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generally also of flying its flag. The archives and official property are inviolable.

In the case of a consul not a citizen of the receiving state and engaged exclusively in consular business, exemption from arrest except on a criminal charge, when he may be punished by local laws or sent home for trial; exemption from witness duty, though testimony may be taken in writing; exemption from taxation; exemption from military charges and service,- is usually conceded by custom and often by treaty. It is not, however, conceded that the consular residence may be used as an asylum.

The consul of the third class, who, though an alien to the receiving state, engages in business other than consular duties, is subject to all local laws governing similarly circumstanced foreigners, except when in the performance of his functions. His consular effects must be kept distinct from those appertaining to his business capacity, which last are under local law.

The domiciled alien exercising consular functions is subject to local law as others similarly circumstanced, which, in some states, may involve considerable obligations. The freedom from local restrictions sufficient for the convenient performance of his consular duties is implied in the grant of the exequatur.

The reception of a citizen as a consular representative of a foreign state does not confer upon him the personal privileges and immunities of any of the other classes, but only the immunities attaching to the office itself, and absolutely necessary for the performance of its duties, as the right to use the arms above the office door, the inviolability of archives, and respect for his authority while in the performance of his functions.

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In some of the Eastern states and in some of the nonChristian and semicivilized states consuls are entirely exempt from local jurisdiction, enjoying exemptions similar to those of diplomatic agents.

In time of war the house of the consul is, when flying the flag of the state which he serves, specially protected, and liable to injury only in case of urgent military necessity. Consuls do not necessarily withdraw because of hostilities with the accrediting state.1

In general, the consul, by virtue of his public office, is entitled to more respect than a simple citizen, or, as Heffter puts it, “consuls are entitled to that measure of inviolability which will enable them to exercise their consular functions without personal inconvenience."2

(9) The consular office may be vacated by a given occupant, (1) by death, (2) by recall, (3) by expiration of his term of service, (4) by revocation of his

exequatur. This last cause is the only one needing · attention. The exequatur may be revoked by the state

issuing it, if the conduct of the holder be displeasing to the state. The state issuing the exequatur is sole judge. This does not necessarily imply any discourtesy to the accrediting state, as the consul does not represent the sovereignty of the state. It is customary, however, to give the accrediting state an opportunity to recall its consul. Exequaturs have, on several occa

1“ De Clercq et de Vallat," I., pp. 106, 107.
38 244.

sions, been withdrawn from consuls who have directly or indirectly aided the enemies of the receiving state, or have given offense by their participation in the public affairs of the receiving state. Consequently consuls are usually officially advised to refrain so far as possible from expressions of their opinions upon public affairs, either of the receiving or sending state.

CHAPTER XIV

TREATIES

81. DEFINITION.
82. OTHER FORMS OF INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS.

(a) Protocol.
(6) Declarations.
(c) Memoranda.
(d) Letters, notes.
(e) Sponsions.

($) Cartels.
83. THE NEGOTIATION OF TREATIES.

(a) The agreement.
(6) The draft.
(C) Signs and seals.

(d) Ratification.
84. THE VALIDITY OF TREATIES.

(a) International capacity.
(6) Due authorization.
(c) Freedom of consent.

(d) Conformity to law.
85. THE CLASSIFICATION OF TREATIES.
86. THE INTERPRETATION OF TREATIES.
87. THE TERMINATION OF TREATIES.

§ 81. Definition A treaty is an agreement, generally in writing, and always in conformity with law, between two or more states. A treaty may establish, modify, or terminate

obligations. These obligations must be such as are legally within the capacity of the states concerned to negotiate. A treaty runs between states only. As distinguished from other forms of international agreement, a treaty is usually concerned with matters of high state importance, with a considerable number of questions, or with matters involving several states. ! Separate articles are clauses attached to a treaty after ratification, and to be interpreted with reference to the whole.

§ 82. Other Forms of International Agreements

Besides the treaty, which is the most formal international agreement, there may be various other methods of expressing the terms of international agreements. The importance of the matter contained in the various documents is not necessarily in proportion to their formality.

The terms “convention” and “ treaty” are very generally used interchangeably, though strictly the scope of a convention is less broad, and usually applies to some specific subject, as to the regulation of commerce, navigation, consular service, postal service, naturalization, extradition, boundaries, etc. The terms below are often used loosely in practice.

(a) A protocol, or proces verbal, is usually in the form of official minutes, giving the conclusions of an international conference and signed at the end of each session by the negotiators. This does not require ratification by the sovereign as in the case of treaties and conventions, though it is equally binding upon the good faith

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