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jurisdiction of the other, the rules of the Hague Conference of 1899 provide as follows :
“Art. 53. An army of occupation can only take possession of the cash, funds, and property liable to requisition belonging strictly to the State, depots of arms, means of transport, stores and supplies, and generally, all movable property of the State which may be used for military operations.
“Railway plant, land telegraphs, telephones, steamers, and other ships, apart from cases governed by maritine law, as well as depots of arms and, generally, all kinds of war material, even though belonging to Companies or to private persons, are likewise material which may serve for military operations, but they must be restored at the conclusion of peace, and indemnities paid for them.”
“ Art. 55. The occupying state shall only be regarded as administrator and usufructuary of public buildings, real property, forests, and agricultural works belonging to the hostile State, and situated in the occupied country. It must protect the capital of these properties, and administer it according to the rules of usufruct.
“ART. 56. The property of communes, that of religious, charitable, and educational institutions, and those of arts and science, even when State property, shall be treated as private property.
“All seizure of, and destruction or intentional damage done to such institutions, to historical monuments, works of art or science, is prohibited, and should be made the subject of proceedings.” I .
$ 103. Real Property of Enemy Subjects The real property of the subject of one belligerent situated within the territory of the other belligerent was in early times appropriated by the state, later prac
1 Holls, “ Hague Peace Conference,” 451, and Appendix, p. 477.
tice administered it during the war, for the benefit of the state; but at present it is treated as the real property of any non-hostile foreigner.
It is generally conceded that real property of the subjects of either state is unaffected by hostile occupation by the forces of the other state, except so far as the necessities of warfare may require.1
$ 104. Personal Property of Enemy Subjects
The movable property of the subject of one of the belligerent states in the territory of the other belligerent state was until comparatively recent times appropriated. In the case of Brown v. United States, 2 in 1814, the Supreme Court held that the “existence of war gave the right to confiscate, yet did not of itself and without more, operate as a confiscation of the property of an enemy,” though it further held that the court could not condemn such property unless there was a legislative act authorizing the confiscation. Many modern treaties provide that in case of war between the parties to the treaties subjects of each state may remain in the other, “and shall be respected and maintained in the full and undisturbed enjoyment of their personal liberty and property so long as they conduct themselves peaceably and properly, and commit no offense against the laws.”3 The most recent practice has been to exempt personal property of the subject of one belligerent state from all molestation, even though it was within the territory of the other at the outbreak 1 Appendix, pp. 339, 385.
28 Cr., 110. 8 See Index U. S. Treaties, “Reciprocal Privileges of Citizens."
of war. Of course, such property is liable to the taxes, etc., imposed upon others not enemy subjects.
In case of hostile occupation, the Hague Conference of 1899 summarized the rules as follows: —
“Art. 46. Private property cannot be confiscated. “ ART. 47. Pillage is formally prohibited.
“ ART. 48. If, in the territory occupied, the occupant collects the taxes, dues, and tolls imposed for the benefit of the State, he shall do it, so far as possible, in accordance with the rules in existence and the assessment in force. ...
“ ART. 49. If ... the occupant levies other money taxes in the occupied territory, this can only be for military necessities or the administration of such territory.".
Articles 50, 51, 52, provide that burdens due to military occupation shall be as equable as possible, and that payment shall be made for contributions."
The practice now is to exempt private property so far as possible from the consequences of hostile occupation, and to take it only on the ground of reasonable military necessity.2
With regard to one particular form of property, modern commercial relations as influenced by state credit have been more powerful than theory or country. The stock in the public debt held by an enemy subject is wholly exempt from seizure or sequestration, and practice even demands that interest must be paid to enemy subjects during the continuance of the war.3
In case of belligerent occupation, contributions, requisitions, and other methods are sometimes resorted to in supplying military needs.
1 Holls, “ Hague Peace Conference,” 447, and Appendix, pp. 475, 476. 2 Appendix, pp. 339, 377. 8 Lawrence, § 198.
Contributions are money exactions in excess of taxes.1 Contributions should be levied only by the general-inchief.
Requisitions consist in payment in kind of such articles as are of use for the occupying forces, as food, clothes, horses, boats, compulsory labor, etc. Requisitions may be levied by subordinate commanders when there is immediate need, otherwise by superior officers. Such requisitions should not be in excess of need or of the resources of the region.
Receipts for the value of both contributions and requisitions should be given, in order that subsequent impositions may not be made without due knowledge, and in order that the sufferers may obtain due reparation from their own state on the conclusion of peace.
In naval warfare “ reasonable requisitions for provisions and supplies essential at the time ” 2 is allowed. Such requisitions may be enforced by bombardment if necessary. · Contributions, however, cannot be exacted unless after actual and complete belligerent occupation, as by land forces. Contributions in the form of ransom to escape bombardment -cannot be levied, as in such cases occupation is not a fact.3
Foraging is resorted to in cases where lack of time makes it inconvenient to obtain supplies by the usual process of requisition, and consists in the actual taking of provisions for men and animals by the troops themselves.
13 Whart., $ 339. 2 U. S. Naval War Code, Art. 4. See Appendix, p. 401. 8 Appendix, p. 401.