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12 & 4 (horses hired). The treasures left by Tiberius wasted on shows by Caligula in less than two years DCass. LIX 2 SS 5 6. 5 SS 2–5. Mart. IV 67. v 25 9 10. Plin. paneg. 95 in praetura modestiae. A lively picture of the formidable correspondence required to furnish the games in Symm. ep. IX 12. 15. 18—25. Friedländer in Marquardt IV 485 486.

PRAEDA PRAETOR Arator act. II 1164 praedo venis, sed praeda iaces. Martian. Cap. v § 232 paronomasia [x 122 n.] levis immutatio verbi ac nominis, id est, cum syllaba aut littera mutata diversa significat, ut si dicas : praetor est vel potius praedo. Diomed. 11 p. 441. Cic. Verr. I § 131 pupillos et pupillas certissimam praedam esse praetoribus. ib. v § 63 naves inanes, quae praedam praetori, non quae praedonibus metum adferrent. PACE LICET SI DICERE PLEBIS Quintil. 1 6 § 8 pace dicere hominis eruditissimi liceat, Plin. xxxiv § 108_haec omnia medici, quod pace eorum dixisse liceat, ignorant. Tibull. 11 5 105. Ov, am. II 2 60 pace loquar Veneris, tu dea maior eris. Petron. 2 pace vestra liceat dixisse, primi omnium eloquentiam perdidistis.

196 IMMENSAE Stat. 8. 1 2 232 et pars immensae gaudet celeberrima Romae. Friedländer 1* 19. 54–63 at the beginning of the empire the population amounted to a million, and grew to two million or more. Ios. b. I. vii 5 3 at the triumph of Titus none remained at lhome της αμέτρου πληθύος εν τη πόλει.

Some suppose that a verse has here fallen out, but immensae nimiaeque shew that the next verse might offend the overgrown populace : "all Rome is here,' puts a definite limit to the unlimited, counts the countless. Congreve : 'if I may be allow'd, / without offence to such a num'rous crowd, | to say all Rome. Chrys. de Anna serm. 4 (1v 730d) őrav não a ý oólis at pos tov ιππόδρομον μεταστη, και οικίαι και αγοραι εις την παράνομον θεωρίαν κενωUwow ékelynu. A sermon de consubstantiali 7 (1 501b) begins záliv iTTOδρομίαι και πάλιν ο σύλλογος ημίν ελάττων γέγονε. id. in illud, vidi Dominum, hom. 3 & 2 (vı 113cd) oux opậs Tous nvióxous, of tîis rólews απάσης άνω καθημένης εν ταις τών ίππων άμιλλαις, άπαν του σταδίου παρατρέχοντες το μέρος, εκεί φιλονεικούσι τα των αντιπάλων άρματα καταστρέφειν, ένθα αν ίδωσι τον βασιλέα καθήμενον;

197 CIRCUS 53 n. Sen. ir, 11 7 85 circum, in quo maximam sui partem populus ostendit. Ov. a. a. 1 136 multa capax populi commoda circus habet. Quintil. XII 1 § 6 dati spectaculis dies multum studiis auferunt. Luc. Nigr. 29 the jostling and the Circus and the pictures of jockeys and the names of the horses and the discussions about them in the streets : πολλή γάρ ώς αληθώς η ιππομανία and it has seized on many men of good repute. Tac. x111 54 intravere Pompeii theatrum, quo magnitudinem populi viserent. On the days of the games Augustus (Suet. 43) custodes in urbe disposuit, ne raritate remanentium grassatoribus obnoxia esset.

FRAGOR VIII 59 n. Sen. ep. 83 8 7 ecce circensium obstrepit clamor. subita aliqua et universa voce feriuntur aures meae. Auson. idyll. 17 10 11. Namatian. I 201—4 saepius attonitae resonant circensibus aures, 1 nuntiat accensus plena theatra favor. I pulsato notae redduntur ab aethere voces, , vel quia perveniunt vel quia fingit amor. Epiktet. man. 33 § 2 speak seldom, and in few words; when occasion demands it, speak, but not on trivial matters, not of sword plays, nor of horse races, nor of athletes.' It was a safe topic Mart. x 48 21—24 accedunt sine felle ioci nec mane timenda | libertas et nil quod tacuisse velis. / de pra sino conviva meus venetoque loquatur, I nec faciunt quemquam pocula nostra reum. Sil. xvi 313—457

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Drakenb. a very lively picture e.g. 320-325 tollitur in caelum furiali turbine clamor, | pronique ac similes certantibus ore sequuntur | quisque suos currus magnaque volantibus idem | voce loquuntur equis : quatitur certamine circus | certantum et nulli mentem non abstulit ardor. ( instant praecipites et equos clamore gubernant. Casaubon on Vopisc. Aurel. 48. Symm. ep. x 29. Prudent. hamartig. 361 vesania fervida circi. Tert. spect. 23 an Deo placebit auriga ille tot animarum inquie. tator, tot furiarum minister...coloratus ut leno? Philo (de provid. II § 103 fin.) had seen men in a frenzy throw themselves under the wheels of the chariots. Chrysost. in gen. hom. 5 (Iv 396). hom. 6 (410) ου μόνον γάρ ίππους τρέχοντας έστιν ιδείν, αλλά και κραυγών και βλασφημιών και μυρίων ακαιρων έστιν ακούσαι λόγων και γυναίκας ήταιρηκυίας εις το μέσον παριούσας ιδείν και νέους πρός των γυναικών απαλότητα εαυτούς εκδιδόντας. ib. 42ab. id. de Lazaro 7 (1 790cd), when I preach against the circus, I see men clap my words, and then again run to the hippodrome, kai μείζονας τους κρότους επί τους ηνιόχους επιδεικνυμένους και ακάθεκτον την μανίαν, και μετά πολλού του τόνου συντρέχοντας και προς αλλήλους πολλάκις διαπληκτιζομένους και λέγοντας, ότι ο μέν τών ίππων ου καλώς έδραμεν, ο δε υποσκελισθείς κατέπεσεν, και ο μεν τούτω τώ ηνιόχω εαυτον προσνέμει, ο δε TỐ ÊTÉPW. It is a Satanic spectacle 7916. 7934. ad pop. Antioch. hom. 15 (11 1574) the spectacle of the horse-races has often led to battles, revilings, blows, insults, lasting feuds. cf. 651a the insatiable passion of those who sit agape for the horse-race. Friedländer 113 266—274 (acclamations, petitions, hooting, political demonstrations). 321. 329 330. Vit. Gall. 9 Gallienus, when Rome was murmuring at his neglect of his father's memory, took no heed obstupefacto voluptatibus corde, sed ab his qui circum erant, requirebat 'ecquid habemus in prandio ? ecquae voluptates paratae sunt ?' et 'qualis cras erit cena qualesque circenses?' cf. Iuv. x 81, when the people, once rerum domini, care only for the same 'two things' panem et circenses.

198 x 81 n. [Cypr.] spect. 5 quam vana sunt ipsa certamina, lites in coloribus, contentiones in cursibus, favores in honoribus, gaudere quod equus velocior fuerit, maerere quod pigrior. Four chariots generally contended, the drivers being distinguished by four colours Sidon. c. 23 323 324 (where is a full description of the race) micant colores, | albus vel venetus virens rubensque. The factiones (also partes, populi, μέρη, δήμοι: the members δημόται or ο λαός), not named by any writer of the republic. The earliest trace is a notice (Plin. VII S 186) from the acta of Felix a driver of the red faction, on whose pyre one of his partisans threw himself (copia odorum corruptum, said the rival faction); this was shortly after the death of M. Lepidus (i.e. if the triumvir's father, cir. B.c. 77). Cic. Verg. VM. etc. derive the games of the Circus from the rape of the Sabine women; whence Malalas, the chron. Pasch, Cedrenus etc. attribute the origin of these factions to Romulus (Schwegler 1 471). Tert. spect. 9 quadrigae productae merito et aurigas coloribus idololatriae vestierunt. et ab initio duo soli fuerunt, albus et russeus: albus hiemi ob nives candidas, russeus uestati ob solis ruborem voti erant. sed postea tam voluptate, quam superstitione provecta, russeum alii Marti, alii album Zephyris consecraverunt ; prasinum vero terrae matri vel veri, venetum caelo et mari vel auctumno. Isidor. XVIII 41. Ov. amor. III 2 78 evolat admissis discolor agmen equis. Mart. x 48. 53. XIV 131. anth. Pal. vi 368 1 ol Bévetol pacivololv évavtlou aièv čovtes. The green faction (prasina from πράσον, leek. Lydus mens. 1V 25 οι δε βίριδες οίον ανθηροί- πρασίνους δε

aŭtous VŮv tpora yopeúovol) was favoured by Caligula (DCass. Lix 14), Nero (id. LXIII 6 ήρμήλατησε την τε στολήν την πράσινον ενδεδυμένος και το kpávos YveOx KÒV Trepikel uevos), Verus (Capitol. 4), Commodus (DCass. LXXII 17. LXXIII 4), Heliogabalus (id. LXXIX 14 & 1). Each party had its supporters among the spectators (id. LXXVIII 8), and the contests between the factions often ended in bloodshed (thus Apollonius of Tyana rebuking the Alexandrians Philostr. v 26 § 2 ÚTèp 8' ORTT WV vtavba juurd Mèv yuiv επ' αλλήλοις ξίφη, βολαι δ' έτοιμοι λίθων. Again at Antioch in Caligula's days between blues and greens Malal. p. 244 Bonn. The most memorable instance is the Nika riot at Constantinople A.D. 532, well described by Gibbon, c. 40 2). See Chrysost. de Lazaro concio 7 (1 790 seq.) against frequenters of the circus. Orelli inscr. 2593 seq. Bulenger de circo 47–49. Panyin. 1 10. Wilken über die Partheyen der Rennbahn Berlin 1829 4to. (Akad.) Alfr. Rambaud de Byzantino hippodromo et circensibus factionibus. Paris Franck 1870.

EVENTUM Amm. XIV 6 8 26 est admodum mirum videre plebem innumeram mentibus ardore quodam infuso cum dimicationum curulium eventu pendentem. haec similiaque memorabile nihil vel serium agi Romae permittunt. Plin. x $ 71 Caecina, owner of some chariots, sent to his friends news of his victory by swallows inlito victoriae colore.

VIRIDIS Caligula was so devoted to this colour that he dined in the green stable Suet. Cal. 55. Nero's talk from his boyhood ran chiefly on the circensian games; lamenting among his schoolfellows an accident to a green charioteer, who was dragged on the ground, he was reproved by his paedagogus; on which (Suet. 22) de Hectore se loqui ementitus est. DCass. LXI 6 88 1–3. Mart. also cheered the Greens xi 33 saepius ad palmam prasinus post fata Neronis i pervenit et victor praemia plura refert. I i nunc, bivor edax, dic te cessisse Neroni; | vicit nimirum non Nero, sed prasinus. cf. vi 46. Friedländer 113 310.

PANNI Plin. ep. ix 6 (see n. on 53) si tamen aut velocitate equorum aut hominum arte traherentur, esset ratio non nulla : nunc favent panno, pannum amant, et si in ipso cursu medioque certamine hic color illuc, ille huc transferatur, studium favorque transibit, et repente agitatores illos, equos illos, quos procul noscitant, quorum clamitant nomina, relinquent. tanta gratia, tanta auctoritas in una vilissima tunica.

199 SI DEFICERET schol. .si vinceretur prasinus.' Amm. XXVIII 4 § 29 eisque templum et habitaculum et contio et cupitorum spes omnis circus est maximus. § 30 inter quos hi, qui ad satietatem vixerunt, potiores auctoria tate longaeva, per canos et rugas clamitant saepe, rem publicam stare non posse, si futura concertatione, quem quisque vindicat, carceribus non exsiluerit princeps. § 31 on the morning of the race before daybreak effusius omnes festinant praecipites ut velocitate currus ipsos anteeant certaturos : super quorum eventu discissi votorum studiis anxii plurimi agunt pervigiles noctes. Cassiod. var. III 51 transit prasinus, pars populi maeret: praecedit venetus, et potior pars civitatis affligitur. nihil proficientes ferventer insultant, nihil patientes graviter vulnerantur, et ad inanes contentiones sic descenditur, tamquam de statu periclitantis patriae laboretur.

200 CANNARUM IN PULVERE II 155. VII 163 n. x 165 n. Liv. XXII 43 SS 10 11 Hannibal castra posuerat aversa a Vulturno vento, qui campis torridis siccitate nubes pulveris vehit. id cum ipsis castris percommodum fuit, tum salutare praecipue erat, cum aciem dirigerent, ipsi aversi, terga tantum afflante vento, in occaecatum pulvere offuso hostem pugnaturi, etc. ib. 26 §:9 ventus (Vulturnum incolae regionis vocant)

SPECTENT IUVENES

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I adversus Romanis coortus multo pulvere in ipsa ora volvendo prospectum

ademit. Sil. 1x 491. cf. Sen. n. q. v 16 & 4. Flor. I 22= 11 6 5 16. Plut. Fab. 16 § 1. App. VII 20. On the Roman loss at Cannae see Liv. ib. 49. 50 SS 1 2 pugna Cannensis, Aliensi cladi nobilitate par ....strage exercitus gravior foediorque. On the panic at Rome ib. 53 (a plot formed by some nobles to desert Italy). 54 g 8 numquam salva urbe tantum pavoris tumultusque intra moenia Romana fuit. itaque succumbam oneri neque aggrediar narrare,quae edissertando minora vero fecero.

201 CONSULIBUS B.C. 216 L. Aemilius Paullus, who fell in the battle; C. Terentius Varro, who received the thanks of the senate for not having despaired of the state. Chrys. de Anna serm. 4 (iv 730d) ävēpu ToL yeynpakótes véwv akuajóvtw σφοδρότερον εκεί τρέχουσι, την πολιάν καταισχύνοντες, την ηλικίαν παραδειγματίζοντες, το γήρας αυτό καταγέλαστον ποιoύντες. cf. 730e -7322.

202 SPONSIO Mart. xi 1 15 16 cum sponsio fabulaeque lassae | de Scorpo fuerint et Incitato. Tertull. (supra 193 n.). Ov. a. a. 1 167 168: even in the Il. (XXIII 485) a wager is laid on the issue of a

Plin. XXXIII § 28 consuetudo vulgi ad sponsiones etiamnum anulo exiliente. Trimalchio's cook, being invited to take his place at table, Petr. 70 fin. continuo Ephesum tragoedum coepit sponsione provocare, si prasinus proximis circensibus primam palmam.' Macrob. Sat. 11 13=111 17 85 15 16 Cleopatra uxor, quae vinci a Romanis nec luxuria dignaretur, sponsione provocavit insumere se posse in unam cenam sestertium centies. id mirum Antonio visum, nec moratus spon. sione contendit, dignus sculna Munatio Planco qui tam honesti certaminis arbiter electus est. cf. Plin. ix $ 120. CULTAE Tert. spect. 25 pudicitiam ediscet attonitus -in mimos ? immo in omni spectaculo nullum magis scandalum occurret, quam ipse ille muli. erum et virorum accuratior cultus. ipsa consensio, ipsa in favoribus aut conspiratio aut dissensio inter se de commercio scintillas libidinum conflabellant.

ADSEDISSE cf. Hor, c. IV 1 29 seq. nec opes... nec certare iuvat.

PUELLAE Oy. amor. III 2 65-82. a. a. I 135 seq. esp. cuius equi veniant, facito studiose requiras; | nec mora ; quisquis erit, cui favet illa, fave. tr. 11 283 284 tollatur circus ! non tuta licentia circi est : 1 hic sedet ignoto iuncta puella viro, cf. the precautions of Augustus Suet. 44. Procop. bell. Pers. I 24, 203-8 let our wrinkled skin drink in spring's warm sun, and fly the (cumbrous and formal] toga. Already, though it wants a full hour of noon, you may go to the bath, nor blush for the loss of a day. You could not live thus five days running, for even such delights pall. 'Tis sparing indulgence must give pleasures their zest. 203 BIBAT VERNUM CUTICULA SOLEM VII 105 n. 173 n. Mart. x 12 7 i precor et totos avida cute combibe soles. Pers. IV 18 assiduo curata cuticula sole. ib. 33 si unctus cesses et figas in cute solem. Hor. ep. 1 20 24 Obbar. The Romans, esp. the elderly (hence Pers. v 179 aprici senes) and men of leisure (Sen. brev. vit. 13 g 1 persequi singulos longum est, quorum aut latrunculi aut pila aut excoquendi in sole corporis cura consumpsere vitam) walked (Plin. cited 204 n.) or basked (id. ep. 111 5 § 10 si quid otii, iacebat in sole. vi 16 g 5 usus ille sole, mox frigida, gustaverat iacens studebatque) in the sun after rub. bing their bodies with oil. Cic. Att. XI 6 § 2 pro isto asso sole, quo tu abusus es in nostro pratulo, a te nitidum solem unctumque repe

The process was called insolatio, apricatio, yllwors, and solurią

temus.

were appropriated to this use. Arn. 19 quid si sole aliquis torrere se suetus et adquirere corpori siccitatem...conqueratur frequentissimis nubilis iucunditatem serenitatis ablatam ? numquid ideo dicenda sunt nubila inimica obductione pendere, quia libidini non permittitur otiose rutilare se flammis et causas potionibus praeparare? Ast on Plat. Phaedr. p. 262 seq.

BIBAT Quintil. xi 3 $ 23 fuligo lucubrationum bibenda.

VERNUM the April sun 193.

CONTRACTA shrunk, Iuv. being about 70 years of age.

CUTICULA the i is long also in canicula, clavicula, craticula L. Müller de re metr. 353.

204 EFFUGIATQUE TOGAM 111 172 n. lunata nusquam pellis, et nus. quam toga, thus Mart. (1 49 31) recommends the life in his native Spain. So xii 18 17 ignota est toga. Spart. Hadr. 22 senatores et equites Romanos semper in publico togatos esse iussit, nisi si a cena reverterentur. On public occasions, as in the circus, the toga was full dress Suet. Aug. 40 negotium aedilibus dedit, ne quem posthac paterentur in foro circove nisi positis lacernis togatum consistere. Lampr. Comm. 16 contra consuetudinem paenulatos iussit spectatores, non togatos ad munus convenire; this order (the paenula being dark and worn by mourners) passed for an omen of the emperor's death. Friedländer 113 274.

BALNEA III 262 263. VI 419. Artemid. 1 64 είτα δή λούονται μέλλοντες δειπνήσειν" και έστι νύν το βαλανείον ουδέν άλλο η οδός επί τροφήν. Cato bathed and supped as usual before his nobile letum App. b. c. II 98. Apul, met. viii 29. x 15. The usual time of bathing was the eighth hour Mart. xi 52 3. Plin. ep. II. 1 § 8 ubi hora balnei nuntiata est, est autem hieme nona, aestate octava, in sole, si caret vento, ambulat nudus. Spartian. Hadr. 22 ante octavam horam in publico neminem nisi aegrum lavari passus est. The tenth hour is also named as late Mart. III 36 5. x 70 13. cf. VII 51 11. Some bathed at the sixth hour ib. 48 144 nuntiat octavam Phariae sua turba iuvencue 1 ... temperat haec thermas, nimios prior hora vapores | halat et immodico sexta Nerone calet. Spartian. Pescenn. 3 a letter of Severus: tribuni medio die lavant, pro tricliniis popinas habent, pro cubiculis meritoria. saltant, bibunt, cantant et mensuras conviviorum vocant hoc sine mensura potare. Vitruv, v 10 $ 1 maxime tempus lavandi a meridiano ad vesperum est constitutum. Tert. apol. 42 non lavor diluculo saturnalibus, ne et noctem et diem perdam, attamen lavor honesta hora et salubri, quae mihi et calorem et sanguineni servet; rigere et pallere post lavacrum mortuus possum. Here Iuv. proposes to bathe at once, though it wants a whole hour of noon Iuv. 1 49 n. 143 n. Lips. exc. on Tac. XIV 2. Marquardt v (1) 277 278. Salm, on Vopisc. Florian. 6 (11 631–4). Becker Gallus sc. 7 exc. 1.

205 FRONTE XIII 242. Pers. y 103 104 exclamet Melicerta perisse | frontem de rebus.

QUAMQUAM SUPERSIT II 4 5. vi 88. 199. VII 15. x 34 n. XII 25. XIII 172. XV 30; so generally in Tac.

SOLIDA HORA Hor. c. 1 1 20 partem solido demere de die. See the lexx.

206 QUINQUE DIEBUS Hor, s. 1 3 16.

208 VOLUPTATES COMMENDAT RARIOR USUS `seasons,' enhances,' 'sets off.' Phaedr. 11 pr. 7 a jest recommendatur, non auctoris nomine. Plin. ep. 1 2 6 sed sane blandiantur, dum per hoc mendacium nobis studia nostra commendent. VII 3 8 3 tempus est te revisere molestias nostras vel ob hoc solum, ne vo. luptates istae satietate languescant. IX 5 § 1 iustitiam tuam provincialibus multa humanitate commendas. ib. 36 & 6 quorum mihi

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