτα αιρούνται, τα αμείνω παρατρέχοντες. Nigelsbach nachhomer. Theol. 322—4. Aus. id. 16 1 2 vir bonus ac sapiens, qualem vix repperit unum | milibus e multis hominum consultus Apollo.

27 TIEBARUM PORTAE Thebes in Boeotia, called ÉTTÁTulos by Hom. II. iv 406. Od. xi 263. Hes. op. 162. scut. 49. The seven heroes each assailed a separate gate (Aesch. Th. Eur. Ph. 287. Ov. tr. 11 320 septem portas sub duce quamque suo). Book 3 pp. 251– 345 of Unger's learned paradoxa Thebana is de Thebarum portis.'

DIVITIS XV 123. cf. its epithets avpopópos, miótatos, gbvemos, pinguis, fecundus etc.

OSTIA NILI reckoning from W. to E. Plin. v § 64 the Canopic, Bolbitine, Sebennytic, Phatnitic, Mendesic, Tanitic, Pelusiac. cf. Hdt. 11 17. Strabo 801. Mel. I 9 $ 9 see Tzschucke v 316). Hence the epithets ÉT TÁTopos (Mosch. 2 51). septemplex (Ov. m. v 187). septemfluus (ib. xv 753). septemgeminus (Catull. 11 7. Verg. Stat.). septeno gurgite (Cl. in Ruf. 1 185. Luc.).

28 degeneracy of the age i 147—150 n. XII 48 49. NONA AETAS (so p w) the ninth century of the city (Borghesi


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