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'inquit 'tuum nosti? nam matrimonium Silii vidit populus et senatus et miles: et ni propere agis, tenet urbem maritus.' On the stolid apathy of Claudius cf. ib. 35. 37. 38. Iuv. III 238 n.

342 DEDECUS ILLE DOMUS SCIET ULTIMUS Tac. XI 25 isque illi [to Claudius] finis inscitiae erga domum suam fuit: haud multo post flagitia uxoris noscere ac punire adactus. Pompeius in Luc. V 778—9 quod si sunt vota deisque | audior, eventus rerum sciet ultima coniux. Sen. fragm. 63 L. Sullae, felicis, si non habuisset uxorem, Metella palam erat impudica, et, quia novissimi mala nostra discimus, id Athenis cantabatur et Sulla ignorabat, secretaque domus suae primum hostium convicio didicit. So B. c. 2 the flagrant excesses of Iulia in the very forum and rostra came late to the knowledge of Augustus DCass. Lv 10 & 12 óvé Tote Owpáoas. § 13 he conjectured before that her life was irregular, but was not assured of it; oi γάρ τοι τας ηγεμονίας έχοντες πάντα μάλλον ή τα σφετερα γιgoo KOVOL. Nep. ix 3 § 1 defecerat a rege Tissaphernes, neque id tam Artaxerxi, quam ceteris, erat a pertum. 345 PRAEBENDA EST GLADIO PULCRA HAEC ET CANDIDA CERVIX 269–270. Gron. on Liv. xxv 16 & 19 praebentes corpora pecorum modo inulti trucidentur. Sen. tranq. an. 11 § 5 eo magis convolneraberis et confodieris, quia nescis praebere iugulum: at tu et vives diutius et morieris expeditius, qui ferrum non subducta cervice nec manibus oppositis, sed animose recipis. ib. 16 § 1. id. vit. beat. 27 § 3 Socrates says praebeo me non aliter quam rupes aliqua in vadoso mari destituta, quam fluctus non desinunt...verberare. id. brev, vit. 13 8 7. ep. 4 § 7 Gaius Caesar iussit Lepidum Dextro tribuno praebere cervicem, ipse Chaereae praestitit. ib. 82 § 12 Brutus...cum periturus mortis moras quaereret,...evocatus ad mortem iussusque praebere cervicem: 'praebebo’inquit . ita vivam.' Savaro on Sidon. ep. 1 11 fin. p. 90 has other exx. of pr. cervi.

Plin. VIII § 58 of a lion which had a bone sticking in its throat, one Elpis evellit praebenti et qua maxime opus esset adcommodanti. M. Sen. contr. 25 $ 8 p. 253 (iubet) miserum stare ad praebendas cervices immotum Serv. Aen. x 867 explaining TERGO EXCEPTUS equo se praebente susceptus. Prud. perist. 155. Ov. her. 7 126 praebuerim sceleri bracchia nostra tuo. Ov. m. XIII 475–6 ipse etiam flens invitusque sacerdos | praebita coniecto rupit praecordia ferro. Sen. de ir. i 16 § 5 cervicem noxio imperabo praecidi. cf. Lips. on Tac. XV 67 admonitusque fortiter protendere cervicem. Passive, unresisting, tame submission is commonly connoted by praebeo (praehibeo=napéxw); and in fact Silius when brought to the tribunal did not attempt a defence or ask for a delay; but only that his death might be hastened Tac. XI 35. The kneeling gladiator, awaiting the mortal stab, is said praebere iugulum. Arr. Epikt. i 1 19 Lateranus [Iuv. 17 n.] stretched out his neck to the headsman's sword a second time, after one ineffectual stroke.

3464366 Conclusion. Is nothing then to be sought by our vows? If you wish my counsel, leave the gods themselves to decide what is meet for us, what can promote our welfare. Do they withhold what we like? They will bestow instead what is best. Dearer to them is man than to himself

. Transported by passion and blind desire we ask for wife and child; what children they will be, and what manner of wife, is known to heaven. Still, that you may also put up some petition and offer some humble meat-offering, ask for a mind sound in a sound body; a spirit brave, fearless of death, reckoning life's close one of kind Nature's boons,


equal to any toil, ignorant of anger or of desire, esteeming the labours and cruel pains of Hercules choicer than all Sardanapallus' dalliance and feasts and couches of down. I point to nothing but what yourself may give to yourself. The only road to peace lies through virtue. For. tune, thou hast no divinity, if but wisdom be with us; it is we that make of thee a goddess and set thee high in heaven. Upton (Spenser 11 650—1) compares modern poets and some of our collects. 346—353 Xen. mem. 13 & 2 “Sokrates prayed to the gods for the gift of good things generally, årl@s, considering that the gods know best what kinds of things are good.'. [Plat.] Alc. 11 143* & prayer Zeû Baoileû, tà μεν έσθλά και εύξαμένους και ανεύκτοις | άμμι δίδου, τα δε δεινά και εύξαμένοις åmepúkov. ib. 148€ 'the Lakedaemonians also, either as vying with this poet, or from their own judgement, both officially and individually offer up on all occasions & prayer of this kind, τα καλά επί τοις αγαθοίς τους θεούς δούναι κελεύοντες αυ σφίσιν αυτοίς. one will never hear any of them praying for more than this.' So Pythagoras DS. x 9 8 7 declared that the wise ought to pray for good things from the gods on behalf of the foolish; for the foolish do not know what is really good. & 8 in prayers we ought to pray for good things årlws, not naming any in particular, as authority [Iuv. 56—113], beauty [Iuv. 289–345), wealth [Iuv. 12—27], and the like; for each of these often ruins those who obtain it at their desire; their prayers are a curse. cf. DL. VIII S 9. ib. vi § 42 Diogenes blamed men for praying for reputed, not real, goods. Menand. monost. 336 uń Mol yévolo a Boulou à å ovugépel

. Gataker on Antonin. v § 7. Max. Tyr. 11=30. Epiktet. enchir. 8 8 52. Euseb. in Stob. fl. 1 85 (1 39 10 M). Matt. 26 39. Wetstein on Matt. 6 10. 346 NIL ERGO OPTABUNT HOMINES? Lupus (19 20) cites other exx. of interruptions like this i 101. 160 seq. II 70. 132--5.

IV 130. v 74. 135. 166. VI 136. 142. 161. 219. 286. 492. 642. VII 98. 158. 215. VIII 39. 183. 211. X 67. 71. 81–8. XIII 71. 174–5. XIV 60—2.

347–8 PERMITTES IPSIS EXPENDERE NUMINIBUS, QUID CONVENIAT NOBIS REBUSQUE SIT UTILE NOSTRIS Plaut. Ps. 683-5 stulti hauscimus frustra ut simus, quom quid cupienter dari | petimus nobis : quasi quid in rem sit possimus noscere. | certa amittimus, dum incerta petimus. VM. VII 2 E 1 Socrates, an earthly oracle as it were of human wisdom, thought that we ought to beşeech the immortal gods only to give us good things, because they alone knew quid cuique esset utile, nos autem plerumque id votis expeteremus, quod non inpetrasse melius foret...... desine igitur stulta (mortalium mens) futuris malorum tuorum causis quasi felicissimis rebus inhiare et te totum caelestium arbitrio permitte, quia qui tribuere bona ex facili solent, etiam eligere aptissime possunt. Plat. legg. 111 687° we must not pray that all things may follow our will, but rather that our will may follow wisdom. ib. VIII 801. Plat. Kriton 43d a saying of Sokrates: 'if such be heaven's will, so be it.' Epikt. fr. 15 in Stob. fl. iv 92. Herakleitos ib. III 83. Arr. Epikt. 11 16 SS 28. 42. 46—7. Nearly all of these passages are compared by Schneider christliche Klänge, Gotha 1865, with the Christian rule Matt. 6 8 and 10. 20 22. Lu. 22 42. Jo. 5 30. cf. Leighton's works ed. West v 248.

350 CARIOR EST ILLIS HOMO QUAM SIBI XV 143—8. Grang. cites the beautiful words of Sen. ben. 11 29 e. g. $ 6 carissimos nos habuerunt di immortales habentque, et qui maximus tribui honos potuit, ab ipsis proximos conlocaverunt: magna accepimus, maiora non cepimus. ib. iv 4—9.



Alc. II 142b • so you will find that some have prayed for the birth of children, and when they have been born, have fallen into the greatest calamities and sorrows' etc. Sen. ben. III 11 g 1 in liberis tollendis nihil iudicio tollentium licet: tota res voti est. id. ep. 59 & 2 we commonly say magnum gaudium nos......ex nuptiis aut ex partu uxoris percepisse, quae adeo non sunt gaudia, ut saepe initia futurae tristitiae sint.

352-3 ILLIS NOTUM, QUI PUERI QUALISQUE FUTURA SIT UXOR Sen. cons. ad Marc. 17 8 6 (Natura speaks) tu si filios sustuleris, poteris habere formosos et deformes poteris: fortasse muti nascentur. id. ben. IV 32 8 1 it is probable that the gods are indulgent, as to some for their parents' and ancestors' sakes, so to others for the sake of their posterity. nota enim illis est operis sui series omniumque illis rerum suas per manus iturarum scientia in aperto semper est, nobis ex abdito subit et quae repentina putamus, illis provisa veniunt ac familiaria. DL. VI S 63 Diogenes, when some were sacrificing to the gods for the gift of a son, asked: nepi de Toù nodaròs εκβή ου θύετε; DCass. LΧΙx 20 8 3 το μεν γεννώμενον, όποιον αν δόξη το δαιμονίω, γίγνεται. QUALIS UXOR pror. 19 14.

354 Et not only submit to what is appointed, but also prefer a petition. et=etiam 43. 320. 157. II 143. III 305. IX 27. XI 177. XIV 4. 228 (Kiaer).

355 EXTA e.g. lungs, liver and heart. DULI DIVINA TOMACULA PORCI satirical exaggeration, Mart. xi 57 4. cf. for the tone 1 84. On the offering XIII 117—8 alba porci | omenta. A pig was slaughtered on the occasion of a marriage Varr. r. r. 11 4 § 9 nuptiarum initio antiqui reges ac sublimes viri in Hetruria, in coniunctione nuptiali nova nupta et novus maritus primum porcum immolant. § 10 Prisci quoque Latini et etiam Graeci in Italia idem factitasse videntur. In the reliefs on the sarcophagus preserved in S. Lorenzo's church, between Rome and Tivoli, which represent marriage ceremonies, we find a popa ready to offer a swine Rossbach Untersuchungen üb. d. röm. Ehe 378–81. In the time of Iuv, it was still the practice for the bride, on entering her new home, to rub the door-posts with swine's (or wolf's) fat. ib. 35649. Plin. XXVIII § 135 proxuma in communibus adipi laus est, sed maxime suillo, apud antiquos etiam religiosius. certe novae nuptae intrantes etiamnum sollemne habent postis eo attingere. Athen. III 962 the Argives sacrificed a pig to Aphrodite.

DIVINA a feast for gods.

TOMACULA (from réuvw) “mince-meat,' “sausages' Petr. 31 served piping hot on a grid-iron tomacula super craticulam argenteam ferventia posita. ib. 49. Mart. 1 41 9—10 hawked about the streets fumantia qui tomacla raucus | circumfert tepidis cocus popinis.

356 ORANDUM EST UT SIT MENS SANA IN CORPORE SANO Hor. C. 1 31 17—19 frui paratis et valido mihi, | Latoe, dones ac, precor, integra | cum mente. Petron. 88 quis, inquam, venit in templum et votum fecit, si ad eloquentiam pervenisset? quis, si philosophiae fontem attigisset? ac ne bonam quidem mentem aut bonam valetudinem petunt, sed statim antequam limen Capitolii tangant, alius donum promittit, si propinquum divitem extulerit, alius, si thesaurum effoderit, alius, si ad trecenties sestertium salvus pervenerit. ib. 61 omnes bonam mentem bonamque valetudinem sibi optarunt. Sen. ep. 10 § 4 votorum tuorum veterum licet deis gratiam facias, alia de integro suscipe: roga bonam mentem, bonam valetudinem animi, deinde tunc corporis. quidni tu ista vota saepe facias ? DCass. LXIX 20 $ 3 åpriuen û kal å privovv,



357 FORTEM POSCE ANIMUM, MORTIS TERRORE CARENTEM VIII 83—4. Cic. Tusc. II § 43. Verg. g. I1 490—2. Hor. s. II 7 84. ep. II 2 207. Sen. cons, ad Marc. 20 e.g. & 1 o ignaros malorum suorum quibus non mors ut optimum inventum naturae laudatur exspectaturque. ep. 4 e.g. SS 3–4 nullum magnum, quod extremum est. mors ad te venit: timenda erat, si tecum esse posset. necesse est aut ne perveniat aut transeat. * difficile esť inquis "animum perducere ad contemptionem animae.'... § 5 plerique inter mortis metum et vitae tormenta miseri fluctuant: et vivere nolunt et mori nesciunt. See many other passages in Haase's ind. mors. The Stoics argued (1) that nothing natural is evil; (2) that life as such is no good; (3) that nothing glorious is evil, but death may be glorious; and elaborated a theory of suicide, which was illustrated by many examples, esp. Catonis nobile letum. Baumhauer vet, philosoph. doctr. de morte voluntaria, Trai. ad Rh. 1842, 213—9. 320. Arr. Epikt. 1 9 SS 13 14. 24 SS 4 6 Muson. ap. Stob. f. XXIX 78 11 15 14 and 23 M. See the doctrine of Sokrates in Plat. apol. 40a seq. Phaed. 61° seq. 805 seq. Plut. cons. ad Apoll. 12–3. pp. 107–8; that of the Epicureans in DL. X SS 81. 124—7. Lucr. III 37—93. 830—977. Sext. Emp. Pyrrh. hyp. III S 229 seq. Zeller 1112 1 387–8.' The question 'whether death is an evil' is fully discussed in Cic. Tusc. I SS 9–119. See Lasaulx Studien 459—494 de mortis domi. natu in veteres.' Nägelsbach hom. Theol.? 376–80. nachhom. Theol. 392—9. Wetst, on Hebr. 2 15. The frequent occurrence of in pace, spiritus in pace, and the olive branch in early Christian inscriptions, tells of the "better hope' which had lit up the grave. 358-9 QUI SPATIUM VITAE EXTREMUM

MUNERA NATURAE no caesura in 3rd or 4th foot, so xiv 108 inviti quoque avaritiam exercere iubentur. cf. Lachmann on Lucr. vi 1067. L. Müller de re metr. 369. With the thought cf. Cic. Cat. mai. § 5 it is not probable that Nature, like an idle poet, should slur over the last act of life. Plin. Vii g 190 perdit profecto ista dulcedo credulitasque [the belief in immortality] praecipuum naturae bonum, mortem. Sen. cons. ad Marc. 19 $$ 4—5 cogita nullis defunctum malis adfici, illa quae nobis inferos faciunt terribiles, fabulam esse luserunt ista poetae et vanis nos agitavere terroribus. mors dolorum omnium exsolutio est i et finis. In many passages Seneca approaches to the Christian view of death and the life to come ep. 102 & 23 per has mortalis aevi moras illi meliori vitae longiorique proluditur. & 26 dies iste, quem tamquam extremum reformidas, aeterni natalis est. Sil. xi 186—8 nullo ! nos invida tanto | armavit natura bono, quam ianua mortis ' quod patet. cf. Zeller 11 1 187—8. Lightfoot on Phil. pp. 286. 320-3. Wetst. on Phil. 1 21.

359 QUOSCUMQUE indefinite=quoslibet III 156. 230. XIII 56. 89. XIV 42. 117. 210. cf. x 271 utcumque. Observe the rime labores potiores labores 359–361. cf. L. Müller de re metr. 457—8 and Cic. Tusc. I SS 69. 85. Ri. Johnson against Bentley p. 87 cites Aen. III 656—7. IV 256—7. V 385_6. VI 843—4. VIII 620–1. cf. Hom. Od. IX 185-6 n. Aen. II 124-5. Ov. m. VIII 360-1. 386—7. Hor. a. p. 99–100. On the repetition of labores

n. on . XIV 47–8. 360NESCIAT TRASCI Sen.' de 'ir. II 6 argues against the doctrine that virtue turpibus irata esse debet. see on the Stoicapathy' Cic. fin. III § 35. Tusc. Iv SS 10 seq. 34 seq. acad. I § 38. DL. VII SS 113—4. á Zeller 1 1 204—216.

CUPIAT NIHIL 4–5 n. Chrysippus in Sen. ep. 9 § 14 sapientem nulla re egere, et tamen multis


illi rebus opus esse.

361 HERCULIS II 19-20 peiores, qui talia verbis | Herculis invadunt. VIII 14 n. HERCULIS AERUMNAS Plaut. Pers. I 1 2 seq. cf. the labours of Bellerophon, Perseus, Theseus, Ulixes, and of Psyche in Apuleius (Friedländer 13 445 seq.). Cic. fin. II 118 to an Epicurean percontare ipse te, perpetuisne malis voluptatibus perfruens in ea quam saepe usurpabas, tranquillitate degere omnem aetatem sine dolore,......

...... an cum de omnibus gentibus optime mererere, ......vel Herculis pati aerumnas? sic enim maiores nostri labores non fugiendos tristissimo tamen verbo aerumnas etiam in deo nominaverunt. ib. v § 95 ut ubi virtus sit resque magnae et summe laudabiles virtute gestae, ibi esse miseria et aerumna non possit, tamen labor possit, possit molestia. A Stoic paradox was that virtue is sufficient for happiness Cic. parad. II § 16 nec vero ego M. Regulum aerumnosum nec infelicem nec miserum umquam putavi. id. fin. III § 42. v SS 79—83 Regulus as happy as Metellus. Quintil. VIII 3 § 26 aerumnas quid opus est [dicere]? tamquam parum sit si dicatur quid horridum. cf. Forcell

. Orig. c. Cels. III 66 cites as acknowledged examples of perfect life, among heroes Herakles and Odysseus. Sen. const. sap. 2 g 1 the gods have given to us in Cato a more certain model of a sage than they gave to early ages in Ulixes and Hercules. hos enim Stoici nostri sapientes pronuntiaverunt, invictos laboribus, contemptores voluptatis et victores omnium terrarum. id. ben. 1 13 § 3 in contrast with Alexander, a brigand from childhood, Hercules nihil sibi vicit: orbem terrarum transivit non concupis cendo, sed vindicando. cf. the famous myth of Prodicus (Xen. mem, II 1 $ 21. Cic. off. I § 118 Beier). Hercules is distinctly called a phi. losopher. Max. Tyr. 21 § 6 Herakles was wise; yet not for himself wise, but his wisdom extended over every land and sea. It was he that was the exterminator of beasts of prey, chastiser of tyrants, liberator of slaves, legislator of the free, establisher of righteousness, inventor of laws, truthful in words, reformer in deeds. But if Herakles had chosen to retire and live at ease and in leisure, and to pursue an inactive wisdom, he would have been instead of Herakles a sophist, and no one would have dared to call him son of Zeus. ib. 3 $ 7. 58 8. 31 § 7. 38 87 on the pleasure and reward which he derived from his labours. chron. pasch. 1 78 Bonn in the days of king Phoenix was Herakles the philo. sopher, surnamed the Tyrian, who discovered the purple dye.' Tzetz. chil. v 129–33 Herakles wrote an inscription (in hexameters which are given 135—7), for he was universally accomplished, poet, astrologer, philosopher, magician, physician, and all else that Orpheus and other authors describe him to have been. Serv. Aen. I 741 constat enim Herculem fuisse philosophum: et est ratio, cur omnia illa monstra vicisse dicatur. More than one treatise of Antisthenes, founder of the cynic school, bore the name of Herakles DL. VI $8 16. 18. He shewed that labour was a good by the examples of Herakles and Cyrus ib. § 3. Eus. praep. ev. xv 13 § 7 p. 816b 'Avriolévns, 'HpakleWTIKOS tis åvno opbvnua. epist. Socrat. 9 Aristippos to Antisthenes in mockery: 'I will send you large white beans, that when you have exhibited Herakles to your pupils, you may have something to munch. cf. Auson. epigr. 27. 28. Kleanthes was called a second Herakles DL. VII $ 170. Apul. Al. IV 22 of Crates, follower of Diogenes, quod Herculem olim poetae memorant monstra illa immania hominum ac ferarum virtute subegisse orbemque terrae purgasse, similiter adversum iracundiam et invidiam atque libidinem ceteraque animi humani monstra et flagitia philosophus iste

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