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For China:

For Montenegro: (L.s.) YANG YU.

(L.8.) STAAL. For Denmark:

For the Netherlands : (L.s.) F. BILLE.

(L.s.) v. KARNEBEEK. For Spain:

(L.s.) DEN BEER POORTU(L.s.) EL DUQUE DE TETUAN.

GAEL. (L.S.) W. R. DEVILLA UR- (L.s.) T. M. C. ASSER. RUTIA.

(L.s.) E. N. RAHUSEN. (L.s.) ARTURO DE BAGUER. For Persia: For the United States of Amer- (L.s.) MIRZA Riza KHAN, Arica:

fa-ud-Dovleh. (L.s.) ANDREW D. WHITE. For Portugal: (L.s.) SETH Low.

(L.s.) Conde de MACEDO. (L.s.) STANFORD NEWEL. (L.8.) AGOSTINHO D'ORNEL(L.s.) A. T. MAHAN.

LAS DE VASCONCEL(L.s.) WILLIAM CROZIER.

Los. Under reserve of the declaration (L.s.) Conde de SELIR. made at the plenary sitting of For Roumania : the Conference on the 25th of (L.s.) A. BELDIMAN. July, 1899.

(L.s.) J. N. PAPINIU. For the United Mexican States : Under the reserves formulated in (L.S.) A. DE MIER.

Articles 16, 17, and 19 of the (L.s.) J. ZENIL.

present Convention (15, 16, For France :

and 18 of the project presented (L.S.) Léon BOURGEOIS. the Committee on Examina(L.s.) G. BIHOURD.

tion) and recorded in the pro(L.S.) D’ESTOURNELLES DE cès-verbal of the sitting of the CONSTANT.

Third Commission of July 20, For Great Britain and Ireland : 1899. (L.s.) PAUNCEFOTE.

For Russia : (L.s.) HENRY HOWARD. (L.s.) STAAL. For Greece:

(L.S.) MARTENS. (L.s.) N. DELYANNI.

(L.S.) A. BASILY. For Italy:

For Servia: (L.s.) NIGRA.

(L.s.) CHEDO MIYATOVITCH. (L.s.) A. ZANNINI.

Under the reserves recorded in (L.s.) G. POMPILJ.

the procès-verbal of the Third For Japan :

Commission of July 20, 1899. (L.s.) I. MotoNo.

For Siam : For Luxemburg:

(L.s.) PHYA SURIYA NUVATR. (L.s.) EYSCHEN.

(L.s.) VISUDDHA.

For the United Kingdoms of For Bulgaria :
Sweden and Norway:

(L.s.) D. STANCIOFF. (L.s.) BILDT.

(L.s.) Major HESSAPTCHIEFF. For Switzerland : (L.S.) Roth.

Certified as a true copy, The For Turkey:

Secretary General of the Depart(L.s.) TURKHAN.

ment of Foreign Affairs, (L.s.) MEHEMED Noury. Under reserve of the declaration (L.s.) L. H. RUYSSENAERS.

made in the plenary sitting of THE HAGUE, the Conference of July 25, 1899.

January 31, 1900.

And whereas the said Convention was signed by the Plenipotentiaries of the United States of America under reservation of the following declaration:

“Nothing contained in this convention shall be so construed as to require the United States of America to depart from its traditional policy of not intruding upon, interfering with, or entangling itself in the political questions of policy or internal administration of any foreign state; nor shall anything contained in the said convention be construed to imply a relinquishment by the United States of America of its traditional attitude toward purely American questions;”

And whereas the said Convention was duly ratified by the Government of the United States of America, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, and by the Governments of the other Powers aforesaid with the exception of China and Turkey;

And whereas, in pursuance of the stipulations of Article 58 of the said Convention the ratifications of the said Convention were deposited at The Hague on the 4th day of September, 1900, by the Plenipotentiaries of the Governments of the United States of America, Germany, AustriaHungary, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, France, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Persia, Portugal, Roumania, Russia, Siam, Sweden and Norway and Bulgaria; on the 6th day of October, 1900, by the Plenipotentiary of the Government of Japan; on the 16th day of October, 1900, by the Plenipo

tentiary of the Government of Montenegro; on the 29th day of December, 1900, by the Plenipotentiary of the Government of Switzerland ; on the 4th day of April, 1901, by the Plenipotentiary of the Government of Greece; on the 17th day of April, 1901, by the Plenipotentiary of the Government of Mexico; on the 11th day of May, 1901, by the Plenipotentiary of the Government of Servia; and on the 12th day of July, 1901, by the Plenipotentiary of the Government of Luxembourg.

Now, therefore, be it known that I, Theodore Roosevelt, President of the United States of America, have caused the said Convention to be made public, to the end that the same and every clause thereof may be observed and fulfilled with good faith by the United States and the citizens thereof, subject to the reserve made in the aforesaid declaration of the Plenipotentiaries of the United States.

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed. Done at the City of Washington this first day of Novem

ber in the year of our Lord one thousand nine [L.s.] hundred and one, and of the Independence of the United States, the one hundred and twenty-sixth.

THEODORE ROOSEVELT. By the President: JOHN HAY,

Secretary of State.

APPENDIX XI

CONVENTION BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND CERTAIN POWERS WITH RESPECT TO THE LAWS AND CUSTOMS OF WAR ON LAND

Signed at The Hague, July 29, 1899
Ratification advised by the Senate, March 11, 1902
Ratified by the President of the United States, March 19, 1902
Ratifications deposited with the Netherlands Government, Sep-

tember 4, 1900
Proclaimed April 11, 1902

[Translation] His Majesty the Emperor of Germany, King of Prussia; His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, etc., and Apostolic King of Hungary ; His Majesty the King of the Belgians; His Majesty the King of Denmark; His Majesty the King of Spain, and in His Name Her Majesty the Queen Regent of the Kingdom; the President of the United States of America; the President of the United Mexican States; the President of the French Republic; Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India; His Majesty the King of the Hellenes; His Majesty the King of Italy; His Majesty the Emperor of Japan; His Royal Highness the Grand Duke of Luxemburg, Duke of Nassau; His Highness the Prince of Montenegro; Her Majesty the Queen of the Netherlands; His Imperial Majesty the Shah of Persia; His Majesty the King of Portugal and of the Algarves, etc.; His Majesty the King of Roumania; His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias; His Majesty the King of Servia; His Majesty the King of Siam ; His Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway ; His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans and His Royal Highness the Prince of Bulgaria

Considering that, while seeking means to preserve peace and prevent armed conflicts among nations, it is likewise necessary to have regard to cases where an appeal to arms may be caused by events which their solicitude could not avert;

Animated by the desire to serve, even in this extreme hypothesis, the interests of humanity and the ever increasing requirements of civilization;

Thinking it important, with this object, to revise the laws and general customs of war, either with the view of defining them more precisely, or of laying down certain limits for the purpose of modifying their severity as far as possible;

Inspired by these views which are enjoined at the present day, as they were twenty-five years ago at the time of the Brussels Conference in 1874, by a wise and generous foresight;

Have, in this spirit, adopted a great number of provisions, the object of which is to define and govern the usages of war on land.

In view of the High Contracting Parties, these provisions, the wording of which has been inspired by the desire to diminish the evils of war so far as military necessities permit, are destined to serve as general rules of conduct for belligerents in their relations with each other and with populations.

It has not, however, been possible to agree forthwith on provisions embracing all the circumstances which occur in practice.

On the other hand, it could not be intended by the High Contracting Parties that the cases not provided for should, for want of a written provision, be left to the arbitrary judgment of the military Commanders.

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