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graph on his luxury Ath. 294.

4 CONVICTUS I 145 n. Quintil. vi 3 27 in convictibus et quotidiano sermone.

Mart. XII praef. civitatis aures, quibus assueveram, quaero, et videor mihi in alieno foro litigare, si quid est enim, quod in libellis meis placeat, dictavit auditor. illam iudiciorum subtilitatem, illud materiarum ingenium, bybliothecas, theatra, convictus, in quibus studere se voluptates non sentiunt, ad summam omnia illa, quae delicati reliquimus, desideramus quasi destituti. cf. Friedländer 13 333. 343–8.

THERMAE VII 233 n. Mart. v 20 8—10 of an easy life enjoyment, sed gestatio, fabulae, libelli, / campus, porticus, umbra, virgo, thermae, I haec essent loca semper, hi labores.

STATIONES Plin. ep. i 13 § 2 plerique in stationibus sedent, tempusque audiendi fabulis conterunt. ib. 119 85 ambio domos stationesque circumeo. Gell. XIII 13 § 1 cum ex angulis secretisque librorum ac magistrorum in medium iam hominum et in lucem fori prodissem, quaesitum esse memini in plerisque Romae stationibus ius publice docentium aut respondentium, an quaestor populi Romani a praetore in ius vocari posset. dig. XLVII 10 15 § 7 ad stationem vel tabernam. Thorlacii prolusiones et opusc. acad. Copenh. 1806 n. 5. συστάσεις. λέσχαι. Special stationes near the forum for provincial towns Suet. Ner. 37. Plin. XVI : 236.

5 DE RUTILO supply loquuntur XIII 181. XIV 189. Madvig $ 447 d. Nägelsbach § 183. VALIDA AC IUVENALIA MEMBRA as )( iuvenilis iuvenalis connotes praiseworthy qualities, manly vigour. Verg. Aen. v 475 quae fuerint iuvenali.in corpore vires. Ov. am. 1 5 22 quam iuvenale femur! So iuvenaliter. See Mühlmann and Döderlein Synon. v 49. 6 GALEAE VII 33 patiens cassidis. he might have won honour in the field of battle [Quintil.] decl. 9 § 9 facinus indignum, illum animum, illum ardorem non contigisse castris, non bellicis certaminibus, ubi verae virtuti nulla pugnandi lege praemium praescribitur! Calpurn. decl. 50 'INFAMIS NON MILITET. vir fortis in piratas incidit; rescripsit patri de redemptione; illo cessante, redemit eum lanista et rudem ei in harena dedit. reverso belli tempore denuntiat militiam imperator.' cf. Iuv. VIII 199 n.

FERTUR ‘is reported;' it is the fabula of every lounge.

7 COGENTE VIII 193 n. The tribune (cf. VII 228 n.) has not indeed assigned over Rutilus's estate to his creditors, and so driven him to engage himself to the lanista for his bread; (Rutilius is not damnatus ad ferrum dig. XXVIII 1 8 § 4. Gai. i 13. Ulp. 1 11); but yet he has not interposed to save him from a degradation worse than slavery (VIII 199 n.). Prohibeo was the technical form of intercessio on behalf of a citizen Gell. Vi=VII 19 g 5, and the chief function of the tribunate was jealously to guard the freedom of Roman citizens. Mommsen Staats. recht 12 27 n. 2. 255 n. 2. 266 n. 7.

SED NEC Qv. Pont. 11 19 nec vos hoc vultis, sed nec prohibere potestis. Mart. vi 75 4. x 18 2 (cited xII 97 n.) Hand. iv 117.

NEC PROHIBENTE Stat. s. 1 2 193 nec me prohibente.

8 v 122 n. Sen. ep. 87 and 99 (cited viir 199 n.). Quintil, decl. 9. 302 \quidam ut patrem sepeliret, auctoravit se: die munere productus sub titulo causae rudem postulante populo accepit: postea patrimonium statutum per leges equitibus acquisivit, prohibetur gradibus' (the law enacting ‘gladiator in quattuordecim gradibus ne sedeat) p. 586 Burman si creditor post datam pecuniam operas remisisset, diceres eum gladiatorem fuisse?...illum ergo maiores prohibuerunt theatro, qui utilitate, qui gula se auctorasset. Freemen who engaged themselves as gladiators (se auctorabant), were "sworn to obedience Petron. 117 in verba Eumolpi sacramentum iuravimus,

uri, vinciri, verberari ferroque necari et quicquid aliud Eumolpus iussisset, tamquam legitimi gladiatores domino corpora ani. masque religiosissime addicimus. Sen. ep. 37 $S 1 2 illius turpissimi auctoramenti verba sunt: "uri, vinciri ferroque necari.' ab his, qui manus harenae locant et edunt ac bibunt, quae per sanguinem reddant, cavetur, ut ista vel inviti patiantur. cf. [Quintil.] decl. 9 § 22 venit in harenam homo nec sceleratus nec infelix. _ecquando, iudices, hoc audistis? cf. Hor, s. II 7 59 Heindorf. The lanistae are called doctores (VM. 11 3 8 2 ex ludo C. Aurelii Scauri doctoribus gladiatorum arccssitis vitandi atque inferendi ictus subtiliorem rationem legionibus ingeneravit. Quintil. decl. 302. Friedländer 113 where e.g. doctores myrmillonum from inscriptions) or magistri (Cic. de or. III § 86 magister hic Samnitium...quotidie commentatur); their lessons, dictata Suet. Caes. 26 Casaubon. Tert. ad mart. 1 nec tantus ego sum, ut vos alloquar; verumtamen et gladiatores perfectissimos non tantum magistri et praepositi sui, sed etiam idiotae et supervacui quique adhortantur de longinquo, ut saepe de ipso populo dictata suggesta profuerint.

SCRIBTURUS esse cf. publ. sch. Lat. gr. § 99 1 a p. 346.

LANISTAE III 158 n. Sen. ep. ! 87 § 15 quod contemptissimo cuique contingere ac turpissimo potest, bonum non est; opes autem et lenoni et lanistae contingunt. Spartian. Hadr. 18. Quintil. decl. 9 § 22. 278. The fallen noble's rex, from whom he receives laws, is a lanista! cf. v 170—3 n. on the voluntary slavery of trencher-knights. [Quintil.] decl. 9 § 7 tenenti servilia arma et ignominiosa morte perituro. $ 22 illud vero existimo gravius, nomen gladiatoris accipere, subire dominum lanista m. an ille animus rediret in cellulam, ferret saginam, magistrum, personam denique sceleris ? ib. § 15 fin. piratis lanistisque. § 12 fin. calamitatum mearum gradus, piratam, lanistam.

10 Hor. 8. 1 2 9 omnia conductis coemens obsonia nummis.

MACELLI 64 n. v 95 n. Ter, eun. 255—8 ad macellum ubi advenimus, | concurrunt laeti mi obviam cuppedinarii omnes, | cetarii, lanii, coqui, fartores, piscatores, I quibus et re salva et perdita profueram.

11 QUIBUS IN SOLO VIVENDI CAUSA PALATO EST XII 50 51. Gell. xix 2 8 7 (thence Macr. II 8 & 16. cf. Wytt. on Plut. II 21°) Socrates quidem dicebat multos homines propterea velle vivere ut ederent et biberent, se bibere atque esse ut viveret. Aug. de magistro 9 & 26. VIVENDI CAUSA VIII 84 n.

12 EGREGIUS many exx. of such forms (e.g. sobrior, industrior) in Kühner (1977) 1 370. Haase on Reisig p. 172. Neue 112 112—4. 689. cf. Madvig adv. 1 117. Sen. de clem. 1 13 8 2 noxior. Piissimus, which Cic. ridicules as a barbarism in Antonius (Phil. 13 § 43), is found in Tac. Sen, etc.

13 ET CITO CASURUS I 33 34 magni delator amici 1 et cito rapturus. On the rare use of the part. see Kiaer 185.

II 78. Sen, Herc. f. 1001 perlucet omnis regia. Holyday 'he's set | on riot most, that still is most in debt, / and soon must fall; you may see through the rent.' 14 INTEREA while ruin threatens. GUSTUS here (cf. visus) concrete of the thing tasted=sapores. Colum. III 2 g 5 a site for a vineyard in quo gustus nobilis pretiosusque fluit. Petron. 77 fin. profer et unguentum et ex illa amphora gustum (of wine), ex qua iubeo lavari ossa mea.

ELEMENTA through air, earth, and water v 94 n. Luc. x 155-169 e.g. infudere epulas auro, quod terra, quod aer, | quod pelagus, Nilusque dedit, quod luxus inani | ambitione furens toto quaesivit in orbe, I non mandante fame. Quintil. v 10 $ 21. Gell. vi=vií 16 6 peragrantis gulae et in sucos inquirentis industriam atque has undique

PERLU CENTE

rorsum indagines cappediarum; the chapter gives from Varro tep! toeguátwv a list of dainties quae profunda ingluvies

vestigavit with their homes. DCass. LXV 3 g 1 the whole reign of Vitellius was ουδέν άλλο ή μέθαι τε και κώμοι» πάντα τε γάρ τα τιμιώτατα και απ' ' αυτού του ωκεανού...και εκ της γης και εκ της θαλάσσης συνήγετο (some dishes retained the name “Vitellian'). Hier, ep. 52=2 ad Nepotian. § 6 (1 261° ed. Ven. 1766) novi et genera et nomina piscium, in quo litore concha lecta sit calleo ; saporibus avium discerno provincias ; et ciborum pretiosorum me raritas ac novissime damna ipsa delectant. ib. 12 (266d) quid prodest molestias quasdam difficultatesque ciborum quaerere.

16 ATTENDAS...IUVANT X 339 n. XIII 144. Madvig $ 348 n. 3. publ. sch. gr. § 214. Roby $ 1574.

MAGIS ILLA IUVANT, QUAE PLURIS EMUNTUR 14 n. 120–9. v 94 n. Hor. 8. II 2 15–52. Petron. 93 ales Phasiacis petita Colchis ! atque Afrae volucres placent palato, I quod non sunt faciles; at albus anser | et pictis anas renovata pennis plebeium sapit. ultimis ab oris | attractus scarus atque arata Syrtis | siquid naufragio dedit, probatur. mullus iam gravis est. amica vincit | uxorem. rosa cinnamum veretur. I quicquid quaeritur, optimum videt ib. 119 7–8 non vulgo nota pla cebant! gaudia, non usu plebeio trita voluptas. Sen. ep. 122 g 14 omnia concupiscenti aut contemnenti, prout magno aut parvo empta sunt, fastidio est lumen gratuitum. § 18 causa tamen praecipua mihi videtur huius morbi vitae communis fastidium. id. qu. nat. Iv 13 $S 3 4. id. cons. Helv. 10 § 5 o miserabiles, quorum palatum nisi ad pretiosos cibos non excitatur! pretiosos autem non eximius sapor...sed raritas et difficultas parandi facit...omnes regiones pervagantur, maria traiciunt et, cum famem exiguo possint sedare, magno irritant. ib. SS 2–3. Quintil. v 12 § 19 numquam tamen hoc continget malis moribus regnum, ut, siqua pretiosa fecit, fecerit et bona. Plin. XXII § 3. 17 ERGO therefore, since they like expense for its own sake, they make no conscience of pawning the family plate.

PERITURAM I 18 n. Phaedr. 111 2 5. to be squandered on their appetite.

18 OPPOSITIS so in Catullus’s pun 26 Ellis Furi, villula nostra non ad Austri | flatus opposita est neque ad Favoni. I ...verum ad milia quindecim et ducentos. I o ventum horribilem atque pestilentem! MATRIS IMAGINE FRAOTA he defaces a silver medallion of his mother, and pawns it as old silver. Plin. xxxv § 4 imaginum quidem pictura, qua maxime similes in aevum propagabantur figurae, in totum exolevit. aerei ponuntur clipei, argenteae facies, surdo figurarum discrimine statuarum capita permutantur, vulgatis iam pridem salibus etiam carminum. adeo materiam conspici malunt omnes quam se nosci. et inter haec pinacothecas veteribus tabulis consuunt alienasque effigies colunt, ipsi honorem non nisi in pretio ducentes, ut frangat heres furisque detrahat laqueus. Silver statues ib. XXXIII § 151. 19 QUADRINGENTIS 400 sesterces.

CONDIRE to load with dainties.

19 20 GULOSUM FICTILE & con, tradictio in adiecto like III 182 183 ambitiosa paupertate. Hier. ep. 107 =7 ad Laetam $ 10 faciant hoc cultores Isidis et Cybeles, qui gulosa abstinentia Phasidis aves ac fumantes turtures vorant, ne scilicet Cerealia dona contaminent.

20 FICTILE his plate is in pawn, so that he must eat his delicacies off earthenware, 111 168 n. fictilibus cenare pudet.

SIC schol..cum non habeant, unde manducent, distrahent se ad ludum.'

MISCELLANEA schol. "cibus gladiatorum,...... ideo miscellanea, qui omnia, quae apponuntur eis, miscent et sic manducant.' Quintil. decl. 9 8 5 alebat devotum corpus gravior omni fame sagina et inter debita noxae mancipia contemptissimus tiro gladiator...... discebam quotidie scelus. ib. § 10 quid praestiti ?......quod lanista gladiatori, exiguam stipem et cibos semper petendos.

LUDI VIII 199 n. [Quintil.] dech. 9 21 in ludo fui: qua poena nullam ulteriorem scelera noverunt, cuius ad comparationem ergastulum leve est.......morabar inter sacrilegos, incendiarios et, quae gladiatoribus una laus est, homicidas, inclusos turpiore custodia et sordido cellarum situ.

21 ERGO since so many are ruined by luxury, men give it a bad name in those of narrow means ; while in the rich it is extolled as generosity or taste 1. VIII 182. RUTILO 2.

NAM not found in this position in prose authors. Hand Tursell. IV 3. Bentley on Hor. 8. II 6 78. Orelli ib. 3 20.

22 VENTIDIO divite. 23 SUMET the subject is haec eadem parare, which is also the subject of est.

23–38 in all things great and small know thyself,' attempt nothing beyond thy power ; thus Socrates disregarded natural philosophy in comparison with self-knowledge Plat. apol. 19bc.

Phaed. 96 seq. rep. 529. Xen. m. 11 g 11. Iv 7 $ 6. cf. Sen. ep. 88. Encyclopaedic learning was in fashion, even in poetry (in imitation of the Alexandrine school) cf. Lucan, the Aetna etc.

24 ATLAS Aen. Iy 481 maximus Atlas. ib. 246 seq. Probably the scholiasts may have disputed (Düntzer) about the absolute or relative height of the mountain thus honoured with a superlative vii 234–6 n. 25 Hic Herm. in Halm on Cic. Vatin. g 24 gives other exx. of relative sentences, in the second clause of which, instead of repeating the relative, the writer employs the demonstrative. The sentence is one, in which two contrasted clàuses are connected as coordinate, in such a way that while the two together suit the meaning of the context, one of them, taken apart from the other, will not. Hom, \ 577—8. Cic. Catil. 1 1. Stürenb. on Cic. p. Arch. p. 161. p. Mil. $ 33. - Phil. 2 g 110 1. 6 n. de fin. I $ 15 Madvig. Liv. 11 12 $ 2 C. Mucius, ......cui indignum videbatur, popu. lum Romanum servientem, cum sub regibus esset, nullo bello nec ab hostibus ullis obsessum esse, liberum eundem populum ab isdem Etruscis obsideri. Teuffel on Hor. S. 11 7 109. Plin. ep. i 12 & 13. 16 8 8. Quintil. 11 7 $ 3. x 3 & 29. Lact. de ira Dei 10 § 44. Eur. Andr. 269 seq. IT, 116–7. Schmidt on Aesch. PV. 507. Īsae. 7 § 39. Antiph. in Harpocr. 8. V. OTAOLÚTNS (Sauppe 11 138). DChrys. or, 26 1 316 13 Dind. Cobet v. 1.2 569. Madvig adv. I 453. Hand Tursell. 1 350. Herbst on Quintil. x 2 85. Here it is not for the study of African geography that the man is despicable, but for neglecting more necessary studies.

26 ARÇA X 25 n.

XIV 259 260 aerata multus in arca | fiscus. Catull. 23 1 Furi, cui neque servus est neque arca. Cic. parad. 6 1 § 44 animus hominis dives, non arca appellari solet. Phaedr. Iv 12 2. Gron. on Sen. ep. 81. Hor. S. 1 1 67. 1 Brisson or Dirksen (and inscr. ind.) under arcarius.

27 SACCULUS XIV 138. Catull. 13 7 8 nam tui Catulli | plenus sacculus est aranearum. Mart. complaining that he had spent his little all on a wealthy orbus v 39 7 excussi loculosque sacculum que. id. xi 3 6. Saccus and sacculus are frequent in the jurists (see Dirksen's manuale).

E CAELO II 40. Stat. s. 112 Hand

caelone peractum | fluxit opus ? Quintil. 1 6 § 16 (cf. Pareus ad l. p. 75 Burman) non enim, cum primum fingerentur homines, analogia demissa: caelo formam loquendi dedit. Tert. apol. 4 si lex tua erravit, puto, ab homine concepta est: neque enim de caelo ruit. Heerwagen on Liv. XXII 29 8 3.

E CAELO DESCENDIT γνώθι σεαυτόν Xen. Kyrop. VII 2 SS 20—25 oracle given by the Delphic Apollo to Kroesos. memor. IV 2 SS 24–30 inscription at Delphi with commentary. Plat. Phileb. 48° seq. where, referring to the Delphic inscription, he distinguishes three kinds of self-ignorance, relating to mind, body and estate. Protag. 343b Heindorf (the seven sages met at Delphi and dedi. cated in Apollo's temple the first-fruits of their wisdom, ypávavtes tauta α δή πάντες υμνούσι, γνώθι σαυτόν και μηδέν άγαν. cf. Ρaus. x 24 8 1). Phaedr. 229e 230a (cf. Tert. de an. 17 p.m.). Alkib. 1 124b. 129. 132. Charmid. 1646_1656. Ridiculed by Aristoph. nub. 842 yowo el de oavτον ως αμαθής εί και παχύς. Philemon in Stob. 1. XXII 4 το γνώθι σαυτόν ου μάτην ευ ίσθ' ότι | το ρήμα τούτο δόξαν εν Δελφούς έχει. Μenand. ib. XXI (the book is headed Tepi Toû ye. o.) 2 and 5. Philo de somn. I 10 (1 629 M). Stob. ib. 26 from the work of Porphyry trepi Toù gr. o. ascribed to Phemonoe the first priestess, to Phanothea, Bias, Thales, Chilon; Klearchos said that it was Apollo's response to Chilon when he asked what was man's highest good; Aristotle èv Tols tepl pilooopias said that the inscription was there before Chilon's time. The question of authorship let us leave unsettled : one thing at all events is indisputable, that it was spoken either by God or not without God. (Heraclit.] fr. 106 Bywater ανθρώποισι πάσι μέτεστι γιγνώσκειν εαυτούς και σωφρονείν. Ρlut. 11 116d two of the Delphic maxims most necessary for life gwbl oeaUTÓV and μηδέν άγαν, each of which contains the other: he cites Ion το γνωθι σαυτόν, τούτ' έπος μεν ου μέγα | έργον δ' όσον Ζευς μόνος επίσταται θεών. ib. 1646 Wytt. 3854. Plut. Demosth. 3 8 1. DL. 1 $ 40 Menage. paroemiogr. I 391. II 19 Leutsch. anthol. Pal. ix 366 1 (transl. in Hygin. fab. 221 and by Aus. VII sap. sent. ad fin.) étà oopwv épéw kat' ěTOS TÓlev, oővoja, pwvýv. 1 3 X{Xw s'év kolay Aakedaljovi, yow Ol Beautóv. Boiss. anecd. i 127 n. 138. Iulian 211c. Cic. legg. I 58. Tusc. I 8 52 Davies. de fin. V $ 44 we must study nature: aliter enim nosmet ipsos nosse non possumus. quod praeceptum quia maius erat, quam ut ab homine videretur, idcirco assignatum est deo. iubet igitur nos Pythius Apollo noscere nosmet ipsos. Varro's sat. Menippea yuwol o. (12 fragments after Bücheler's Petron. 1872 179 180). Ov. a. a. II 499 500 lead your disciples, says Apollo, to my temple, est ubi diversum fama celebrata per orbem | littera, cognosci quae sibi quemque iubet. Sen. cons. ad Marc. 11 & 2 hoc videlicet illa Pythicis oraculis

ascripta, nosce te. ep. 94 & 28. Plin. vii & 119. Minuc. Fel. 5 g 5. Tert. apol. 48 tu homo, tantum nomen, si intellegas te vel de titulo Pythiae discens. Aus. lud. VII sap. 'ludius' 1–3 Delphis Solonem scripse fama est Atticum | yoñol geautóv quod latinum est' nosce te.' | multi hoc Laconis esse Chilonis putant. ib. 'Chilon' 6-15. Macr. Sat. 168 6. comm. 1 9 § 2 (quotes our text). Sidon. c. 2 163. 15 50. anthol. 358. 973 Meyer. Ambr. in ps. 118 serm. 2 & 13 Moses far older than the philosophers who ascribed the saying to Apollo. Bernard serm. de divers. 40 g 3. serm. in cant. 36 88 5—7. Special treatises by Abelard (? his ethics or scito te ipsum, printed in Pez anecd. 111 2), Sir John Davies (his fine poem nosce te ipsum). A tract by John Mason (+1763) 'self-knowledge' has been often printed (Germ. by A. Wagner Leipz. 1822, modern Greek by Adouros Corfu 1821). See F. A. Bohren de septem sapientibus Bonn

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