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1867. Karsten de effatis delphicis undły dyav et y. o. in symb. lit. Batav. 11 57 seq. On the self-examination inculcated by the ancient moralists see Reinhard christl. Moral Wittenb. 1815 v 128—32. cf. Rothe theolog. Ethik § 872.

28 FIGENDUM IX 94 tacitas nostras intra te fige querellas.

29 CONIUGIUM Aesch. PV. 890=916 Blomfield to kndello al ka l'è autóv åpLoTEVEL Makpq. Kallim. epigr. 1 16 octw kai ' iwv eno katà o autóvēla. Plut. 11 13 Wytt. DL. I 80 Menage. paroem. I 314. II 674 Leutsch. Ov. her. 9 32 si qua voles apte nubere, nube pari. Aus. vif sap. sent. 'Solon' 2 par pari iugator coniux : quicquid impar, dissidet. Chaucer the milleres tale pr. • he knew not Caton, for his wit was rude | that bade a man shulde wed his similitude. | men shulden wedden after hir estate.'

IN PARTE Tac, XIV 33 comitantes in partem agminis acciperet.

SENATUS Sen. contr. 9 (=111) § 17 census senatorium gradum ascendit, census equitem Romanum a plebe discernit. 30 ACHILLIS for the contest between Aiax and Ulixes for the arms of Achilles cf. vir 115 n. x 84 n. 31 THERSITES contrasted with Achilles as vir 269–71. Epikt. diss. II 23 g 32 the one the type of beauty, the other of ugliness. Themist. or. 7 p. 868 in Homer we hear not only Achilles claiming the prisoners, but even the ridiculous Thersites. Vopisc. Aurel. 1 Iunius Tiberianus to Vopiscus: ergo Thersiten .. ceteraque illa prodigia uetustatis et nos bene scimus et posteri frequentabunt, and shall Aurelian remain unknown? Spengel rhet. 11 119 29. Thersites as a candidate for Achilles' arms a stock example of the schools • Sokrates' in Stob. f. In 119 oth & Tà Toũ 'AxAAể cs 8TÀa Tạ Θερσίτη ούτε τα της τύχης αγαθά το άφρονι αρμόττει. Luc. adν. ind. 7 you have often bought Homer, let some one read to you Il. 11 where is described δημηγορών παγγέλoιος άνθρωπος, διάστροφος το σώμα και λελωβημένος, εκείνος τοίνυν ο τοιούτος ει λάβοι τήν 'Αχιλλέως πανοπλίαν, would that make him fair and strong, would he leap the river and slay Hektor ? Nay, αλλά και γέλωτα αν δφλισκάνοι χωλεύων υπό τη ασπίδι K.T... Iuv. like Soph. (Philokt. 445 schol.), supposes Thersites to have survived Achilles : otherwise Arktinos (in whose Aethiopis, Prokl. chrestom. ad calc. Hephaest. 478 Gaisf. 'Axilleus Depoltnu avaipei, loidoρηθείς προς αυτού και ονειδισθείς τον επί τη Πενθεσιλεία λεγόμενον έρωτα. cf. Mure lit. anc, Gr. II 282), Chaeremon (in his tragedy ’Axilleus Depola TOKTÓvos, Welcker Griech. Trag. 111 1086), Quintus Calaber (Posthom. 1 742 seq.), Tzetzes (Posthom. 205. ad Lykophr. 999) and Eustath. (Il. 11 219).

TRANSDUCEBAT VIII 17 n. Mart. VI 77 4 5 being poorer than Iros, younger than Parthenopaeus, stronger than Artemidorus in the heyday of his victories, why do you insist on being carried in & palanquin by six Cappadocians ? rideris multoque magis traduoeris, Afer, ' quam nudus medio si spatiere foro. Sen. ben. 11 17 § 5 malignis lusoribus propositum est conlusorem traducere. cf. Ov. met. XIII 103 seq.

32 seu the connexion having been interrupted by the parenthesis (neque... Ul.) a new sentence follows in the ind.

Tu Bentley on Hor. c. 1 9 16. 8. 11 6 83 ille. Luc. II 637–9 nec Pharnacis arma relinquas | admoneo nec tu populos utraque vagantes Armenia. so ille Aen. 13 Forbiger. cf. the Homeric 8 ye Kühner gr. Gr. 112 565. 735. 33 TE CONSULE Pers. Iv 52 tecum habita, et noris quam sit tibi curta supellex.

34 VEHEMENS DELvós. schol. 'iactanticuli, qui tantum buccas inflant, et nihil dicunt.'

MATHO I 32 n. VII 129. Mart. 8 46 omnia vis belle,


Matho, dicere. dic aliquando , et bene; dic neutrum; dic aliquando male. id. vi 33. VII 10 3 4 (his extravagant lust). 90. VIII 42. XI 68. ib. IV 81 (of a pertinacious declaimer) Schneidewin reads Maron.

BUCCAE III 35 notaeque per oppida buccae. Mart. 1 41 13. 80 i 140 gula,

35 NOSCENDA Tac. IV 33 noscenda vulgi natura.

MENSURA VI 357-9 nulla pudorem | paupertatis habet, nec se metitur ad illum | quem dedit haec posuitque modum. Plin. II § 4 quasi vero mensuram ullius rei possit agere qui sui nesciat. Hier. ep. 61=75 ad Vigilant. § 3 prudentis hominis est nosse mensuram suam.

SUI Zumpt § 424. Ramshorn pp. 532—3. The possessive pron. seldom stands for the objective gen.

37 MULLUM IV 15 n. GOBIO i. e, the price of a gobio Plaut. asin. 5894590 verberarem | asinos si forte occeperint clamarè hinc ex crumina. id. truc. 646. Perea 317 boves bini hic sunt in crumina. ib. 264. Gudgeon (gobio fluviatilis), Fr. goujon, is a derivative (cf. Dibio Dijon). Mart. XIII 88 in Venetis sint lauta licet convivia terris, i principium cenae gobius esse solet. Colum. VIII 17 g 14 exiguusque gobio. Aus. idyll. 10 132 gobio non maior geminis sine pollice palmis, etc. Aristippus, when taunted for his tame submission to the insolence of Dionysius DL. ΙΙ 8 67 « είτα οι μεν αλιείς' είπεν υπομένουσι φαίνεσθαι τη θαλάττη, ίνα κωβιόν θηράσωσιν εγώ δε μή ανάσχωμαι κράματι ρανθήναι, ίνα βλέννον láßw;' cf. HSt.

38 LOCULIS I 89 n. Mart. (supra 27 n.).

38–55 When you have sold your all to fill your maw, and gluttony grows with want, what will your end be? You will pawn the ring from your finger, the badge of your birth, and beg. Not an unripe' funeral, but a broken old age is the prodigal's worst terror. Borrowing, bankruptcy, flight, these are the stages of ruin. Nor are they ashamed of failure; but for the games, not a tie binds them to their home. Modesty is laughed out of town; no drop of modest blood remains to flush the cheek.

38 DEFICIENTE CULINA C***ina P. crumena pw prob. from Hor. ep. 1 4 11 non deficiente crumena. 39 GULA I 140 n. v 90 n.

40 MERSIS Ov. m. VIII 843–4 iamque fame patrias altique voragine ventris | attenuarat opes. Hor, ep. 1 15 31 Obbar. Phaedr. IV 5 9. Hence vorago, gurges, barathrum, applied to gourmands. Macr. 111 13 (=119) $ 6 ut taceam Gurgitem a devorato patrimonio cognominatum,......... Metellus Pius in quam foveam luxus et superbiae successuum continuatione pervenit? Apul. mag. 75 fin.

41 ARGENTI GRAVIS plate Sen. tranq. 1 § 7 argentum grave rustici patris, sine ullo opere et nomine artificis.

42 A DOMINIS from the owner's house and estate, so exire in Ter. with ab Thaide, a me, abs te, a patre,

NOVISSIMUS EXIT same words in Ov. m. II 115. XI 296.

NOVISSIMUS VI 355-6 haec tamen argenti superest quodcumque paternis levibus athletis et vasa novissima donat. In the time of Varro (1. 1. vi s 59) Aelius Stilo and others branded the use of novissimum=extremum as a neotérism. Gell. I 21 Cic. also eschewed it, though used by M. Cato and Sall. Such owners are stript of everything.

EXIT it passes out of the family. Cic. Verr. II g 61 ad istum illos nummos, qui per simulationem ab isto exierant, revertisse. It is a legal term dig. XXXI 77 § 11 'I charge my heirs not to alienate my Tusculan estate, et ne de familia nominis mei exeat.' ib. & 28. 88 $ 6. XXXII 38 $ 1. 94. Gaius defines deminutum


129 n.

ib. v 3 21 quod usucaptum esset. et ob id de hereditate exiit. Orelli inscr. 4386—7.

43 ANULUS last of all of their ring, the symbol of equestrian rank 129. 1 28. Vil 16 n. 89. cf. Suet. Caes. 33 cum in adloquendo exhortandoque saepius digitum laevae manus ostentans adfirmaret, se ad satisfaciendum omnibus, per quos dignitatem suam defensurus esset, anulum quoque aequo animo detracturum sibi. Mart. II 57 7 8 of one who sauntered in purple about the saepta with a crowd of retainers and brand-new palanquin oppigneravit modo modo ad Cladi mensam | vix octo nummis anulum, unde cenaret. id. VIII 5. Apul, mag. 75 cum undique versum tabulis flagitaretur, ......... negat posse dissolvere, anulos. aureos et omnia insignia dignitatis abicit, cum creditoribus depaciscitur. Friedländer 14 269–275.

43 POLLIO IX 6-8 non erit hac facie miserabilior Crepereius | Pollio, qui triplicem usuram praestare paratus circumit et fatuos non invenit.

44 45 see the account of Apicius Iv 23 n. Kiaer 162_-4 makes luxuriae gen. and places these lines (44 45) as the reply to the question quis exitus ? after 41, saying truly (cl. 1 144 hinc subitae mortes) that rakes had reason to fear an early death, and that mors non metuenda est, sed morte magis senectus,' is vapid. But the gen. seems harsh, and the transposition needless. Not an early funeral (that standing terror to Roman superstitio x 241 n.), but old age worse than death is what luxury has to dread.'

44 FUNUS ACERBUM Plaut. asin. 595 acerbum funus filiae faciet. Aen. Vi 429 funere mersit acerbo. Servius ad l. ac. immaturo: trans. latio a pomis est.' id. ib. III 64. XI 143. Cic. Tusc. III § 29 translates Davátovs r åúpovs, aut mortem acerbam. Nep. Cimon 4 & 4. Liv. VII 1 $ 8 mors quam matura, tam acerba (Madvig's quamvis......... tamen is needless). Sen. ad Marc. 9 § 2 tot praeter domum nostram ducuntur exsequiae : de morte non cogitamus. tot acerba funera: nos togam nostrorum infantium, nos militiam et paternae hereditatis successionem agitamus animo. id. ep. 99 & 18. 122 8 10 quantulum enim a funere absunt, et quidem acerbo, qui ad faces et cereos vivunt? Tac. XIII 17 p.m. Plin. ep. v 5 § 4 mihi autem videtur acerba semper et immatura mors eorum, qui immortale aliquid parant. ib. 16 § 6 o triste plane acerbumque funus ! o morto ipsa mortis tempus indignius! Curt. Ix 6 19 unicum bonum diuturnam vitam existimantes saepe acerba mors occupat. Quintilian had lost his children vi pr. g 4 quos utique inmeritos mors acerba damnavit, erepta mihi prius matre eorundem, quae nondum expleto aetatis undevicesimo anno duos enixa filios, quamvis acerbissimis rapta fatis, felix decessit. Publil. Syr. 396 nil non acerbum prius quam maturum fuit. 360 mors infanti felix, iuveni acerba, sera nimis seni. The word is frequent in the epitaphs of children. Orelli 4836. anthol. Meyer 361 12. 1236 7. 1228 2. 1254 2. 1258 5. 1268 11. Auson. prof. 3 5. parental. 11 2. 14 1 and 12 indole maturus, funere acerbus obis. 20 5. 29 6. Luc. catapl. 5 ou parlal vekpol. 45 LUXURIAE II 34 35 vitia ultima fictos | contemnunt Scauros et castigata remordent. x 120 ingenio manus est et cervix caesa. 46 CONDUCTA Hor. 8. 1 2 9 conductis...nummis. So Plaut. most. 520 Lorenz, locare argenti nemini nummum queo. the owners (lenders) of the money=fenoris auctoribus. 49 VERTERE SOLUM schol. 'exsilium pati.' Cic. pro Caec. § 100 qui volunt aliquam poenam subterfugere aut calamitatem, eo solum vertunt, hoc est sédeni ac locum mutant. Petron. 81 conturbavit et libidinis suae solum vertit.

BAIAE III 4 n. Sen. ep. 51 § 1 Baias,


quas postero die quam adtigeram reliqui, locum ob hoc devitandum,...quia illum sibi celebrandum luxuria desumpsit. § 3 diversorium vitiorum. § 3 illic sibi plurimum luxuria permittit, illic, tamquam aliqua licentia debeatur loco, magis solvitur. SS 11-13. 55 & 7. Cic. ep. fam. IX 2 5. p. Cael. &S 27. 35. 38 cuius in hortos, domum, Baias iure suo libidines omnium commearent. 47. 49. Friedländer 113 106—9. Spartian. Hadr. 25. Stat. s. III 2 17. Klausen Aeneas 1 551. Eunap. p. 459 20---23 Didot "Gadara, warm baths in Syria, second only to Baiae, to which none can compare, in the Roman empire.' Symm. ep. I 3. 7. 8. 47. 11 17. 26. v 93. vi 9. 22. 67. vii 16. 24. 73. Sidon. c. 18. Baiae (Baja), the Brighton of Rome, lay to the south-west of the sinus Baianus, on the coast of Campania. It was sought for its situation, its warm springs, and its fisheries. Mart. XI 80 1–4 litus beatae Veneris aureum Baias, | Baias superbae blanda dona naturae, | ut mille laudem, Flacce, versibus Baias, 1 laudabo digne non satis tamen Baias. id. vi 42 7. 43.

OSTREA IV 141 n. VIII 86 n. Mart. x 37 11 12 ostrea Baianis...non liventia testis ' quae domino pueri non prohibente vorent. id. VIII 82. Three glass cups have been found with inscriptions descriptive of the chief buildings on the coast of Puteoli; the name ostriaria occurs twice Jordan Topogr. d. St. Rom Berl. 1871 11 145. Aus. epist. 7 1 ostrea Baianis certantia. 9 30 (the whole ep. is on the habitat of oysters) vel quae Baianis pendent fuitantia pilis. As here the debtor, so the criminal (1 49) enjoys himself the more in exile.

50 CEDERE FORO X 25 n. Hor. 8. II 3 18. schol. tantum est illis deserere patriam suam vel forum (the bourse, the stock-exchange), quan. tum est qui a Subura, frequentissima regione, ad Diocletianas migret, ubi solitudo est.' dig. XVI 3 7 8 2 quoties foro cedunt nummularii. Sen. ben. IV 39 $ 2 pecuniae etiam male creditae exactio est, et appellare debitorem ad diem possum, et, si foro cesserit, portionem feram. Cic. p. Rabir. Post. § 41 nisi C. Caesaris incredibilis in hunc liberalitas exstitisset, nos hunc iampridem in foro non haberemus. Plaut. epid. 1 2 16 mersos...foro. In foro versari is said of one who is solvent Cic. p. Flacc. § 70. cf. de imp. Pomp. 19 haec fides (credit) atque haec ratio pecuniarum, quae Romae, quae in foro versatur. Plaut. Persā 435 436 (of argentarii) ubi quid credideris, citius extemplo a foro | fugiunt, quam ex porta ludis quom emissust lepus. ib. 442—3. Ter. Ph. 921. ad. 277. Iulian p. 340a del mow Tàs in Topoulas, WoTEP oi xpňματα ώφληκότες τας αγοράς. Becker III (2) 55. 51 ESQUILIAS III 71 n. Hor. 8. 1 8 14 nunc licet Esquiliis habitare salubribus. hence Augustus Suet. 72 aeger in domo Maecenatis [on the Esquil.] cubabat. id. Tiber. 15.

FERVENTI SUBURA the Subura (v 106 n. x 156 n.), was the busiest part of ancient Rome (III 5 n. Mart. v 22), with many shops (Mart. VII 31 9 seq. quicquid vilicus Umber aut Calenus, | aut Tusci tibi Tusculive mittunt, | tota mihi nascitur Subura. id. x 94 5) and brothels (Pers. v 32. priap. 40. Mart. VỊ 66. XI 61 3. 78 11).

52. ILLE both in Greek and Latin a neuter pronoun, when the subject of a sentence, takes (by attraction) the gender of the predicate; here for illud solum (caruisse sc.) we have ille by attraction to dolor, and illa by attraction to maestitia. Ov. Pont. 111 3 3 4 dum tibi quae vidi referam; seu corporis umbra, | seu veri species, seu fuit ille sopor. Vell. 11 60 & 3 hunc protinus Antonius consul superbe excepit (neque is erat contemptus, sed metus). Quintil. x 1 § 112. 3 § 17. Fabri on Liv. XXI 10 & 12. Jahrbb. XCI (1865) 722 seq. Plaut. capt. 750 vis haec quidem herclest. cf. Caesar's cry when assailed by his

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murderers Suet. 82 ista quidem vis est. Cic. Phil. 2 & 54 1. 2 n. Plin. ep. IV 2 g 4 nec dolor erat ille, sed ostentatio doloris.

53 CIRCENSIBUS X 81 n. Plin. ep. ix 6 omne hoc tempus inter pugillares ac libellos iucundissima quiete transmisi. quemadmodum'inquis 'in urbe potuisti ?' circenses erant, quo genere spectaculi ne levissime quidem teneor. nihil novum, nihil varium, nihil quod non semel spectasse sufficiat, quo magis miror, tot milia virorum tam pueriliter identidem cupere currentes equos, insistentes curribus homines videre, etc. cf. Iulian (on ver. 50). Iuv, vi 85—7 inmemor illa domus et coniugis atque sororis ) nil patriae indulsit, plorantesque improba natos, | ut que magis stupeas, ludos Paridemque reliquit.

54 SANGUINIS X 301. XIII 242,

55 EFFUGIENTEM VI 19. Hes. op. et d. 199 álavá των μετά φύλον τον προλιπόντ' ανθρώπους | Αιδώς και Νέμεσις. [“I should think the effugientem of Pw more picturesque and forcible than fugientem: the quasi-caesura, ef | fugientem would be like that in several verses of Lucr, as is 1059; and of Virgil and Hor, as magnanimi Iovis ingratum ascendere cubile, non quivis videt in[modulata etc. Iuv. himself XIV 108 ex | ercere: x 358 is even harsher.' H, A. J, M.].

56–63. cf. Hor. s. II 2 89—93. 7 22—38. ep. 1 7 35 nec somnum plebis laudo satur altilium. To day, Persicus, you shall prove whether I practise the plain living that I preach, or whether, after bawling 'make gruel, cook,' I whispersweet-meats buy. You will find my board patriarchal as Evander's when he entertained Hercules or Aeneas.

57 PERSICE the (unknown) friend whom Iuv. invites to dinner.

58 SILIQUAS Hor. ep. II 1 123 vivit siliquis et pane secundo. Pers. III 55.

PULTES XIV 171 n. resembling the Italian polenta.

59 IN AURE Hor. 8. 1 9 9 10 in aurem | dicere nescio quid puero: Valck. on Eur. Hipp. 936. Lucil. in Prisc. 1506 Hertz iucundasque puer qui lamberat ore placentas. Hor. 8. II 8 24, Mart. III 77 1–3 nec mullus, nec te delectat, Baetice, turdus, | nec lepus est unquam, nec tibi gratus aper. I nec te liba iuvant, nec sectae quadra placentae. Cato r. r. 76=77. 60 PROMISSUS Phaedr. IV 25=24 15 ad cenam mihi promitte. Plin. ep. I 15 § 1 heus tu. promittis ad cenam nec venis. Sen. ben. iv 39 3. ep. 82 $ 21. Sen. suas. 2 § 12 Sabinus Asilius...cum hanc sententiam Leonidae ? rettulisset [άριστοποιείσθαι ως έν άδου δειπνησομένους], αίt: ego illi ad prandium promisissem, ad cenam renuntiassem. 61 EVANDRUM Aen. viii 100 tum res inopes Evandrus habebat. ib. 359—65 ad tecta subibant | pauperis Evandri: ... haec, inquit limina victor | Alcides subiit; haec illum regia cepit. I aude hospes contemnere opes, et te quoque dignum | finge deo, rebusque veni non asper egenis. The entertainment on a seat of turf, Aeneas having the post of honour, a maple chair, ib. 180–3 viscera tosta ferunt taurorum onerantque canistris | dona laboratae Cereris Bacchumque ministrant. | vescitur Aeneas simul et Troiana iuventus / perpetui tergo bovis et lustrali extis. cf. Ov. m, xiv 456. mythogr. Vat. I fab. 202. Schwegler I 351–2. 357. 443.

VENIES 65 veniet. TIRYNTHIUS both as adj. (anth. Pal. 1x 237 NELOVTord.ns. Kallim. Dian. 146 åkuwv. Ov. T. heros. Stat. T. pubes), and subst. (Verg. Ov. Stat.) applied to Hercules. His mother Alcmena is Tirynthia in Ov. (cf. Eur. Alk. 838).

62 CONTINGENS SANGUINE CAELUM VIII 7. Sen. apoc. 9 § 5 Hercules says cum divus Claudius et divum Augustum sanguine contingat, nec minus divam Augustam aviam suam, quam ipse deam esse iussit,...censeo uti divus


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