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CHAPTER XIII

DIPLOMACY AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS IN

TIMES OF PEACE

69. GENERAL DEVELOPMENT.
70. DIPLOMATIC AGENTS.

(a) Historical.
6) Rank.

(1) Diplomatic agents of first class.
(2) Envoys extraordinary.
(3) Ministers resident.

(4) Chargés d'affaires.
71. SUITE.

(a) Official.

(6) Non-official.
72. WHO MAY SEND DIPLOMATIC AGENTS.
73. WHO MAY BE SENT.
74. CREDENTIALS.
75. CEREMONIAL.

(a) General.
(6) Reception.
(c) Precedence and places of honor.

(d) Prerogatives.
76. FUNCTIONS.

(a) Internal business.
(6) Conduct of negotiations.
(c) Relation to fellow-citizens.
(d) Reports to home government.

77. TERMINATION OF Mission.

(a) Through death of agent.
(6) In ordinary manner.
(c) Under strained relations.

(d) Ceremonial of departure.
78. IMMUNITIES AND PRIVILEGES.

(a) Inviolability.
(6) Exterritoriality and exemptions.

(1) Criminal jurisdiction.
(2) Civil jurisdiction.
(3) Family and suite.
(4) House of ambassador.
(5) Asylum.
(6) Taxation.

(7) Religious worship.
79. DIPLOMATIC PRACTICE OF THE UNITED STATES.
80. Consuls.

(a) Historical.
(6) Grades.
(c) Nomination and reception.
(d) Functions.
(e) Special powers in Eastern states.
(f) Privileges and immunities.
(g) Termination of consular office.

§ 69. General Development Diplomacy may be broadly defined as the art and science of international negotiation. The conditions which make possible established relations among states are of comparatively recent origin. In the days when stranger and enemy were not distinguished, and when “ strange air made a man unfree,” there could be no extended relations among states. In very early times, however, states had some relations with each other, and

general principles were observed in carrying on such business as might be necessary. These growing relations have given rise to what is known as the right of legation. Sometimes a right of intercourse between states has been claimed on the ground that the citizens of one state cannot be excluded from the natural advantages of another state, on the ground that all men have an equal right to innocent use of the earth's resources, or on more abstract grounds of moral duty variously interpreted. As the actual practice of states never has recognized such a right to contend for it would hardly be necessary. States put restrictions upon commerce, even to the exclusions of goods and persons. In some cases where the terms of the state enactment may not be prohibitive, the conditions of admission amount to practical prohibition.1

The influence of commerce in its many forms, the idea of unity of mankind in its various manifestations, the growth of neighborhood on the part of European states, and the necessity of respect for each other on the part of these states, made interstate relations imperative and convenient. While the right of intercourse might be questioned, the necessity and convenience of interstate relations admitted of no question. +

§ 70. Diplomatic Agents (a) Historical. In very early times special privileges. were extended to heralds, ambassadors, or other bearers of the state will. Laws 2 and history record as a fact

1 U. S. Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882, 1 Gould and Tucker, 502 et seq.; 2 ibid., 193 et seq.

2 Digest, LVII., 17.

this practice which had long been observed. The ambassador was often one who in his own state held some priestly office. In the days of the Roman dominance, the office of ambassador was commonly exercised by one holding a religious office, and while the unity represented by the church remained prominent, its officials were often ambassadors. Both from necessity and from the sacred character of the person, the ambassador was usually regarded as inviolable. The person of the ambassador was respected long before there was any recognition of the rights and dignity of states as states. In order that there might be any such intercourse, it was necessary that the agents should not be placed in undue personal peril.1

With the preëminence of the Italian city states in the Middle Ages there came the development of diplomacy as an art. The most distinguished men of the times were called to this state service. Machiavelli's name is inseparably linked to one school of diplomacy. Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio, and others whose names have become famous, were sent on missions.2

During the thirteenth century, Venice outlined the policy which her ambassadors should follow, and there the system of foreign representation became well established. This system included the granting of a commission, instructions, letter of credence, attachés, etc. Italy may, indeed, be called the home of the diplomatic system.

For many years, in fact till comparatively recent times, ambassadors were looked upon with suspicion, as

13 Pradier-Fodéré, 1233.
3 Nys, “ Les Origines du Droit International,” 297.

spies whom monarchs were more willing to give than to receive. Gradually, however, the practice of sending and receiving ambassadors was seen to have much value. During the fifteenth century, which marks the beginning of the modern period in the history of diplomacy, the practice of sending permanent ambassadors seems to have arisen. There may have been isolated cases of sending of permanent ambassadors before this time, but from the fifteenth century the practice became more and more common, though the different countries did not observe any uniform regulations as to personnel, procedure, or in other respects. From this time diplomacy became more of a career, and one going on a mission to a foreign country received careful preparation that he might outwit the representatives of the state to which he was sent. Sir Henry Wotton's oftquoted definition of an ambassador, “ An ambassador is an honest man, sent to lie abroad for the good of his country,” i describes the attitude taken in many countries toward the office, when early in the seventeenth century he wrote the definition in Christopher Flecamore's album. Gradually the rules of international negotiation became established, and treatises upon the subject appeared.

The Peace of Westphalia in 1648, which marks the beginning of modern international relations, showed that modern diplomacy had already obtained a recognition, and served to give it a more definite form. This date serves as a boundary to the first division of the modern period in the history of diplomacy. The years from the early part of the fifteenth century to

1 Walton, “ Life of Wotton,” 155.

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