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Commercial ProgressHome and Foreign.

Stamps......

......... £6,529,000 the whole exhibit, is the severe taxation Land Tax.....

£1,142,900 Window Tax .......... ... 1,044,800

upon one article of American manufacOther assessed Taxes......... 1,702,200

ture, to the extent of £4,466,000, or

00 $22,300,000 annually. Instead of taxing Property and Income Tax.

5,440,000 Post-office................

... 2,422,100 the real and personal property of the Crown Lands.,....

353,000 kingdom, and the individual incomes, to Other ordinary revenue...........

703,000

such an extent as will cover largely the Total revenue for the year.......... 256,834,000 expenditures of the nation, those articles

are taxed heavily which enter into the It will thus be seen that the articles daily consumption of the lower classes. which enter so generally into consump- The following returns are interesting tion among the laboring classes, pay over to our American readers, because the in£21,000,000 sterling, or full thirty-eight crease of American shipping during the per cent. of the aggregate revenue of the years 1850, 51, 52, employed in the United Kingdom. Malt liquors form the English foreign trade, is shown to be fully prominent beverage of the poorer classes, 33 per cent.-while that of the British and although tobacco has been hereto- shipping increased very slightly, and that fore enumerated among the luxuries of of France actually decreased. the people of Europe, yet it is essentially, The growing importance of the United among the English, an article of con- States in the English foreign trade, is sumption among their poor. The Lon- clearly demonstrated in the tables; while don Quarterly remarks : “It is curious to the diminished trade with France, Sweobserve how very largely the revenue of den, the German States, Spain, Portugal, Great Britain depends on what goes into &c., is clearly shown. the mouth. * * * The duties of be. During the eight months, ending 30th tween thirty and thirty-one millions are September, the importation of the last levied upon articles of universal con- three years of tobacco (unmanufactured) sumption in England. All but a mere into Great Britain, was as follows: fraction of this may be in some sort regarded as voluntary taxation, so far as 8 Months, 1850 ..............18,109,000 lbs.

.8 " 1851

€ the consumers are concerned.”

.............18,157,000

8 " 1852 ..............18,553,000" But the most striking feature to us, of

VESSELS EMPLOYED IN THE FOREIGN TRADE OF THE UNITED KINGDOM.

An Account of the Number and Tonnage of Vessels, distinguishing the Countries to which they belonged,

which Entered Inwards, and Cleared Outwards, in the Eight Months ending 5th September, 1852, compared with the Entries and Clearances in the corresponding Periods of the Years 1850 and 1851, stated exclusinely of Vessels in Ballast, and of those employed in the Coasting Trade, of the Trade between Great Britain and Ireland.

[Entered Inwards.-Eight Months ended 5th September.)

1950.

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1852.

UT..

Countries to which the Vessels
belonged.
Ships. Tonnage.
Ships. * Tonnage.

Ships. Tondage. United Kingdom and

dependencies........11,678......2,538,261... ..12,209......2,753,315.. .....10,928......2,672,026 Russia .... 212.... 50,720.. 282... 78,413..

202...... 60,922 Sweden.... 253.... 37,092. 393. 64,860.

352. 54,266 Norway ..

797.... 130,131.. 1,194.. 216,255,. 1,282... 230,806 Denmark ......

1,295....
96,756. 1,500.. 126,288.

1,253.. 98,684 Prussia ...... 689. 137,033. 976. 204,934.

698.. 150,522 Other German States.. ... 1,574...... 158,521.. 1,382. 170,769.

1,132.. 141,005 Holland. 914... 81,237. 810.. 88,120..

849.. 88.159 Belgium.

147
22,860.
134. 24,822.

144

24,354 France..... 1,701 100,720. 1,606.. 103.129.

1,120.. 62,508 Spain......

92
14,069.

117.
18,943.

103.

15,246 Portugal .......

72
7,207..... 57.... 7,102.

29.... 3,936 Italian States ........... 198.... 55,970.. 481.... 124,959.

233. 61,194 Other European States..

10,117.....

38,782..

39.... 10,583 United States of America 494...... 382, 349..... 679...... 543,369........

654.... 556,264 Other States in America, Africa or Asia ..... 5...... 1,427........ ...... 1,207........ 3...... 1,300

20,155..... 3,824,470....... 21,974......4,565,267.......... 19,021......4,231,775

34....

149......

[Cleared Oatwards.-Eight Months ended 5th September.)

1850

1851.

315....

Countries to which the Vessels

18-39
belonged.

Ships.
Tonnage.
Ships. Tonnage.

Ships. Tonnage. United Kingdom and

dependencies ......... 12,575......2,779,341........13,028...... 2,912,281........13,345......3,093.803 Russia ..........

183
45,769.

195... 54,050 ... 157.... 44.708 Sweden ....

246.
23,954.
297.. 45,228

49,407 Norway .....

492.
78,537
550. 81,355.

594.... 84,968 Denmark ..... 1,330, 105,522

1,466...
126,793

1,433. 114,340 Prussia ........ .. 554...... 107.624.

693..

131,235, .. 631..... 129,211 Other German States.... 1,382..... 143,749..... 1,413....... 160,802

1,694

181,390 Holland

726
86,664.

. 764...... 104,880. .. 903...... 131,476 Belgium .. 146...... 24,577.

130.
25,553..

185

30,764 France....

1,755
144,819.
1,682. 139,840.

1,656

134,225 Spain,

14,885,
128.. 19,910.

111.... 16,899 Portugal ..... 37.... 4,466

5,495.

32... 3,966 Italian States. ........., 217.... 62,140. 414.... 114,759..

203... 54,300 Other European States... 49... 13,779..

123....
33,855.

56... 15,334 United States of America 499..... 397,197.

645......
534,956.

625...... 547,997 Other States in America, Africa or Asia. ........ 5...... 1,478........ 5...... 1,361........ ...... 1,486

20,289 ......4,045,501 ....... 21,571 ......4,492,333.........21,944 ...... 4,634, 274

93......

38

.......

ART. XII.-INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS.

IMPROVEMENTS AT WILMINGTON, N. C.-WILMINGTON AND RALEIGH ROAD-TEXAN RAIL-ROAD

SYSTEM MEMPHIS AND LOUISVILLE RAIL-ROAD-ECONOMY OF RAIL-ROADS AS COMPARED WITH OTHER TRANSPORTATION-RAIL-ROAD AT CHICAGO-ST. LOUIS RAIL-ROAD CONVENTION TENNESSEE IMPROVEMENTS-RAIL-ROAD STATISTICS OF THE WEST AND NORTHWEST-CAN THERE BE TOO MANY OUTLETS FOR THE TRADE OF THE WEST-COMPETITION OF LOUISVILLE WITH NEW-ORLEANS IN THE COTTON TRADE.

Passing through Wilmington, N. C., a suggested, and which we noticed in a few days ago, we learned from Gen. previous number. McRae, President of the Rail-road Com. The Wilmington and Raleigh Road pany, that a line of stages would soon be shows a gross total of receipts for the year put on, so as to secure the connection of ending 30th September, 1852, of $510,038. Wilmington with the Manchester road, Gross expenditures, $325,909. Leaving as far as completed, and enable passen- a profit of $184,128, or deducting interest gers to avoid the sea steamers from account, of $115,898. A dividend of six Charleston, which have been always per cent. was paid on the 12th Novemsuch a drawback upon this route. The ber. arrangement will shorten the line of The people of Texas are actively distravel and greatly promote its comforts. cussing the propriety of an early con

In Wilmington one cannot but be sur- struction of the Red River and Galveston prised with the evidences of progress and road, in which it is expected they will improvement which meet him upon every have the sympathies of New York, as in hand, and the rail-roads which are cen- this manner trade will be abstracted from tering at her door indicate a still brighter New Orleans in favor of that city. We future. Handsome residences are multi- have before us a letter from Mr. Lincoln, plying-large stores, extensive mills, and of Galveston, in which he recommends what is of much consequence, the in- a course of action to be pursued by the habitants have acquired great confidence legislature of the state, which meets in in the health of the place during the sum- January. The suggestions of this letter mer season.

are criticised in a letter by Mr. Hartley, If Charleston would protect herself ef- also before us, who thinks that the donafectually from the danger of being thrown tions of land recommended should be out of the line of communication between made to the counties; that the bonds the North and the South, she must speedi- should be issued at a lower rate of interest ly enter upon the construction of the than 10 per cent., etc. etc. But to Mr. roads which some of her citizens have Lincoln's views, viz:

Internal Improvements.

79 "Have the legislature at the next ses- held in Memphis, in which a large numsion pass a law increasing her donation, ber of leading citizens took part. The and giving to all rail-roads sixteen sec- following resolutions were reported by tions of land per mile, to each five miles Robinson Topp, Esq.: of rail-road that is actually properly Resolved, That it is the opinion of this made, within the limits of the state, with meeting—and we believe of the entire such restrictions as will prevent corpora- population of Memphis--that a direct tions from over-charging on freights and rail-road route from Memphis through passengers.

thc counties of Shelby, Tipton, Haywood, "Also, a law authorizing counties, cities, Gibson and Henry, in West Tennesseetowns, &c., upon a majority of the tax thence by the nearest and best route to payers voting for the same, to issue ten Bowling Green and Louisville, is a proper cent. bonds, and laying a tax to pro- ject of high magnitude, not alone to the vide for the interest thereon, to such com- counties through which it may pass, but panies as are designated at the time, the to the whole Mississippi Valley. companies paying for the bonds in their Resolved, That we hail with joy the stock; no county to issue bonds to the energetic movements now being made company until they have actually fin- in the counties of De Soto, Panola, Yalloished the road to the borders of the coun- busha, and Tallahatchie, Mississippi, for ties so doing, or to such other points as the purpose of constructing a rail-road the majority of the voters shall desig- from this place towards Grenada, or Can. nate.

ton, Mississippi. “The rail-roads receiving the bonds Resolved, That we regard the last-menand guaranteeing the principal and in- tioned road as a link, and an important terest thereon, (which will make them one, in the great chain of rail-roads, which abundantly safe,) can negociate north must ere long be made from Louisville, for means to build the roads beyond a through Memphis to New Orleans, and doubt; particularly now, when New. likewise from St. Louis to New-OrYork is awake to the importance to her leans. of the rail-road from Red River to Gal- Resolved, That we feel deeply concern. veston Bay, and the immense amount of ed in the immediate construction of the trade, now going to New-Orleans by way road through Mississippi, and that the of Red River, that will be drawn off that President of this meeting appoint a deleroute, and be thrown into New-York city gation to the Rail-road Convention, to be by way of Galveston.

held at Hernando, on the 29th inst., with 4 Also, the bonds being issued direct a very earnest request that they will atby the counties, and the people of the tend, and assure their brethren in Miscounties receiving a direct and imme- sissippi that they are identified with them diate benefit therefrom, the fear of re- in interest, and that the citizens of Mempudiation will never arise in the minds phis and Shelby county will do their part of the capitalists at the North or in Eu- towards promoting the construction of rope. The rail-roads also being bound said road. for their redemption, and the counties having directly received an equivalent We'published some time ago a very not only in benefit from rail-roads, but able article by Mr. Hewson, of Tennessee, stock for their bonds, which stock with. illustrated by a diagram, showing the out any additional aid will be of suffi- value imparted to lands by rail-road imcient value to pay off the bonds, with provement at all distances. We have every prospect of doing more, will give since seen an article in the Rail-Road such confidence that I can see no rea- Journal carrying out the subject in more son why the road will not be put under detail. almost immediate contract.

It is well known, says the Rail-Road “Any attempt to force a county, one Journal, that upon the ordinary highto two hundred miles from any public ways the economical limit to transportaimprovement, to pay a tax for such pur- tion is confined within a comparatively poses, is not democratic, not equalizing few miles, depending of course upon the benefits, though it may burdens, and will kind of freight and character of the roads. never be submitted to by Tecians; it is Upon the average of such ways, cost of enough that they give a share of the transportation is not far from fifteen cents public lands for such purposes."

per ton per mile, which may be consid. A rail-road meeting has been lately ered as a sufficiently correct estimate

for an average of the country. Estimat- It will be seen that the value of lands ing at the same time the value of wheat are affected by rail-roads in the same at $1.50 per bushel, and corn at 75 cents, ratio as their products. For instance: and that 33 bushels of each are equal to lands lying upon a navigable water a ton, the value of the former would be course, or in the immediate vicinity of a equal to its cost of transportation for 330 market, may be worth for the culture of miles, and the latter 165 miles. At these wheat $100. Let the average crop be esrespective distances from market, neither timated at twenty-two bushels to the acre, of the above articles would have any valued at $33, and the cost of cultivation commercial value, with only a common at $15, this would leave $18 per acre as earth road as an avenue to market. the net profit. This quantity of wheat,

But we find that we can move proper- (two-thirds of a ton,) could be transported ty upon rail-roads at the rate of one-fifth per 280 miles at a cost of one cent per mile, ton per mile, or for one-tenth the cost or $3.30, which would leave $14.70 as upon the ordinary road. These works the net profit of land at that distance thee fore extend the economic limit of from a market, when connected with it the cost of transportation of the above arti- by a rail-road. The value of the land, cles to 3,300, and 1,650 miles respective. therefore, admitting the quality to be the ly. At the limit of the economical same in both cases, would bear the same movement of these articles upon the ratio to the assumed value of $100, as the common highway, by the use of rail-roads, value of its products, $14.70, does to $18, wheat would be worth $44.50, and corn or $82 per acre; which is an actual crea$22.27, which sum respectively would tion of value to that amount, assuming the represent the actual increase of value correctness of the premises. The same created by the interposition of such a work. calculation may of course be applied with

The following table will show the equal force to any kind and species of amount saved per ton by transportation by property. rail-road, over the ordinary highways of The following rail-roads it is said are the country.

all aiming in the direction of Chicago:

Miles. Table, showing the value of a ton of wheat and Boston, via Albany, Niagara, Detroit ........

...... 1000 one of corn, at given points from market, as New York, via Dunkirk, Toledo......... affected by cost of transportation by rail-road, Philadelphia, via Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne...... 800 and over the ordinary road:

Baltimore, via Wheeling, Columbus.,

750 Norfolk, via Cincinnati and Chicago......

Transportation
Transportation

Charleston and Savannah, via Louisville and In

by ordinary by Rail-road.

bighway.

dianapolis, Nashville and Evansville.......... 1000

Mobarempi
Wheat Corn. Whent.

Mobile, via Cairo,........

Corn,
Value at market. . $49 50...824 75...$49 50...824 75

St. Louis, Alton, Springfield and Bloomington... 250
Qniucy and Military Tract ........

200 10 miles..........49 35....24 60....48 00....23 25 20...............

200 ......49 20....24 45....46 50....21 75

Rock Island, Peru and Joliet,.

Dubuque, Galena and Chicago.. 49 05....24 30...

Minois and Wisconsin via Fond du Lac to Lake 40.... .....49 00....24 15....4 50....18 95

Superior ......

400 50..... ......48 75....24 00....

00....17 25 Lake Shore, Milwaukee and Green Bay. ....... 60...

50....15 75
48 45. ...23
00....14 25

7650 80

......48 30....53 55....37 50...12 75
......48 15....23 40....36 00....11 25

25 all to be in operation probably in three 100

....48 00....23 25.... 34 50.... 9 75
.....47 85.... 23 10....33 00.... 8 25

years.
120.
......47 70....22 95....31 50.... 6 75

75 The convention which was proposed to 130. ......47 55....22 80....3 00.... 5 25

25 be held in St. Louis for the construction 140..... ......47 40....22 65....2 50.... 3 150... .......46 25.... 22 56....27 00....2

25 of a rail-road from the Gulf to Minnesota, 160.... ......46 10....22 35...25 50.... 75 was duly held, 150 delegates being pres170..

..46 95....22 20....24 00. 180. ......46 80....22 05..., 22 50....

ent. The Hon. Thomas Benton and Mr. 190.... ......46 65....21 90....2100.... - Kennett, mayor of St. Louis, delivered 200. .......46 50....21 75 .. 19 50..

- addresses. Among the resolutions passed 210.

.......46 35 ....21 60....18 00... 220. ......46 20....21 15....16 50..

we note the following: 230.. .....46 05....21 30....15 00..

First, That the individual and social in240...

....45 90....21 15....13 50.. 250... ..45 75... 21 00.

terests of the inhabitants west of the Mis..45 60....20 85

- sissippi River, imperatively demand the ..45 45....20 70. ......45 30....20 55...

construction of a rail-road from the city of

7 50.... 290. ......45 15...20 40.... 600...

New-Orleans to a central eligible point 300... 45 00....20 25.... 4

in the Territory of Minnesota, in the di310...

......44 85....20 10.... 3 50...
......44 70....19 95....1 50..

rection of the Red River of the North, and 330.... ......44 55....19 80.... 0

with a branch to the Falls of St. Anthony;

......... 900

..... 600

.........

900

200

30.

48 60....23

200

90.

110

200.... 270.

280

320....

0....

Internal Improvements.

said road to pass by the capital of the on by our people the one we have menState of Arkansas, the Iron Mountain and tioned and the one from Selma-will penthe city of St. Louis, in the State of Mis- etrate the rich regions of Northern Missouri, and the valley of the Des Moines sissippi, North Alabama, Tennessee and River in the State of Iowa.

Kentucky, before the New Orleans and Second, That a rail-way thus uniting Nashville road can be pushed to those the fertile valleys and productive prairies quarters. This will give us a decided of the extreme northern territory of the advantage in securing the trade." United States with the Gulf of Mexico, isW e are obliged to Mr. Hewson for a eminently national in its character, and, copy of his valuable letter to the Legislatherefore, justly entitled to assistance from ture of Tennessee, upon the subject of the the general government.

improvement of that state. In the exThird, That the act of Congress grant- tract which follows he marks out the ing public lands in aid of the Illinois Cen- centres of industry there : tral and Mobile and Ohio Rail-roads, “The industrial geography of Tennesgives additional strength to the claims of see is marked very distinctly; the breadthe states west of the Mississippi to a stuff region centering at Nashville, the similar grant in aid of the Mississippi cotton region at Memphis; the great Ili. Valley Rail-road; for it would be unjust nois coal basin running down into the on the part of Congress to refuse assist western section of the state, while the ance to establishing commercial facilities whole extent of Eastern Tennessee is on this, after doing so much to encourage traversed in a north and south direction similar works on the other side of the by the great Apalachian coal measures. river.

These few facts define clearly the tradeSixth, That the meeting of this conven- centres of the state, and also the system tion affords a proper occasion for those of of roads by which those trade-centres whom it is composed to urge upon Con- may be drawn together in the best mangress the necessity of adopting immediate ner to subserve the purposes of varied measures in view of the certain and production. In the west the manufacturspeedy construction of the Great Central ing interests of Tennessee are seated at Pacific Rail-road-a grand national pro- the nearest edge of the coal-fields to the ject calculated to unite the interests and corn of Nashville, and the cotton of Memadvance the prosperity of every part of phis; in the east the manufacturing inthe republic; and secure by the shortest terests of the state are situated at that and most economical route, upon our own point of the Apalachian coal-fields, which soil and through the heart of our own lie most convenient to the supplies of country, safe and uninterrupted commu- both provisions and cotton from Nashnication between its distant borders on ville." the shores of the two great oceans,-a The rail-roads at present projected in project worthy of the age in which we the West reach ten thousand miles, two live and of the American people, who thousand of which are nearly completed. would speedily accomplish this glorious It is said that Pennsylvania, Central, and enterprise, if sectional jealousy and con- the Baltimore and Ohio roads will be fed flicting interests could be reconciled, and by the following western roads : the national mind concentrated upon its achievement.

IN WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA. Congratulating the South upon the pro- The Hempfield road, Greenburg to Wheeling... 78 gress of this rail-road spirit, the Mobile Pennsylvania and Ohio road from Pittsburgh, Advertiser remarks: “Our own great Pittsburgh and Steubenville road enterprise, the Mobile and Ohio Rail-road, has no doubt had a great influence in

Total in Pennsylvania ............ awakening this spirit. It certainly was the main impulse which started New

IN OHIO. Orleans from her lethargic slumbers, and The Ohio and Pennsylvania state line to Crestcaused her to enter into the competition

line ,..

Cleveland and Pittsburgh.. for the trade of central Mississippi and Columbus and Wheeling... the Tennessee Valley. As matters are Cincinnati, Circleville, and Zanesville...

Little Miami, Cincinnati to Springfield. How progressing, we have unquestionadiy Columbus and Xenia................... the advantage, as we had the start, of our Cincinnati and Dayton..... mammoth rival. The two great enter

Cincinnati, Belpre and Wheeling ......

Central Ohio, Columbus to Steubenville ..., prises, which are being rapidly carried Dayton and Western.......

VOL. Xiv.

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35

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136 99 150

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