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Diplomatic relations, breaking off of, Feudalism, influence of, 16, 19.
173, 174.

Financial transactions, intervention
Discovery of America, 18; a method on the ground of, 86, 87.
of acquiring territory, 98.

Fisheries, on the high seas, 114;
Dispatches, carriage of, 308.

Canadian, 114-116; Bering Sea,
Disputes, amicable settlement of, 116.
217-225.

Fishing vessels, exemption of, from
Domicile, papers proving, 128. capture, 246.
Draft of treaties, 203.

Flags of truce, use of, 253, 264, 265,
“Due diligence,” in the Alabama 267–269, 272.
case, 297.

Foraging, when may be resorted to,

243.
Eastern and non-Christian states, Forbidden methods in war, 252-254.

powers of consuls in, 193–196. Foreign-born subjects, jurisdiction
East India Company, powers of, 54, over, 122.
55.

Foreign Enlistment Act of Great
Educational institutions, exemption Britain, 283.
of, 239, 240.

France, recognition of republic of,
Egypt, relations of, to Great Powers, 45-47; relation of, to balance of
92; mixed courts of, 141.

power, 83; one of the Great Powers,
Embargo, defined, 221, 222.

90; friendship of, with Russia, 93;
“Enemy's ships, enemy's goods,” sale of territory to, by Monaco,
doctrine of, 22, 300.

101 ; by Sweden, 101 ; partition of
Enemy subjects, status of, 238. Africa by, 103; jurisdiction of,
English orders in council of 1806 and over certain gulfs, 108; treaty of,
1807, 315.

with England as to enclosed waters,
Enlistment of troops for belligerent 108; convention of, as to the Suez
service, 295.

Canal, 111; jurisdiction over for-
Envoys. See Ambassadors, Diplo eign merchantmen within her
matic Agents.

ports, 120, 121; as to foreign-born
Equality of states, 68, 88–93.

subjects, 122-124; marriage, 125 ;
Equity, a basis of international law, naturalization, 127 ; sale of forests
10.

of, by Prussians, 261; termination
Estuaries, as affecting jurisdiction, of wars of, 271; relations of, to
108.

neutrality and neutralization, 278,
Exchange, as a means of acquiring 279; citizens of, on expedition dur-

territory, 100; of prisoners of war, ing Franco-German War, 289;
263, 265.

views of, as to horses as contra-
Exequatur, form of, 190; what it band, 305.

relates to, 190, 191, 194, 195. “Free ships, free goods," doctrine
Exploration, exemption of vessels of, 247, 278, 300–303.

engaged in, 245, 246.
Exterritoriality, what it is, 134 et
seq., 177.

Gallatin, Minister, liability of ser-
Extradition, law as to, 142–146. vant of, to local jurisdiction, 180.

Garfield, President, testimony of
False colors, use of, 252.

foreign minister at trial of assas-
“Favored nation.” See Most Fa-l sin of, 179.
vored Nation.

Genêt, M., action of, as to privateers

in the United States, 282; consular| treaties of, as to Canadian fish-
prize courts of, 325.

eries, 114-116; Bering Sea, 116,
Geneva Arbitration, treaty as to, 117; territorial waters jurisdic-

204; the Alabama case at the, 297. tion act of, 120; jurisdiction of,
Geneva Convention, as laying down over foreign-born subjects, 123;

new rules, 32; sick and wounded attitude of, as to naturalization,
under, 264, 280; provisions of, 395– 127; jurisdiction of, over aliens,
399.

131; immunities of diplomatic
Germany, Confederation, 51; one of agents of, 180 et seq.; protectorate

the Great Powers, 90; a party to of, over Ionian Islands, 214; war
the Triple Alliance, 92; partition of, with the Transvaal, 230; volun-
of Africa by, 103; convention of, teer navy of, 256 ; guaranty of, as
as to the Suez Canal, 111; juris to Suez Canal, 280; neutrality
diction of, over foreign-born sub laws of, 283; attitude of, as to,
jects, 123, 124; citizens of, in Terceira affair, 288; Alabama case,
China, 131; volunteer navy of, 297 ; contraband, 307; convoy, 313;
255; sale of French forests by, blockade, 319, 320; continuous
261 ; application of, to transport voyages, 320–324; law of, as to
wounded across Belgium, 287; law prize money, 327.

of, as to prize money, 327. Great Powers, enumeration of, 90;
Gift, as a means of acquiring terri policy of, 90–93.
tory, 100.

Greece, in early international law,
Good offices, settlement of disputes 13; recognition of, 44; interven-
by resorting to, 218.

tion in affairs of, 84, 211; attitude
Government of armies of United of Great Powers as to, 91, 92, 279;
States, 331-365.

recall of citizens by, 130; pacific
Grant, President, recognition of blockade of, 223; volunteer navy

France by, 45; proclamation of, of, 256.
as to belligerent vessels leaving Guaranty, treaties of, 211; as to

United States ports, 291, 292. canals, 279, 280.
Great Britain, diplomatic papers of, Guerilla troops, status of, 236.

34; protectorates of, 52, 53; power Guidon de la Mar. See Sea Laws.
of, over various companies, 54, 55; | Gulfs, as affecting jurisdiction, 108.
recognition of belligerency by, 60; i
relations of, to treaty of Utrecht, Hague Convention, War on Land,
76; difference of, with Venezuela, | 234, 462.
78; intervention of, in affairs of Hanseatic League, treaty of, as to
Denmark, 80; relation of, to bal- tolls, 109. See Sea Laws.
ance of power, 83; one of the Great Harbors, neutrality of, 287,
Powers, 90; attitude of, at the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, 112.
congress of Troppau, 90; Verona, “ Hinterland Doctrine," 99, 104.
91; cession of Horse-shoe Reef by, Historical collections, exemption of,
to United States, 100; sale of ter- 247.
ritory to, by Netherlands, 101; | Holy Alliance, relations of, to Monroe
partition of Africa by, 103; treaty Doctrine, 77; to intervention, 84;
of, with France as to enclosed opposition of, to popular liberty, 91.
waters, 108; convention of, as to Horses, as contraband of war, 305.
the Suez Canal, 111; attitude of, Hospital flag, use of, 253.
as to the three-mile limit, 112-114; Hospital ships, 245, 246, 280.

Hostages, when last given, 9 n.; in

case of ransom, 259.
Hostile vessels, departure of, from

neutral port, 291.
Hostilities, commencement of, 230.
Humanity, intervention on the

ground of, 84, 85.
Hungary, jurisdiction of, over for-

eign-born subjects, 123.

Immunities and privileges of diplo-
matic agents, 175–182; consuls,

194-197.
Independence of states, 68, 74-87.
Indians, extinguishment of title of,

99.
Individuals under international law,

56.
Inequalities among states, court prec-

edence, 89; matters of ceremonial,

89; weight of influence, 89-93.
Institute of international law, as to
marine jurisdiction, 113; pacific

blockade, 223,
Instructions to diplomatic agents,

163, 202; for United States armies,

331-365.
Insurgents, who are, 56-58.
Intercourse of states, 70.
International law, definition and

general scope of, 3-5; nature of,
6–11; historical development of,
in early period, 12–14; in middle
period, 14-19; in modern period,
19–24; writers, 24–28; sources of,
practice and usage, 29, 30; prec-
edent and decisions, 30, 31;
treaties and state papers, 31-33;
text writers, 33, 34; diplomatic
papers, 34, 35; states, definition,
39, 40; nature, 40, 41; recognition
of new, 41-49; legal persons having
qualified status, members of con-
federations, etc., 50, 51; neutral-
ized states, 51, 52; protectorates,
suzerainties, etc., 51-53; corpora-
tions, 54, 55; individuals, 56; in-
surgents,56–58; belligerents,59-63;
communities not fully civilized,

63, 64; general rights and obliga-
tions of states, existence, 67, 68;
independence, 68; equality, 68, 69;
jurisdiction, 69; property, 69, 70;
intercourse, 70; existence, appli-
cation of the right, 71, 72; ex-
tension of the right to subjects, 72,
73; independence, manner of exer-
cise, 74, 75; balance of power, 75,
76; Monroe Doctrine, 77, 78; non-
intervention, 78, 79; practice as
to intervention, 79-87; equality in
general, 88, 89; inequalities, 89_
93; jurisdiction, in general, 96;
domain, 97,98; method of acquisi-
tion, 98-102; qualified, 103, 104;
maritime and fluvial, 104, 105;
rivers, 105, 106; navigation of
rivers, 106-108; enclosed waters,
108–112; the three-mile limit, 112-
114; fisheries, 114-117; vessels,
117-121; personal, general-nation-
ality, 121, 122; natural-born sub-
jects, 122; foreign-born subjects,
122–124; acquired nationality, 125–
130; jurisdiction over aliens, 130–
133; exemptions from jurisdiction,
134, 135; sovereigos, 135, 136;
state officers and property, 136-
139; special exemptions, 139–141;
extradition, 142–146; servitudes,
146, 147 ; property, in general, 148,
149; of the state, 149; diplomacy
and international relations in time
of peace, general development,
151, 152; diplomatic agents, 152–
159; suite, 160; who may send
diplomatic agents, 160, 161; who
may be sent, 161, 162; credentials,
instructions, passport, 162–165;
ceremonial, 165-170; functions,
170-172; termination of mission.
172–175; immunities and privi-
leges, 175–182; diplomatic practice
of the United States, 183–186;
consuls, 186–197; treaties, defini-
tion, 198, 199; other forms of
international agreements, 199–202;
negotiation of, 202–209; validity of,

209-210; classification of, 210–212; | 306; penalty for carrying contra-
interpretation of, 212-214; ter band, 306, 307; unneutral service,
mination of, 214-216; amicable 308–310; visit and search, 310–313;
settlement of disputes, 217–219;L convoy, 313, 314; blockade, 314
non-hostile redress, 220; retorsion, 319; violation of blockade, 319,
220, 221; reprisals, 221; embargo, 320; continuous voyages, 320–324;
221, 222; Pacific blockade, 223- prize and prize courts, 324–328.
225; war, definition, 229; com- Internment of belligerent troops,
mencement, 229, 230; declaration, 263, 286, 290.
231, 232; object, 232, 233; general Interpretation of treaties, 212–214.
effects, 233, 234; status of persons Intervention in affairs of other
in war, persons affected by war, nations, 77–87.
235; combatants, 235-237; non- Ionian Islands, protectorate of, 23,
combatants, 237, 238; status of 214.
property on land, public property Islands, title to, when formed in
of the enemy, 239, 240; real prop- rivers, 102.
erty of enemy subjects, 240, 241; Italy, one of the Great Powers, 90;
personal property of enemy sub relation of, to the Triple Alliance,
jects, 241-244; status of property 92; partition of Africa by, 103;
at sea, vessels, 245, 246; goods, convention of, as to the Suez Canal,
247 ; submarine telegraphic cables, 111.
248; conduct of hostilities, bellig-
erent occupation, 250–252; forbid Jackson, President, attitude of, as to
den methods, 252–254; privateers, the Falkland Islands, 46.
254, 255; volunteer and auxiliary Japan, recognition of, 43, 44, juris-
navy, 255-257; capture and ran diction of, over aliens, 131, 132;
som, 257-259; postliminium, 260– freedom of Emperor of, from suit,
262; prisoners and their treatment, 136; treaty of United States with,
262–264; non-hostile relations of as to consular functions, 193; ter-
belligerents, 264–269; termination mination of treaty of, with China,
of war, methods of, 270; by con-|| 215; prize law of, 246, 313; treaty
quest, 270, 271; by cessation of hos of peace of, with China, 272; atti-
tilities, 271, 272; treaty of peace, tude of, as to convoy, 314.
272-274; definition of neutrality, | Jettison of cargo, 13.
277; forms of neutrality and of Jurisdiction of states, 69, 94 et seq.;
neutralization, 277–280; history, of diplomatic agents, 175–182;
280-283; declaration, 283, 284; consuls, 193–196; over non-com-
divisions, 284; relations of neutral| batants, 237; neutral territorial,
states and belligerent states, gen 286,289; in case of blockade, 314-
eral principles of the relations 324; as to prize courts, 325. See
between states, 285, 286; neutral International Law.
territorial jurisdiction, 286–289; Jus belli, early international law,
regulations of neutral relations, 13.
289–293; no direct assistance by Jus fetiale, defined, 7, 13.
neutral, 293–295; positive obliga-Jus gentium, defined, 7, 14.
tions of a neutral state, 295–297; Jus inter gentes, defined, 7, 14.
neutral relations between states Jus naturale, defined, 6.
and individuals: ordinary com-
merce, 299-303; contraband, 303– Koszta, case of, 129, 130.

Lakes, change in, as affecting terri- Messages, transmission of, 310.
tory, 102.

Milan decree of Napoleon, 315.
Language used in treaties, 205, 206; Military assistance not to be fur-
in diplomacy, 170 n. 3.

nished by neutral to belligerent,
Law of nations, term long used, 8. 1 293.
Laws of Antwerp. See Sea Laws. Ministers, jurisdiction of Supreme
Laws of Oleron. See Sea Laws. Court as to, 31. See Ambassa-
Laws of the Rhodians, fragment of, dors, Diplomatic Agents.
13. See Sea Laws.

Money, as contraband of war, 305.
Legates, rules as to, 156, et seq. Monroe Doctrine, history of 77;

See Ambassadors, Diplomatic position of United States as to, 93.
Agents.

Monroe, President, author of Monroe
Letter of credence, form of, 164. Doctrine, 77.
Letters, in diplomatic relations, 200, Montenegro, recognition of, 44.
201.

“Most favored nation," what it
Letters of marque. See Privateer- means in treaties, 213, 214.
ing.

Munitions of war, sales of, by neu-
Levies en masse, as combatants, 236, tral, 294. See Supplies of war.

262.
Liberia, recognition of, 44.

Napoleon Bonaparte, relation of,
Licenses to trade, 266, 267.

to Monroe Doctrine, 77; sale of
Lien, right of state to enforce, 98. Louisiana by, 101; Berlin decrees
Lincoln, President, proclamation of, of, 222, 315; Milan decrees of,
as to blockade, 231, 317 n.

315.
Loans of money, by neutral to bel- Natural-born subjects, jurisdiction

ligerent state, 295; by citizens of a over, 122.
neutral state, 295.

Naturalization, law as to, 125–130.
Luxemburg, neutralization of, 52, Naval war code of the United
278.

States, 222, 400-416.

Navigation of rivers, 106-108.
Madagascar, protectorate of, 53. Navy, exemption of, from local juris-
Mails and mail steamers, under neu- diction, 138.
tral flag, 309.

| Netherlands, sale of territory by, to
Marcy, Secretary, as to naturaliza Great Britain, 101; convention of,
tion, 128.

as to Suez Canal, 111.
Mare Clausum, rule of, as to Bering Neutral goods, capture of, 247, 299
Sea, 116.

et seq.
Marine League. See Three-mile Neutrality, proclamation of, 60; of
limit.

goods, 247; submarine telegraphic
Maritime ceremonials, in salutes, 89. cables, 248; definition and history
Maritime war. See Neutrality. of, 277-284; laws of United States
Marriage, as affecting nationality, as to, 283, 296; of nations during

125; performed by diplomatic war between Spain and the United
agent, 172.

States, 283; as to departure of
McKinley, President, message of, as hostile vessels from neutral ports,

to Cuba, 85; proclamation of as to 291 ; British regulations as to,
blockade, 317 n.

291 n.; as to direct assistance,
Mediation. See Good Offices.

293–295 ; obligations of state, 295–
Memoranda, what they are, 171, 200. / 297 ; ordinary commerce in case

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