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When Simos Dionysios' steward, a Phrygian, shewed Aristippos his master's costly palace DL, II § 75 Toluteleis okous kal A.DoOtputovs, Arist. a'vaxpeu y áuevos a poOÉTTUOE Oyel, and when he was angry said: 'I had no more fitting place.' Plin. xxxvi s 55 non autem omnia in lapicidinis gignuntur, sed multa et sub terra sparsa, pretiosissimi quidem generis, sicut Lacedaemonium viride cunctisque hilarius. Stat. s. I 2 148 149 hic dura Laconum | saxa virent. The stone of mount Taenarus was much valued Prop. IV=111 2 9 quod non Taenariis domus est mihi fulta columnis. Strabo 367 there are old quarries of costly stone in Taenarus, and some have lately opened a large mine in Taygetus, xoprydr & xovtes την των Ρωμαίων πολυτέλειαν. Plin. ib. § 135 sunt et nigri [lapides] quorum auctoritas venit in marmora, sicut Taenarius. Meurs. miscell. Lacon. II 18. Prudent. c. Symm. 11 247. Lamprid. Heliog. 24 stravit et saxis Lacedaemoniis ac porphyreticis plateas in Palatio, quas Antoninianas vocavit. Bursian Geogr. v. Griechenl. II 106. Hertz. berg Gesch. Griechenl. I 515. II 207, with Curtius Peloponn, there cited. Müller Archäologie $S 268. 309. Marquardt, v (2) 221 n. 2002.

PYTISMATE Ter. haut. 48 49 pytis. sando modo mihi | quid vini absumpsit, where Gron. ‘pytissare recte explicatur a vet. schol. gustare et quasi cum quadam probatione exspuere, dum sapor vini probatur. quod hodieque facere solent, qui vinum probant. est a Graecis, quibus olvov TuTiSELV [connected with atów etym. magn.) est vinum ore reicere. Hinc ap. Iuv. pytisma, pro illo nempe vino, quod ex ore reicitur. qui Lac. &c. i.e. homo dives, qui non vul. gurem orbem, sed ex marmore Laconico factum, reiciendo isto vino, cum pytissasset, lubricum facit. Scaliger on Manil. pp. 454 455 first gave this explanation: ‘nostrum pavimentum plebeium est. itaque nos pavimentum plebeium pitysmate lubricamus, non autem pavimentum Lacedaemonium... Alexis (Ath. 124a) kai Tòv Mèo očuv olvovéKTUTiSouer. Archedichus (Ath. 294b) olan UTiOllo' olvov TOLOÛTOV xaual.' Vitruv. VII 4 8 5 ita conviviis eorum et quod poculis et pytismatis effunditur, simul cadit siccescitque. Hor. c. 11 14 26 27 mero | tinget pavimentum superbo. Cic. Phil. Il $ 105 natabant pavimenta vino, madebant parietes. id. pro Gallio ap. Aquil. Rom. & 2 Ruhnken humus erat lutulenta vino. Petron, 38 Burm. Plin. xiv § 146 of Novellius Torquatus optima fide non respirasse in hauriendo nec expuisse nihilque ad elidendum in pavimentis sonum ex vino reliquisse, diligenti scito legum contra bibendi fallacias. Salvian. adv. avar. 6 fin. natant tricliniorum redundantium pavimenta vino, Falerno nobili lutum faciunt. Iuv, seems to repudiate the Greek fashion (commonly spoken of as an excess) with its Greek name, not less than the Greek marbles.

ORBEM the floor schol. 'qui exspuit supra marmor Lacedaemonium, quo stratum est pavimentum.' Tibull. III 3 16 marmoreumque solum. Luc. x 114 115 nec summis crustata domus sectisque nitebat | marmoribus. Sen. ep. 16 & 8 eo deliciarum opumque [fortuna] perducat, ut terram marmoribus abscondas. non tantum habere tibi liceat, sed calcare divitias. ib. 86 8 6 pauper sibi videtur ac sordidus, nisi parietes magnis et pretiosis orbibus refulserunt; nisi Alexandrina marmora Numidicis crustis distincta sunt. ib. 90 § 25 quid loquar marmora, quibus templa, quibus domus fulgent ? ib. 114 § 9 ut parietes advectis trans maria marmoribus fulgeant, ut tecta varientur auro, ut lacunaribus pavimentorum respondeat nitor. id. ben. IV 6 § 2. VII 20 g 2. de ira ini 35 5. Plin. XXXVI SS 44–58. Marquardt v (2) 226.

176 ili in the house of the rich, paved with

Laconian marble.

ALEA 132 n. I 88-92 n. VIII 10. XIV 4 5 n. Cic. Catil. 2 § 23 in his gregibus omnes alea. tores, omnes adulteri, omnes impuri impudicique. id. off. 1 $ 150 Beier. Phil. in $ 56 Abram. Publil. Syr. 33 Spengel aleator quanto in arte est potior, tanto est nequior. Hor. C. III 24 58 vetita legibus alea. ep. I 21 18 Obbar. Ov. tr. II 471–4. Sen. cons. ad Polyb. 17 § 4 Caligula was playing at dice in his Alban villa during his sister Drusilla's funeral. id. ben. vii 16 g 3. Suet. Claud. 5 in the days of Tiberius ex contubernio sordidissimorum hominum super veterem segnitiae notam ebrietatis quoque et aleae infamiam subiit. ib. 33, id. Aug. 70 71. Cal. 41. Dom. 21. Mart, xiv 1 3 nec timet aedilem moto spectare fritillo. id. iv 14 7-9, v 84 3 sq. Lucian Saturnal. 4. Chrysost. hom. 12 in 1 Cor. p. 1039. Amm. XXVIII 4 8 21 some scouting the name aleatores, wish to be called tesserarii; the difference is like that between fures and latrones; yet it must be confessed that, while all other friendships are lukewarm at Rome, aleariae solae, quasi gloriosis quaesitae sudoribus, sociales sunt et adfectu nimio firmitate plena conexae. See (Cypr.] de aleatoribus (11 92 104 Hartel). the title de aleatoribus in the dig. xi 5 and cod. (111 43, where the bishops are charged to enforce the law). Friedländer 14 404 405. Forbiger 12 221–3. Marquardt v (2) 426–33. 177 TURPE ì n. 11 63. Sen. ep. 87 § 23 sacrilegium, furtum, adulterium inter bona haberi prorsus persuasimus. quam multi furto non erubescunt, quam multi adulterio gloriantur! nam sacrilegia minutá puniuntur, magna in triumphis feruntur. 178 FACIUNT Munro on Lucr. 111 736 reads faciant with P. 179 cf. Plin. cited 162 n.

DABUNT Mühlmann s. v. col. 499 cites exx. of dare cenam, prandium, epulum, munus, Suet. Tib. 7, Capitol. Maximini 2, Vopisc. Carin. 19 have dare ludos.

180 CONDITOR ILIADOS Aus. idyll. 4 46. A lector was employed to read during meals v 157 n. Vi 434—7 illa tamen gravior, quae cum discumbere coepit, I laudat Vergilium, periturae ignoscit Elissae, committit vates et comparat, inde Maronem , atque alia parte in trutina' suspendit Homerum. Cic. Att. I 12 § 3. fam. v 9 § 2 anagnostes., Orelli inscr. 2846 lectrix. Sen. ep. 64 g 2. Suet. Aug. 74 fin. acroamata. Stat. 8. 11 1 117—9 a delicatus reciting Il. and Od. Varro in Gell. XIII 11 g 5 in convivio legi non omnia debent, sed ea potissimum, quae simul sint Blwpel î et delectent. id. xviii 5 an Ennianista reading the annals of Ennius in the theatre of Puteoli. xix 9 in a feast given by a wealthy knight from Asia, the Spanish rhetorician Antonius Iulianus desideravit exhiberi, quos habere eum adulescentem sciebat, scitissimos utriusque sexus qui canerent voce et qui psallerent. They sang some pieces of Anacreon and Sappho and later poets. Some Greeks challenged Iulianus to match these fuentes carminum delicias from Latin authors. On which he voce admodum quam suavi versus cecinit Valeri Aeditui, veteris poetae, Porcii Licini et Q. Catuli. Martial's verses were read iv 82. Nep. Att. 14 § 1 nemo in convivio eius aliud acroama audivit quam anagnosten; quod nos quidem iucundissimum arbitramur: neque umquam sine aliqua lectione apud eum cenatum est, ut non minus animo quam ventre convivae delectarentur. Plin. ep. 1 15 & 2 (supra 162 n.). id. 111 1 of Spurinna (77 years of age): he listened to reading while walking and sitting SS 4 5; while waiting for dinner & 8; $ 9 frequenter comoedis cena distinguitur, ut voluptates quoque studiis condiantur. VI 31 13 a dinner at Trajan's plain, si principem cogitares. interdum acroamata audiebamus, v 19 § 3 of his

freedman Zosimus ars quidem eius et quasi inscriptio comoedus, in qua plurimum facit. nam pronuntiat acriter, sapienter, apte, decenter etiam; utitur et cithara perite, ultra quam comoedo necesse est. idem tam commode orationes et historias et carmina legit, ut hoc solum didicisse videatur. id. vir 1 g 2 Encolpius...lector, illa seria nostra, ille deliciae ...quis libellos meos sic leget, sic amabit? quem aures meae sic sequentur? VII 4 § 3. 1x 17 g 3 quam multi, cum lector aut lyristes aut comoedus inductus est, calceos poscunt aut non minore cum taedio recubant, quam tu ista (sic enim appellas) prodigia perpessus es! ib, ep. 34 hearing that he reads poems ill, he has resolved to employ his freedman, and asks Suetonius whether he should sit by defixus et mutus et similis otioso, or rather (as some did) accompany the reader murmure oculis manu. But alas puto me non minus male saltare quam legere. ib. ep. 36 § 4 cenanti mihi, si cum uxore vel paucis, liber legitur. Sen. cons. ad Polyb. 8 & 2 sends the emperor's freedman to H. and v. to seek comfort in the loss of his brother: tunc Homerus et Vergilius tam bene de genere humani meriti, quam tu et de omnibus et de illis meruisti, quos pluribus notos esse voluisti quam scripserant, multum tecum morentur. Burm. anthol. IV 260 11-14 n. epitaph on a reader of Homer: quondam ego Pierio vatum monumenta canore I doctus cygneis enumerare modis. I doctus Maeonio spirantia carmina versu | dicere, Caesareo carmina nota foro. ib. 344 6 on a boy of ten: legi pia carmina Homeri. ib. 346 1 2 (Orelli inscr. 1200) grammaticus lectorque fui, sed lector eorum ! more, incorrupto qui placuere sono. Calvisius Sabinus had a slave who knew Homer by heart, another who knew Hesiod, nine others who knew each one of the lyric poets: as such slaves were not to be bought (Sen. ep. 27 § 6) faciendos locavit. anth. Pal. xı 141 against the grammarians who talk Homeric criticism (shop') at dinner: oñuepov oỦ DELTTVÔ u ñvev äelde de á. Lucian adv. ind. 7 from a book written on purple vellum, with umbilicus of gold, the ignorant owner of a fine library reads and murders the author by his barbarisms, so that the very parasites who applaud him laugh at him in their sleeves. Philostr. soph. 11 10 SS 1 2. Gell. 11 22 $S 1 2 apud mensam Favorini in convivio familiari legi solitum erat aut vetus carmen melici poeta e aut historia partim Graecae linguae alias Latinae. legebatur ergo ibi tunc in carmine Latino 'iapyx' ventus quaesitumque est, quis hic ventus. ib. III 19 8 1. ΧΙΧ 7 2. Αth. 6966 ως άδοντος εν τοις συσσιτίοις όσημέραι εις Tòv 'Epuelar malāva. Marquardt v (i) 156. 348. Friedländer 14 416 417. Einhardt vita Caroli magni 24 p. 530 Jaffé inter caenandum aut aliquod acroama aut lectorem audiebat. legebantur ei historia e et antiquorum res gestae; also Aug. esp. the civ. Dei. It was the monastic rule and is enjoined in college statutes: it was the practice at the board of James I. and of lord keeper Williams. Card. Wiseman in the English college at Rome chose Walter Scott's novels for the purpose (see two lives of N. Ferrar Cambr. 1855 41. Bayle 8. v. Berenger note A. Becker Gallus 113 125. 1113 261).

181 VII 227 n. So Prop. 111=11 33 65 66 cedite Romani scriptores, cedite Grai: | nescio quid maius nascitur Iliade. Macrob. v 12 g 1 (which book contains a comparison of V.'s translations with the originals in H. see Jan's ind. Homerus p. 656) in quibusdam par paene splendor amborum est. Quintil. x 1 $ 85 ut apud illos Homerus, sic apud nos Vergilius auspicatissimum dederit exordium, omnium eius generis poetarum, Graecorum nostrorumque, haud dubie ei proximus. Ov. a. a. III 337 338. rem. 396. amor. 1 15 25. anthol. Lat. Meyer 254–6. 288. For modern

writers cf. Pauly vi 2655 seq.

182 QUID REFERT, TALES VERSUS QUA VOCE LEGANTUR? cf. the question of Pliny the elder Plin. ep. III 5 $$ 11 12 super hanc [cenam] liber legebatur, adnotabatur, et quidem cursim. memini quendam ex amicis, cum lector quaedam perperam pronuntiasset, revocasse et repeti coegisse, huic avunculum meum dixisse intellexeras nempe?' cum ille adnuisset, 'cur ergo revocabas ? decem amplius versus hac tua interpellatione perdidimus.' As Iuv. here, so Pers. (1 96 seq. cf. 30 seq.) contrasts poems which need a skilful reader to make them endurable, with Virgil's which have an intrinsic merit of their own (supra vir 82 n.).

183–192 Give yourself a welcome holiday for once; put off at my door all thought of the money-market, all pangs of jealousy; forget the glaring tokens of your disgrace, your wife's long absence and late returns, her disordered hair, ruffled attire, and tingling ears; dismiss home troubles, losses by waste or breakage; last, not least, ingratitude of friends.

187 TACITO I 55–57. VI 206 seq. 433. Munro on Lucr. v 1091.

188 SUSPECTIS X 208 n. MULTICIA II 66. 76 seq. VIII 101 n. Sen. ben. VII 9 g 5. Tert. pall. 4 endromidis (111 103 n.) solocem aliqua multicia synthesi extrusit (i.e. has driven out the thick, coarse endromis by the light synthesis). Multicia soft Coan robes. RUGIS Macr. 111 13 =11 9 SS 4 5 of Hortensius fuit...vestitu ad munditiem curioso et, ut bene amictus iret, faciem in speculo quaerebat, ubi se intuens togam corpori sic applicabat, ut rugas non forte sed industria locatas ar. tifex nodus astringeret...capital putavit, quod in umero suo locum ruga mutasset. Plin. xxxv § 56. Tert. pall. 5 pr. 189 VEXATASQUE COMAS ET VULTUM AUREMQUE CALENTEM Prop. V=IV 5 31 32. si tibi forte comas vexaverit utilis ira, | postmodo mercatu pace premendus erit. Suet. Aug. 69 Antonius spread the scandal feminam consularem e triclinio viro coram in cubiculum abductam, rursus in convivium rubentibus auriculis incomptiore capillo reductam. id. Cal. 36. Theokr. II 140.

193—202 Meanwhile the crowded benches pay their devotions to the Idaean festival of the Great Mother's “towel '; the praetor, ruined by the horses, sits in triumphal state, and (without offence to the countless and overgrown populace be it said) all Rome now finds place in the Circus; hark, a shout strikes on my ear, from which I gather the victory of the green .rag.' For if it lost, you would see this city plunged in trouble and bewilderment, as when Hannibal at Cannae defeated our consuls. Such sights are for youths whom noise, bold wagers and gay company befit. On the circus and the shows see x 81 n. the exhaustive collections of Panvinius and Bulengerus (Graev. thes. Ix), Friedländer in Marquardt IV 490—523. Sittengesch. 113 263—330. anthol. Pal. xvi 335—387 (on the statues of drivers in the hippodrome at Constantinople).

193 MEGALESIACAE VI 69. Shortly after the Mater magna (ueyaan Debs) had been brought to Rome (B.C. 204 111 137 n.), the Megalesia were established in her honour (prid. Id. Apr. Liv. xxix 14: prid. Non. Apr. Ov. f. iv 179 seq.). Cic. harusp. resp. § 24. Spart. Caracall. 8. These games, originally aedilician, are spoken of as praetorian under the empire also by DH. 11 19. Mart. x 41 you divorce your husband : why? dicam ego, praetor erat. | constatura fuit Megalensis purpura centuin | milibus, ut nimium munera parca dares. I et populare sacrum bis milia dena tulisset. | discidium non est hoc, Proculeia; lucrum est. Preller röm, Myth?, 448–451. They were the first games in the new year, and

therefore the crowd would be greater.

SPECTACULA = spectatores. cf. XIV 24 n. curia, theatrum, 'gallery,''pit,' boxes.'

MAPPAE cf. 198_panni. Quintil. 15 § 57 mappam circo quoque usitatum nomen, Poeni sibi vindicant. Hence map, napkin, napery. The consul or praetor, by dropping a napkin, gave the signal for starting. Suet. Nero 22 universorum se oculis in circo maximo praebuit, aliquo liberto mittente mappam, unde magistratus solent. Mart. XII 29 9 cretatam praetor cum vellet mittere mappam. Tert. spect. 16 aspice populuin ad spectaculum iam cum furore venientem, iam tumultuosum, iam caecum, iam de sponsionibus concitatum. tardus est illi praetor, semper oculi in urna eius cum sortibus volutantur. dehinc ad signum inzii pendent : unius dementiae una vox est...'misit,' dicunt, et nuntiant invicem quod simul ab omnibus visum est. teneo testimonium caecitatis ; non vident quid sit; mappam missam putant ; sed est diaboli ab alto praecipitati figura. id. adv. Val. 36 mappa, quod aiunt, missa. novell. cv 1. Liv. VIII 40 & 2. xLv 1 SS 6 7. DCass. Lix 7. Cedren. bist. comp. 1 297 Bonn. Friedländer in Marquardt iv 503. The mappa (iropt from a balcony over the main entrance) may be seen in Guhl und Koner fig. 486 11 325. Rich. The consular diptych of Flavius Theodorus Philoxenus (A.D. 525 in Gori thes. Flor. 1759 tab. 15) has & mappa. Ennius in Cic. de divin. I$ 107 exspectant veluti, consul quom mittere signum / volt, omnes avidi spectant ad carceris oras, | quam mox emittat pictis e faucibus currus.

194 IDAEUM III 138. SIMILIS TRIUMPHO PRAETOR X 36-46 n. cf. vit. Gallieni 8, where Gall. celebrates his decennia. The senate in toga, the knights, the soldiers clad in white, omni populo praeeunte with almost all the slaves, and women bearing tapers and lamps, march to the Capitol; 100 white oxen with gilt yokes and silk dorsualia of many colours, 200 white lambs, ten elephants, 1200 gladiators pompabiliter ornati cum auratis vestibus matronarum, 200 mansuetae ferae diversi generis ornatu quam maximo affectae, cheers and clapping along the route. ipse medius cum picta toga et tunica palmata inter patres, ut diximus omnibus sacerdotibus praetextatis Capitolium petit, 500 gilt spears on either side, 100 standards; standards of the collegia, of the temples and of all the legions; gentes simulatae, ut Gothi Sarmatae Franci Persae. DCass. LIV 2 B.C. 22 the direction of the games was made over to the praetors. Mommsen Staatsr. 12 397. 11° 227. Serv. Aen. IV 543 qui...triumphat, albis equis utitur quattuor et senatu praeeunte in Capitolio de tauris sacrificat. For the expression cf. Liv. IV 33 § 3 dictator...proelium ciens ipse in sinistrum cornu, quod, incendio similius quam proelio, territum cesserat flammis. ib. XXVIII 9 § 15 iret alter consul sublimis curru multiiugis, si vellet, equis; uno equo per urbem verum triumphum vehi.

195 PRAEDA CABALLORUM PRAETOR 59 n. Gron. obs. IV 24 .qui in comparandis et instruendis ad munus equis, munere denique ipso sub vana specie honoris censum mergit. Theon progymn. 6 Aloundns de Opà els intoτροφίαν εξαναλωθείς ελέχθη υπό των αυτού ίππων απολωλέναι. cf. Palaeph. 4. Suet. Nero 5 his father Cn. Domitius was such a swindler ut...in praetura mercede palmarum aurigarios fraudaverit. Vopisc. Aurelian 15 we have seen charioteers receive not prizes (praemia) but estates (patrimonia), cum darentur tunicae subsericae lineae paragaudeae, darentur etium equi ingemiscentibus frugi hominibus. factuin est enim, ut iam divitiarum sit non hominum consulatus, quia utique si virtutibus de fertur, editorem spoliare non debet. DCass. Lx 27 $ 2. dig. VII 8

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