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Plin. ep. IX

making the construction 'cum alveus foret plenus fluctu et arboris in. certae, a hull of tottering mast,' gen. qual. cf. Forcellini. Scheller. Or. m. XI 476. 551. Luc. VIII 179 descendit ab arbore summa. 26 g 4.

33 RECTORIS schol. gubernatoris.' Aen. v 161. Ov. m. XI 492 493 ipse pavet nec se, qui sit status, ipse fatetur | scire ratis rector, nec quid iubeatve vetetve. Censor, de die nat. 12 $ 3.

DECIDERE the technical term for a bankrupt’s composition, as for other settlements: here, to compound for life with? loss of cargo. Mart. ix 3 5 6 cited xı 131 n. Sen. cons. Polyb. 12 (=30 fin.) $ 1 pro horum omnium salute hac tecum portione fortuna deci. dit. dig. 11 14 44 tutor cum plerisque creditoribus decidit, ut certam portionem acciperent. ib. vi 126 transegisse enim cum eo et decidisse videor eo pretio, quod ipse constituit.

IACTU dig. XIV 2 de lege Rhodia de iactu. acts 27 38 Wetstein.

34 CASTORA schol. ‘castorem bebrum [fibrum, Germ. biber, our beaver) dicit, qui cum viderit se obsideri et non posse evadere, testiculos suos morsu avulsos proicit: intellegit enim ob hanc rem posse capi.' Cic. p. Scaur. 2 § 7 (cf. Beier's note) redimunt se ea parte corporis, propter quam maxime expetuntur. [Ov.] nux 164–6 [utinam) possem fructus excutere ipsa meos. I sic ubi detracta est a te ibi causa pericli, ' quod superest'tutum, Pontice castor, habes. Sil. xv 486—490 tenuitque moratas (praeda] | a caede, ut Liby. cus ductor providerat, iras. I fluminei veluti deprensus gurgitis undis | avulsa parte inguinibus causaque pericli enatat intento praedae fiber a vius hosti. Ammian. xvii 5 & 7 letter of Sapor king of kings to Constantius : resign Armenia and Mesopotamia, that you may safely enjoy the rest of your empire, remembering that physicians amputate limbs to save the body; hocque bestias factitare: quae cum advertant cur maximo opere capiantur, illud propria sponte amittunt ut vivere deinde possint in pavide. schol. Nikand. ther. 565. alex. 307. Tert. adv. Marc. I 1 quis enim tam castrator carnis castor quam qui nuptias abstulit? (a passage which countenances Hertzberg's explanation; an etymological myth). Aesop. fab. 226 (p. 93 Lips. 1810). Phaedr. app. 28. Apul. met. 1 9. Ariosto XXVII 57. Barth on Gul. Brito Philippis 11 183. The fable was believed by Plin. VIII § 109. cf. XXXVII § 82 cum etiam ferae abrosa parte corporis propter quam periclitari se sciant relicta redimere se credantur. Serv. georg. 1 58. Apul. met. 1 9; rejected by Sestius ap. Plin. XXXII § 26 and Dioscorid. 11 26. See Alciat. embl. 153 with n. (Padua 1621 pp. 651—4). Whitney's emblems p. 35. Sir T. Browne vulgar errors b. III C. 4. Z. Grey's n. on Hudibras 1 2 34. Io. Jonston de quadrup. Frankf. 1650–3. p. 148. Fabricius bibliotheca Graeca ed. vet. IV 334. 341. H. E. Weber Beiträge zur Anatomie u. Physiologie des Bibers (in the Berichte üb. d. Verhandl. d. kön. süchs. Gesellsch. d. IVissensch. zu Leipzig 11 1848 p. 185 seq.) gives an account of his dissection of several beavers. Cuvier (Pline vi 448) · Le castoreum ne consiste point dans les testicules du castor; c'est une substance huileuse et fétide qui naît dans une glande adhérente au prépuce. Lorsque les conduits de cette glande sont gorgés du castoreum, il est possible que l'animal s'en debarrasse en se frottant contre des pierres ou des troncs d'arbres;' which may be the origin of the fable. The beaver seems not to have been hunted for its fur.

35 DAMNO Phaedr. 111 11 3 a eunuch had a dispute cum quodam improbo, who, among other taunts, damnum insectatus est amissi roboris. Mart. ix 7 5 viri

·litatis damna maeret ereptae. [Quintil.] decl. 5 § 12 dam na corporum.

36 TESTICULI ADEO the only example in Iuv. of hiatus in this place. L. Müller de re metr. 310 rejects it. INTELLEGIT Plin. VIII § 7 of elephants praedam

ipsi in se expetendam sciunt solam esse in armis suis, quae Iuba cornua appellat, Herodotus tanto antiquior et consuetudo melius dentes. quamobrem deciduos casu aliquo vel senecta defodiunt. § 8 circumventique a venantibus primos constituunt quibus sunt minimi, ne tanti proelium putetur, postea fessi inpactos arbori frangunt praedaque se redimunt. cf. what he says of feles x 202. Ael. n. a. vi 34 the beaver knows the hunters' motive kal ¿TiKúpas kal dakwy απέκοψε τους εαυτου όρχεις και προσέρριψεν αυτοίς, like a prudent man fallen among robbers, who redeems his life by a ransom. If hunted a second time, he rears και επιδείξας ότι της αυτών σπουδής ούκ έχει την υπόθεσιν, του περαιτέρω καμάτου παρέλυσε τους θηρατάς. In this way they often gull the hunters: hiding το σπουδαζόμενον μέρος πάνυ σοφώς και πανούργως εξηπάτησαν, ώς ουκ έχοντες α κρύψαντες είχον. This legend may have arisen from a peculiar property of the beaver: «The animal has the power of retracting its testicles into the abdomen, where they abide as å rule, except in the season of sexual excitement. It never mutilates itself' (A. H. Garrod). Fr. Jacobs cites M. Glycas ann, 55d. and the collections of Allatius on Eustath. hexa. p. 189. intellegere (cf. intellegens, “a connoisseur's connotes technical knowledge, here a druggist’s. see lexx. esp. Mühlmann 1221–2. Cic. Verr. IV § 33 ego antea, tametsi hoc nescio quid nugatorium sciebam esse, ista intellegere, tamen mirari solebam istum in his ipsis rebus aliquem sensum habere... ...ita studiosus est huius praeclarae existimationis, ut putetur in hisce rebus intellegens esse. Oỹ. m. XIII 295 arma. Plin. ep. i 10 SS 3 4 nunc illas (the virtues of Euphrates) magis miror, quia magis intellego. quamquam ne nunc quidem satis intellego. ut enim de pictore sculptore fictore nisi artifex iudicare, ita nisi sapiens non potest perspicere sapientem. III 6 § 1. Plin. XXXV SS 88. 137. Vell. cited xi 100.

38 VESTEM collective Apul. met. xi 28 veste ipsa mea quamvis parvula distracta sufficientem corrasi summulam.

39 PURPUREAM 1 27 n. MAECENATIBUS 166 n. Mart. x 73 244 he had received as a present Ausoniae dona superba togae, | qua non Fabricius, sed vellet Apicius uti, | vellet Maecenas Caesarianus eques. Sen. ep. 92 g 35 diserte Maecenas ait: nec tumulum curo: sepelit natura relictos. alte cinctum putes dixisse. habuit enim ingenium et grande et virile, nisi illud secunda discinxissent. comment, on Hor. s. 1 2 25. Pedo Albin. in ob. Maec. 21. 25 26 (Wernsd. p. l. min. II 213 Lem.) quod discinctus eras, animo quoque, carpitur unum: | invide, quid' tandem tunicae nocuere solutae ? | aut tibi ventosi quid nocuere sinus ? 41 PECUS 'other attire, dyed on the sheep's back by the nature of the herbage.' Ipsum vestium pecus the very sheep that yield the cloth. The pastures are the banks of the Baetis (Guadalquivir). Plin. VIII § 191 quas nativas [oves] appellant, aliquot modis Hispania, nigri velleris praecipuas habet Pollentia...iam Asia rutili... item Baetica. Mart. 1 96 5 8 baeticatus...nativa laudet. XIV 133 •lacernae Baeticae' non est lana mihi mendax, nec mutor aeno; / sic placeant Tyriae; me mea tinxit ovis._id. v 37 7 quae crine vicit Baetici gregis vellus. VIII 28 5 6 an Tartessiacus stabuli nutritor Hiberi | Baetis in Hesperia te quoque lavit ove? Ix 61 3—5 qua dives placidum Core

TENERIS

1

duba Baetin amat, vellera nativo pallent ubi flava metallo, I et linit Hesperium brattea viva pecus. XII 63 345 of Corduba albi quae superas oves Galaesi, , nullo murice nec cruore mendax, / sed tinctis gregibus colore vivo. ib. 65 5. 98 1 2. Tert. pall. 3 Saumaise nec de ovibus dico,...quis Tarentum vel Baetica cluet natura colorante. Non. p. 549 fin. pullus color est quem nunc Spanum vel nativum dicimus. cf. Verg. ecl. 4 42—45. Marquardt v (2) 88.

SED ET XIII 102 n. 43 MITTERE Hor. C. III 24 47-50 vel nos in mare proximum | gemmas et lapides, aurum et inutile | ...mittamus. 44 PARTHENIO schol. caelatoris nomen.' He must have been a silversmith, as lances and cratera are in apposition to argentum. Parthenio dat. Zumpt § 419. Madvig $ 250 a.

URNAE 24 sextarii, nearly 3 gallons. 45 CRATERA DIGNUM SITIENTE PHOLO Stat. Th. 11 563 564 qualis in adversos Lapithas erexit inanem | magnanimus cratera Pholus. VF1. I 337 338 signiferum cratera minantem , non leviore Pholum manus haec compescuit auro. Theokr. vi 149 150 schol. åpá aq Tolóvde półw katà λάϊνον άντρον | κρητηρΗρακλήϊ γέρων έστάσατο Χείρων; Αth. 499ab Στησίχορος [fr. 7 Bergk] το παρά Φόλω τω Κενταύρω ποτήριον σκύφειον δε πας καλεί...σκύπφειον δε λαβών δέπας έμμετρον ως τριλάγυνον | πιεν επισχόμενος, το ρά η παρέθηκε Φόλος κεράσας. Lucian conviv. 14 the cynic Alkidamas scorning small cups, Aristaenetos beckoned to the waiter to bring etmeyéon okúčov. Alkidamas took it and threw himself half-naked on the ground πήξας τον αγκώνα ορθόν, έχων άμα τον σκύφον έν τη δεξιά, ολος ο παρά τω Φόλη Ηρακλής υπό των γραφέων δείκνυται. On the cask which Pholos opened for his guest (Luc. vi 391) Hercules cf. Apollod. 11 5 4. DS. IV 12; on the centaur himself Verg. g. II 456 Philargyr.

CONIUGE FUSCI schol. ebriosa fuit." VI 425 426 illa venit rubicun. dula, totum | oenophorum sitiens, plena quod tenditur urna. cf. the drunken Saufeia vi 320. Ix 116 117 subrepti potare Falerni | pro populo faciens quantum Saufeia bibebat. A Fuscus iv 112; another xvi 46. 46 BASCAUDAS schol. vasa, ubi calices lavabantur vel cacabus. Rather our basket.

Mart. XIV 99 barbara de pictis veni bascaud a Britannis : 1 sed me iam mavult dicere Roma suam.

ESCARIA dig. XXXIV 2 19 § 12 si cui escarium argentum legatum sit, id solum debebitur, quod ad epulandum in ministerio habuit, id est, ad esum et potum. esc. vasa in Paul. sentent. III 6 $$ 61. 67. 86 etc. Dirkssen manuale.

47 CAELATI 1 76 n. dig. XXXIV 2 19 & 11. Marquardt v (2) 276.

BIBERAT QUO II 95 vitreo bibat ille Priapo. x 25. Verg. g. II 506 ut gemma bibat. Plin. Vil § 12 Anthropophagos ...ossibus humanorum capitum bibere. CALLIDUS to Philip somo ascribed the saying (Ael. v. h. vii 12 Perizonius) 'boys must be tricked by dice, men by oaths.' Lucian dial. mort. 14 § 3. Iustin. Ix 8 $ 7 seq. Hermann Staats-Alt. § 172 14.

EMPTOR OLYNTHI Philip of Macedon took Olynthus B.C. 348, by the aid of Lasthenes and Euthykrates, two citizens of high station, whom he had corrupted A. Schäfer Demosthenes u. s. Zeit ind. Olynth.' DS. xvi 53 54. Dem. de Chers. p. 99. Phil. III pp. 125. 128. de cor. p. 241. de f. 1. pp. 425 seq. 451. See generally Sen. ep. 94 § 62 tot civitatium strage, quas aut vicerat Philippus aut emerat. Cic. Att. i 16 § 12 Philippus omnia castella expugnari posse dicebat, in quae modo asellus onustus auro posset ascendere. Plut. 11 1772. 856b. id. Paul. Aem. 12 & 6. Hor. C. III 16 13–15 diffidit urbium portas vir Macedo et subruit aemulos |

reges muneribus. oracle given to Philip αργυρέαις λόγχαισι μάχου, και návra kpathoeus (paroem. Leutsch 1 209 n. II 99 n.). On the venality of public men at the time see Demosth. passim ; esp. de cor. p. 245 Tapà γάρ τοις "Έλλησιν, ου τισίν, αλλ' άπασιν ομοίως, φοράν προδοτών και δωροδόκων και θεοίς εχθρών ανθρώπων συνέβη γενέσθαι...ούς συναγωνιστές και συνεργούς λαβών και πρότερον κακώς τους Έλληνας έχοντας προς εαυτούς και στασιασTIKÛS Ěti xelpov diconke. ib. pp. 240 fin. 324 (where a list of traitors is given; cf. Hermann Staats-Alt. & 72 8). The mines of Thrace (Thirlwall v p. 269 seq. Iustin. viii 3 § 12 auraria in Thessalia, argenti metalla in Thracia occupat. DS. xvi 8 $8 6 7. Sen. n. q. v 15 SS 1. 3. cf. Hor. ep. 11 1 234 regale nomisma, Philippos) supplied funds for these bribes, which even the Pythia did not refuse (Demosth. in Aesch. c. Ktes. p. 72 § 130 ń IIvdia PIATTISEL). The cup would not only have an antiquarian value-(1 76 n. viii 104 n. Berenice's ring vi 156. Hor. speaks jestingly of plate which had belonged to Evander and Sisyphus s. 1 3 91. II 321 cf. 64. Plin. XXXVII § 4 the ring of Polycrates, si credimus, à sardonyx in the temple of Concord. cf. § 8. DCass. Lix 21 g 6 when Caligula sold by auction the imperial jewels, he forced up the biddings by comments; this my father bought, this my mother, this my grandfather, this my great-grandfather; this belonged to Antonius, this to Augustus '; ib. LXXVII 7 8 1 Caracalla used armour and drinking-cups which had belonged to Alexander the great; Stat. s. IV 6 59—88 felix dominorum stemmate signum, a Hercules of Lysippus had belonged to Alexander, Hannibal, Sulla ; Lucian Philops. 19 a work of Daedalus: cf. Friedländer 1112 214 215. on mythical relics seen by Paus. Thirlwall vind 468 and my first Gr. reader3 xvi. 221: add Tanaquil's distaff and spindle and a robe spun by her for Servius Tullius Varro in Plin. VIII Ş 194. her miraculous girdle Festus s. v. praedia pp. 238. 241 M. Pelops' ivory shoulder Plin. XXVIII S 34. Becker--Hermann Charikles i 99. Hertzberg Griechenl. 11. 22. 25),—but be prized as a memorial of a famous boon companion (Karyst. in Ath. 435d őte... MEDúelv at poppeito DiALT TOS, TOÛT' Eleye xpỳ trivelv, 'Avrimatpos yap ikavós éoti vñowv. cf. ib. 260. Iustin. Ix 8 § 15. Plin. XXXIII § 50 summa apud exteros licentiae fuerat Phi. lippum regem poculo aureo pulvinis subdito dormire solitum). 48 49 pessimism cf. i 147—150 n.

48 on double interrogations see Matthiä 8 488 12 and obs. 2. 48–51 viii 83 84. XI 11 n. xiv 273-283. 50 51 Bentley on Hor. a. p. 337 video hic in mediam narrationem sententiolas has intrudi, putide prorsus et perquam inscite...quorsum enim hic quidam ? cum iam dixerat, ne unum quidem ulla mundi parte vitam patrimonio praeferre. quale autem illud, faciunt patrimonia ? quae scabies locutionis ? quam alienum et pannosum illud vitio caeci? quod eo tantum assuitur, ut versiculi cento sarciatur.' Markland 'stultissimi duo versus: in qua sententia cum gaudio video summum quoque Bentleium.' cf. Lupus 31.

FACIUNT PATRIMONIA XIV 326. Hor. ep. 1 1 65 rem. so divitias, pecuniam Mühlmann 53. patrimonia not necessarily inherited vıı 113.

52 RERUM UTILIUM utensilia provisions and furniture Tac. ann. 1 70 Gron. NEC not even these sacrifices give any relief.

54 RECCIDIT Ov. met. x 180 reccidit in solidam longo post tempore terram. Corssen Aussprache 112 468. 'At last, as difficulties thickened upon him, he (the rector 33) was driven to cut down the mast, and so makes room to turn about in.'

MALUM FERRO SUMMITTERET dig. XIV 2 5 § 1 arbore caesa, ut navis cum mercibus liberari possit.

55 Ex

PLICAT SE dig. IX 2 29 § 3 si cum vi ventorum navis impulsa esset in funes anchorarum alterius et nautae funes praecidissent, si nullo alio modo nisi praecisis funibus explicare se potuit. ANGUSTUM = in angusto conclusum.

DISCRIMINIS ULTIMA Holyday distress is desperate, when the help makes the ship less. Iuv. xv 95 bellorumque ultima. Luc. viii 665 666 nihil ultima mortis , ex habitu vultuque viri mutasse. X 24. 56 FACTURA Iuv. has a predilection for this partic. Lupus 39. Kiaer 185. IV 50. v 32. VI 426—8 oenophorum... | ... de quo sextarius alter | ducitur ante cibum, rabidam facturus orexim.' 605. x 8. 49. 144.

57 I NUNC ET X 165 n. Mart. II 6 1. Prop. IV=III 7 29 ite, rates curvas et leti tescite causas. VENTIS ANIMAM COMMITTE etc. Sen. Med. 304-8 animam levibus credidit auris | dubioque secans aequora cursu | potuit tenui fidere ligno, | inter vitae mortisque vias | nimium gracili limite ducto. Hor, c. 1 3 10.

DOLATO a smooth plank, a piece of joiner's work.

58 CONFISUS nomin. as IV 23 24 tu succinctus. voo. in vı 276 277 tu tibi tunc, Uruca, places ... | ...quac scripta et quot lecture tabellas. DIGITIS etc. XIV 288. DL. 1 103 Anacharsis Mal wv tét tapas o aktúlous είναι το πάχος της νεώς, τοσούτον έφη του θανάτου τους πλέοντας åt éxelv. Sen, contr. 16 g 10 scitis, nihil esse periculosius, quam etiam instructa navigia : parva materia seiungit fata. Arat. phaen. 298 299 schol. οι δ' έτι πόρσω | κλύζονται, ολίγον δε διά ξύλον αϊδ' ερύκει, as Longin. 10 § 6 remarks, from Hom. Il. xv 628. cf. Alkiphr. 1 3. DChrys. or. 64 11 331 R (Valcken. diatr. p. 239 seq.) ovdè gàp mitty την ψυχήν ούτε σχοινίους επιτρέπουσιν, ούτε τριδάκτυλον αυτούς σώζει filov etkivov. Liban. progymn. (1 124° in Valck.) oi miwoñpes ain σίον έχοντες τον θάνατον πλέουσι, λεπτήν έχοντες εις σωτηρίαν ελπίδα Tà túža. Sen. ep. 49 $ 11 erras,'si in navigatione tantum existimas minimum esse, quo a morte vita diducitur: in omni loco aeque tenue intervallum est. Ov, am. 11 11 26 et prope tam letum, quam prope cernit aquam. cf. Aesch. Th. 762. Aen. 1x 143. [Plat.] Axioch. 3686 Bias reckoned men at sea neither amongst the living nor amongst the dead.

59 TAEDA the fir-plank. 60 mox when on board.

CUM RETICULIS ET PANE Hor. s. 1 1 47 reticulum panis, borne by a slave in a journey. VENTRE LAGONAE IV 107 Montani venter.

LAGONAE V 29 n. VIII 162.

61 ASPICE VIII 96 n. circumspice. 62-82 When the voyager's fate mightier than wind and sea proved prosperous, and the Parcae spun a white thread, the vessel ran under makeshift sails of clothes, and under the foresprit which alone remained. The sun brings back hope of life. Presently the white summit of Alba Longa comes in view, and the master brings his ship to anchor in the lee, behind the vast mole of Ostia’s new harbour. The sailors offer their hair in gratitude for deliverance, and spin a merry yarn of the dangers of the deep.

62–66 repeat the same thought. cf. vii 41 42. 135—7. XVI 25-34.

62-64 POSTQUAM thrice III 26 27 dum. VII 53 54 cui...qui...qui.

63 PROSPERA common predicate to tempora and f. v. e. et p.; vectoris also belongs to both.

The conj. of Vales. vectori is probable.

FATUM XVI 1 n. 64 PARCAE III 27.

65 PENSA MANU Stat. Ach. 1 260 261 si Lydia dura | pensa manu mollesque tulit Tirynthius hastas.

STAMINIS ALBI SO at the

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