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agrestes querellae litteras nostras et haec urbana opera commendant. id. pan. 5 maris caelique temperiem turbines tempestatesque coinmen. dant. Ruhnken on Vell. 11 29 8 2. comm. on Petr. 110 p. 656.

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10 Sen. ben. 1 10 § 2 foedissimum patrimoniorum exitium culina. Philo legat. 43 (11 596 M) the great men who thought that they were in highest favour with Gaius, were compelled to incur great expenses, πάμπολλα μεν εις τας ακρίτους και ατάκτους και εξαπιναίους αποδημίας αναλίσκοντες, πάμπολλα δε εις τας εστιάσεις. όλας γαρ ουσίας εξανάλουν εις ενός δείπνου παρασκευήν, ως και δανείζεσθαι: τοσαύτη τις ην η πολυτέλεια.

18 MATRIS IMAGINE FRACTA Ambr. de Tobia § 10 (the whole treatise is on usury) at ubi usurarum facta fuerit mentio aut pignoris, tunc deiecto supercilio fenerator arridet et, quem ante sibi cognitum denegabat, eundem tamquam paternam amicitiam recordatus osculo excipit, hereditariae pignus caritatis appellat, flere prohibet. 'quaeremus' inquit domi si quid nobis pecuniae est: frangam propter te argentum paternum quod fabrefactum est; plurimum damni erit: quae usurae compensabunt pretia emblematum ?' Mart. XI 11 5 cited x 362 n.

31 Lucian pro imag. 20 τον θερσίτην εύμορφότερον απoφήναι του 'Αχιλλέως.

33 TE CONSULE Sen. n. q. IV praef. § 18 ipse te consule, verane an falsa memoraveris.

[40 •Ov. ibidem 846 demisso in viscera censu. Plaut. trin. 424 nisi forte in ventrem filio correpserit. The general character of the imagery of the whole passage reminds me of Pers. 11 50 51 donec deceptus et exspes | nequiquam fundo suspiret nummus in imo.' J. C.]

43 MENDICAT [Quintil.] decl. 9 § 23 duo egentes et circa omnium, vel ignotorum, domos stipem rogabimus pariter....fortasse proderit mendicaturo mihi, quod ipse aliquando egentem pauperem alui.

[53'ANNO same abl. as 72 parte anni.' J. B. M.]
[72 ‘PARTE good part. x1 110 partem aliquam belli.' J. B. M.]

148 ET MAGNO Ambr. de Tobia § 19 adhibentur nitentes ministri, magno empti pretio, sumptu pascendi maiori.

149 TONSI DL. VI 31 the pupils of Diogenes, 150 PEXI Lucian cited x 117 fin.

157 Sen. n. q. VII 31 & 2 adhuc quicquid est boni moris, exstinguinus levitate et politura corporum.

164 Alkiphr. ep. 1 39.

XII

To-Day, Corvinus, I keep holy to the gods, who have delivered Catullus; nor, were my means equal to my affection, would I withhold the costliest offerings (1-16). For, after encountering all the perils of a storm, and cheerfully sacrificing his treasures to lighten the ship, he has reached in safety our new harbour (17—92). Wonder not then at my rejoicing, nor question its sincerity: he, for whom I raise so many altars, is no orbus, that a fortune-hunter should pay him court: even those who would offer their own children on the altar to propitiate the childless rich, would think any the smallest attention thrown away upon the father of three sons (93—130). With 1-92 cf. Catull. 9. Hor. c. I 36. II 7. III 14. Stat. S. II 7. Mart. x 87. Gell. XIX 9. With 93—130 Hor. 8. 11 5. Luc. dial. mort. 549. Obbar on Hor. ep. 1 1 78.

1-16 To-day, Corvinus, is sweeter to me than a birthday. To-day I perform the promised vow to the three gods of the Capitol, snow white lambs to Iuno and Minerva, to Iuppiter a calf just weaned; if my fortune were as my love, a fat bull from the Clitumnus should prove my gratitude for my friend's deliverance. 1 NATALI XI 84 n. Hor. C. IV 11 17 18 iure sollemnis mihi sancțiorque | paene natali proprio. Mart. 1x 53. Censorin. 3 $ 6. Aug. de beata vita § 6 idibus Novembris mihi natalis dies erat: post tam tenue prandium, ut ab eo nihil ingeniorum impediretur etc. Becker Gallus 13 127 128. Serv. on ecl. 111 76 sane cum natalis apud maiores plenum fuerit, posteritas natalis dies dicere coepit : nam cum Hor. dixerit natales (ep. II 2 210), Iuv. ait natali Corvine, die. Cic. however (see Forcell.) uses natalis dies.

2 PROMISSA 115. XIII 233. CESPES 85. Ov. tr. 7.5 9 araque gramineo viridis de caespite fiat. Tert. apol. 25 prope fin. temeraria de caespite altaria. Hor. C. 1 19 13. III 8 4. Luc. IX 988. Stat. s. I 4 131. Lact. VI 25 & 27 God requires an offering not of the man and the life; for which neque verbenis opus est, neque fibris, neque caespitibus, quae sunt utique vanissima, sed iis, quae de intimo pectore proferantur. Maxim. Taur. serm. 96 p. 655 (ed. 1784). Berthold de ara 6 (Graev. vi 273 274). 3 NIVEAM Aen, lv 61 (cited 8 n.), White victims were offered to the gods

of heaven. Liv. XXVII 37 B.C. 207 the temple of Iuno Regina on the Aventine was struck by lightning; boves feminae albae duae porta Car. mentali in urbem ductae. Vopisc. Florian. 6 fin. the senators were so overjoyed, ut in domibus suis omnes albas hostias caederent...convivia sumptuosiora praevenirent. REGINAE a title under which Iuno was worshipt among the Etruscans, at Ardea, Lanuvium, Pisaurum etc. At Rome the Capitoline Iuno is generally called Regina in inscriptions (Orelli ind.) and documents. Preller röm. Myth. 253. Temples were built in honour of Iuno Regina by Camillus on the Aventine and by M. Aemilius Lepidus B.c. 179 (Liv. v 22 SS 4. 7. 23 $ 7. XXXIX 2 g 11). Ov. f. vi 37 cur igitur regina vocor ? Varr. 1. 1. v 8 67. Serv. Aen. 1 8.

VIII 84.

Martian. Capella i $ 40 Kopp.

DUCIMUS 112. x 65. 4 GORGONE abl. instr. As Pallas bore the Gorgon's head on her shield, Gorgo is used for the shield. Aen. II 616 of Pallas limbo effulgens et Gorgone saeva [ effulgent with the border and terrible with the Gorgon': i.e. wearing the aegis, with its golden fringes and border, and the Γοργείη κεφαλή δεινοίο πελώρου in the centre'. Η. A. J. M.]. Prop. V=IV 9 58 fortia dum posita Gorgone membra lavat. Ov. m. v 230 of Perseus in partem Phorcynida transtulit illam. Claud. gigantom. 91 92 Tritonia virgo | prosilit ostendens rutila cum Gorgone pectus. id. in Rufin. 1 280 rigida cum Gorgone Perseus. cf. sat. VII 130 rhinocerote. In Ov. m. vii 151 two mss. have arietis aurei for the golden fleece. Claud. in Eutr. 11 387 non septem vasto quatiens umbone iuvencos (hides). Haupt opusc. II 168 169.

5 Sery, Aen. II 134. Iuv. acknowledged the claims of his religion 111 320 n.

6 TARPEIO VI 47 48. to Iuppiter, Iuno and Minerva belonged separate cellae in the Capitoline temple (Liv. vi 29 § 9. Becker röm. Alterth. I 397. Burn Rome and Campagna 189 190. Schwegler 1 6969): hence they are frequently invoked together. Liv. 111 17 3 Iuppiter optimus maximus Iunoque regina et Minerva aliique di deaeque obsidentur. VM. v 10 § 2 Iovem optimum maximum Iunonemque Reginam et Minervam precatus sum. Sil. x 433—6 Drakenb. Liv. vị 16 & 2. XXII 1 $S 17 18. Serv. Aen. II 225. Lact. i 11 g 39. Martian. Cap. 1 § 39 Kopp. Some supposed them to be the Penates Arn. III 40. Macrob. III 4 $ 8. cf. Serv. Aen. III 12.

FRONTEMQUE CORUSCAT Heins. and Burman on Ov. m. IV 493 cite exx, of corusco mucronem, hastam, telum, ferrum.

7 VITULUS Hor. c. 1 36 2. IV 2 54–60. TEMPLIS MATURUS VIII 169 maturus bello.

8 MERO Aen, iv 59-61 lunoni...ipsa tenens dextra pateram pulcherrima Dido | candentis vaccae media inter cornua fundit. vi 244 Servius. Ov. met. VII 594.

UBERA MATRIS Hor. C. IV 2 544-56 me tener solvet vitulus, relicta | matre qui largis iuvenescit herbis , in mea vota.

9 VEXAT NASCENTI ROBORA CORNU Verg. g. 111 232 233 irasci in cornua discit | arboris obnixus trunco. id. ecl. 3 87. Hor. C. III 13 4–8. Galen. de usu partium 1 3 (111 6 K) had noticed a calf butting (Kupittovta) before his horns had grown.

10 Hor. c. 11 17 30-32, III 23 9–20. ADFECTIBUS a silver age use Plin. ep. 11 1 § 8 of Verginius Rufus ille mihi tutor relictus adfectum parentis exhibuit. IV 19 8 1 nec tantum amitae ei adfectum verum etiam patris amissi repraesentes. VIII 11 & 1 adfectum tuum erga fratris filiam...etiam materna indulgentia molliorem. 1x 13 & 16 Döring. x4=3 & 6.

11 HISPULLA vi 74 cf. 11 50 Hispo. so Cato Catullus, Maro Marullus, homo homullus

(Corssen Aussprache 11149).

13 CLITUMNI the Clitumnus (Clitunno) falls near Mevania in Umbria (Bevagna) into the Tinia (Timia), a tributary of the Tiber Verg. g. II 146–7 Servius hinc albi, Clitumne, greges et maxima taurus / victima saepe tuo perfusi flumine sacro | Romanos ad templa deum duxere triumphos. Prop. III=11 19 25 26. Colum. III 8 8 3 armentis sublimibus insignis Merania est. Luc. I 473. Stat. s. I 4 129. Sil. iv 547–8. VI 647 648. VIII 452—3. Plin. ep. VIII 8 highly extols the beauty of its banks and the clearness of its waters. cf. Suet. Cal. 43. Claud. vi cons. Hon. 506 507. epigr. 4 3 4. Addison works 1 410 Bohn. Childe Harold iv 66-68. PASCUA 40.

SANGUIS the blood and neck would go to the altar, i.e. the ox chosen for his fulness of blood (cf. Verg. g. 111 492) and thick neck. Cf. infra 112 ebur. XIV 10 gula. x 238 239 halitus oris, | quod steterat multis in carcere fornicis annis.

14 A GRANDI FERIENDA MINISTRO gerundives (in Gr. perf. pass.) usually take dat. of agent; they take abl. with ab (ünÒ with gen.) however sometimes for perspicuity Cic. leg. agr. 2 § 95 venerandos a nobis. de imp. Pomp. § 6 Halm, esp. p. Caecina 33 Jordan. ep, fam. 1 9 8 17. Ov. m. II 431. Roby II pref, Lxxv.

GRANDI VII 210 n. FERIENDA the technical term Mühlmann col. 191. Ov. f. iv 415 apta iugo cervix non est ferienda securi.

MINISTRO popa Suet. Cal. 32 admota altaribus victima succinctus poparum habitu elato alte malleo cultrarium mactavit.

16 AMICI Catullus 29. 93. 17–61 Catullus has escaped not only the risks of the waves but thunderbolts; darkness overcast the heaven with one cloud and a sudden flash caught the yard-arms; every man thought himself struck, and stunned with the shock counted blazing shrouds worse than any shipwreck. No terror by which poets add awe to a storm was wanting there. Hear another form of danger, and pity once more; though it is true what remains, if terrible, is but part and parcel of the same mischance, known to many, to which numerous temples by their votive tablets bear witness. Who knows not that painters look to Isis for their bread? The hold now half filled, as the billows rocked the ship, and the hoary master's skill found no help for the tottering tree, he compounded with the wind by lightening the vessel; as the beaver ransoms his life by biting off the drug for which he is hunted. “Over with all that's mine' cried Catullus, readily offering purple robes fit for fops like Maecenas, Spanish woollens of native dye, chargers engraved by Parthenius, a bowl that holds a draught for Pholus or for Fuscus' wife, baskets, a thousand plates, embossed goblets in which Philip of Macedon had caroused. Who else the wide world over would, to save life, cast away his all ? Most of the cargo is thrown out without relief; as a last resort the master fells the mast to ease the vessel by crippling her to a hulk. Go now, commit your life to the winds, trust a drest plank, and live four, or at most seven, fingers' breadth from death: and with bread-sack and wine-flagons, be sure to pack up axes against storms.

17–19 ANTEMNAS dig. xiv 2 6 navis adversa tempestate depressa ictu fulminis deustis armamentis et arbore [Iuv. 32] et antemna. 17 ET X 354 n.

19 NUBE UNA Corte on Luc. vi 346.

21 ATTONITUS Sen. n. q. II 27 g 3 of the thunder-clap hic proprie fragor dicitur, subitus et vehemens, quo edito concidunt homines et exanimantur, quidam vero vivi stupent et in totum sibi excidunt, quos vocamus adtonitos, quorum mentes sonus ille caelestis loco pepulit,

23 TALIA TAM in. IUV. II.

15

VFI. I.

verted comparison as in Thuc. IV 64 § 1. VI 78 $ 3. SI QUANDO ['all things are such and as bad in a poet's storm (but nowhere else out of poetry).' H. A. J. M.].

23 24 POETICA TEMPESTAS Lucian quom. hist. conscr. 45 TOINTIKOû Tivos á uov &TOUpiáoovtos árátia. Grang. cites Hom. Od. V IX XII. Aen. 1. Ov. m. XI 478_565. tr. I 2. Luc. v. Stat. Th. v.

Badham Tac. II 23.

2429 K. F. Hermann and Lupus (24) cite exx, of like verbosity in detail, which injures the general effect e.g.

I 40–44. 137 138. II 102–9. 143—8. III 12-20. 172—9. IV 48–56. 95–103. v 19—23. VII 189—202. VIII 54 55. 100–124. IX 79 80. x 95—98. XII 48 49. 57–61. 76—79. 106-110. XIII 2-4. 42-52. 130—4. 187–192. 199–208. xv 110_2.

25 Poeta, tanquam nimis graviter miserere iterum dixerit, haec, quae additurus est, de bonorum iactura, dira illa quidem ait esse, sed tamen partem et quasi appendicem eiusdem sortis, naufragii et periculi maritimi, multis notam. MADVIG. QUAMQUAM SINT XI 205 n.

27 VOTIVA TABELLA XIV 302 n. Hor. c. 1 5 13–16 me tabula sacer | votiva paries indicat uvida | suspendisse potenti | vestimenta maris deo. id. s. 11 1 33 34 votiva pateat veluti descripta tabella | vita senis. Cic. n. d. III § 89 Diagoras the atheist, when asked tu qui deos putas humana neglegere, nonne animadvertis ex tot tabulis pictis, quam multi votis vim tempestatis effugerint in portumque salvi pervenerint? replied illi enim nusquam picti sunt, qui naufragia fecerunt in marique perierunt. Others (DL. VI $59) ascribed the saying to Diogenes. Ambrose de excessu Satyri i 17 attributes his brother's escape from shipwreck to his vows apud sanctum martyrem Laurentium. Aen. XII 768 769. Plut. Mar. 40 init. A like tablet was offered in other cases Apul. met. vi 29 Hildebrand: to Aesculapius Aristid. 11 5416 Jebb. Verg. catal. 6 5 6 picta tua templa tabella | ornabo. 28 PICTORES Sen, contr. 34 § 1 nemo, ut naufragium pingeret, mersit hominem.

ISIDE (with the form cf. vi 270 and xv 163 tigride. Servius Aen. x 166. Neue 12 142–146). VI 489. 526–534. IX 22. XIII 93. Preller röm. Myth. 723—733. Marquardt iv 85–89. 94 95. When Tibullus went on a voyage Delia made a vow to Isis 1 3 23. 27 28 Broukh. quid tua nunc Isis mihi, Delia ?... | nunc, dea, nunc succurre mihi: nam posse mederi | picta docet templis multa tabella tuis. Stat. S. III 2 103. anth. Pal. vi 231 ALYÚTTOV μεδέουσα μελαμβώλου, λινόπεπλε | δαιμον... | ει δ' ως εκ πελάγους ερρύσαο Δαμιν, άνασσα, | κοκ πενίης, θύσει χρυσόκερων κεμάδα. Zeus commissions Hermes (Lucian dial. deor. 3 fin.) to take Io across seas into Egypt and make her into Isis: let her be a goddess of that country kai tous àvÉMovs TITLTTELTÉTW kai owsétW TOùs aléovtas.' Apul. met. XI 5. Hygin. fab. 27. See inscriptions to Isis (sometimes salutaris) ex voto Orelli 1871 seq. 2494. Marquardt iv 94–96. Friedländer 111 147 148. At Salzburg I have seen an altar hung with wax models of legs, arms etc. and inscriptions hilf, Maria! Maria hat geholfen, ascribing cures to the Virgin. PASCI III 141 n. VII 93. Ix 136.

30 ALVEUS Verg. Prop. Ov. (in Forcellini). Amm. xxiv 4 § 8 arborum cavatarum. XXXI 4 & 5 cavatis arborum alveis.

ET IAM in 6th foot also vi 574. IX 75.

XIII 9. xv 62–64 ergo acrior impetus et iam | saxa inclinatis per humum quaesita lacertis | incipiunt torquere. cf. v 47 quattuor ac iam.

32 ARBORI Lachmann's conjecture for arboris. "When now, the ship rolling from side to side, the helmsman could not save the tottering mast.' Lupus 7 objects that such a hiatus is unexampled in Iuv. He reads arboris and cum ferret,

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