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higher. This phenomenon of a diminish- lags behind the demand. Hence the ed stock and a higher price, in the face well-founded conclusion that the prices of a largely increased supply, is account of cotton will range higher during the ed for solely by a greatly-increased con- next than during the past twelve months. sumption, In Great Britain the weekly It appears that the cultivation of cotton consumption of cotton in 1851 was 31,800 was introduced into Texas in 1822 by bales; in 1852 the consumption reached Col, Jared E. Groce. This was the very about 40,000 bales a week, or 2,000,000 first commencement of cotton planting per annum. On the continent there has in Texas. This first cotton plant was in been a corresponding increase of con- the prairie ; after that year Col. Groce sumption. The direct shipments from planted in the Brazos bottom. the United States to France in the present The first year or two Col. G. sold his year have been 120,017 bales more than cotton to some neighbors, but afterwards in the last, and to other parts of Europe gave it to the settlers who carried it 84,435 bales more. In the United States down the river in flat boats. In 1825, the consumption of 1850–51 was 404,000 Col. G. put up the first cotton gin in Ausbales; of 1851-52 it was 603,000 bales- tin's colony, on the plantation where his a conclusive contradiction, by the way, son, Col. L. W. Groce, now lives. The of the pretended distress of the manu- first cotton shipped from Texas was in facturing interest of this country. Thus 1831, in which year Col. Groce and Mr. it is seen that the increase in the con- Thomas McKinney took a crop to Matasumption of cotton is greater than the in- moras by a schooner from the mouth of crease in production; and we have every the Brazos, which, we believe, was sold reason to believe that this will continue for about 62 1-2 cents per pound. After to be the case. The Economist says, that year (Col. Groce and his son, with “extensive mills are now in course of Mr. Thos. F. McKinney, began to send erection in Great Britain," and contends cotton to San Luis Potosi, shipping it to that the consumption of cotton there will Tampico and thence on pack mules to its continue to increase. We know that on destination. It was of course put up in the continent of Europe, and especially small bales suitable for packing on in Germany, the consumption of cotton is mules. This trade was continued until increasing steadily and rapidly, and in the disturbauces between Mexico and the United States, notwithstanding the Texas broke out in 1835. false alarms of greedy capitalists, the Col. Groce at first procured his cotton example of thriving factories is daily baling and rope of Mr. Seymour, a mercalling additional spindles into operation, chant in the Red Lands of Eastern Texas; It is not hazardous to assert that during but subsequently he procured these artithe next twelve months the consumption cles from San Felipe.* of cotton throughout the world will con- It is believed there was one cotton gin tinue to increase in an unprecedented and only one in Texas before the one ratio. But from the most reliable ac- erected by Col. Groce, and that was built counts the supply will not exceed, if in- by Mr. John Cartwright, of the Red deed it will equal, the supply of 1851–52. Lands. Notwithstanding British experiment in Asia, Africa, and the West Indies, upon We referred some time since to an the southern states of this Union the world Agricultural Convention which was prois dependent for its supply of cotton, (the posed to be held in Macon, Georgia, in Ocflax substitute being a dead failure.) It tober last, and of which we have lately is probable, then, that the production of received the proceedings. It will be the southern states will be equal to the seen that another convention is recomincreased consumption we are led to ex- mended on the first Monday in May pect? Will the supply keep pace with next. The delegates present in October the demand ? Nobody expects the crop were: of the present year to exceed the crop of From South Carolina-Col. Wm. Du last year, whilst many suppose it will be Bose, J. W. Harrison, Thos. Smith, Col. something less. The probable result of A. G. Summer. the growing crop is estimated at about From Virginia-Dr. Butler. 3,000,000 bales by persons competent to From Alabama-Dr. N. B. Powell, Dr. pronounce in the matter. Thus, while - Cloud, Wm. H. Chambers, R. C. the consumption increases, the production Shorter, Bolling Hall, A. G. McGehee, J. scarcely remains the same-the supply S. Reese, Joseph Hall, Geo. W. Hails,
73 Elbert A. Holt, R. J. Glenn, Dr. Wm. H. guished vintners. Many valuable hints Rives, Peter Ware, Joseph L. Moultrie, and statistics upon the subject will be Amos Travis, Jr., L. H. Pierce, Wm. 0. found in our work on the Industrial ReOrmsby, Wash. Pollard, Mr. Griswold. sources, &c., of the South and West.
From Mississippi-Col. Thos. G. Ble. Some one who has lately been on a visit wett, Dr. A. N. Jones, John Morton, Dr. to Cincinnati speaks in high terms of Mr. W. Burt.
Longworth's operations. We quote his reFrom Tennessee-F. Keith.
marks entire. From Louisiana-S. Craig Martyn. From Florida-Col. Williams, Judge
“The sparkling Catawba,' or chamMcGee.
80 pagne, is now made here in great quantiThe convention was organized by
ties from the same grape. The juice calling Dr. D. A. Reese, of Ga., to the
which runs from the mashed grapes be
fore pressure is reserved, fermented and chair, and the appointment of Wm. H. Chambers, of Ala., as secretary.
ripened with great care, and sweetened The objects of the convention were ex
with the purest rock candy. It ripens plained by Dr. W. C. Daniell, of DeKalb,
ready for market in about eighteen
1.2 months. Mr. Nicholas Longworth prowho also introduced the following resolu- dun tions :
duced accidentally the first champagne Resolved, that the members of the Ag
from thc Catawba grape in 1842, and im
mediately erected a building and sent to ricultural Association of the slaveholding
" France for a manufacturer of this species states, to be organized as hereinafter re
of wine. This year a hundred thousand commended, be composed of such citi.
bottles will be added to his stock. The zens of the same, as taking an interest in agriculture, desire to become members
sparkling Catawba possesses a delicious
flavor, and is regarded by many as suthereof; and of delegates from state and
perior to the most celebrated imported local agricultural societies; and from
champagne. states or parts of states.
Resolved. That such persons as above “A variety of wines are made from the desiguated are recommended to convene same grape by keeping separate the at Montgomery, Alabama, on the first must extracted by the different presMonday in May next, and to organize an sings, and a rich, claret-colored wine is agricultural association of the slaveholding produced by fermenting in the skin, states, under such provisions as to them which is very palatable when mellowed may appear best calculated to fulfil the by age. But the common practice is to purposes of their organization, which shall put all the must together in the same hold its meetings, in succession, in all the cask, and thus the whole juice and flavor slaveholding states that may participate of the grape remains, imparting to the in the association.
wine that fine grapy aroma which has Resolved, That a committee of corres
established the reputation of the Ameripondence, to consist of seven, be appoint-can Catawba. ed to carry into effect the foregoing resolu- “The ground selected for a vineyard is tions,
usually a hill-side, with a southern aspect, The resolutions were unanimously adopt- though the vine does nearly as well on ed, and the following gentlemen appoint- an eastern or western exposure. A dry ed, to compose the committee of corres- calcareous loam, with a porous subsoil, is pondence:
the soil best suited to the culture. Many Dr. W. C. Daniell, of DeKalb.
small vineyards are owned by Germans Gov. Geo. R. Gilmer, of Lexington. in moderate circumstances, and afford Hon. Asbury Hull, of Athens.
profitable employment for their families, Hon. Thos. Stocks, of Greensboro. These sell their wine to the more wealthy Hon. Jas. Hamilton Couper, of Darien. dealers, who sell it again under their own Col. Jas. M. Chambers, of Columbus. label, if it proves of good quality Maj. Joel Crawford, of Blakely.
" Mr. Longworth's wine cellars are the
most capacious that have yet been We have frequently referred to the erected, being 105 feet long, an average production of grapes and manufacture of of 45 feet in width, and 18 high. The wine in the United States, and noticed wine of each vintage is kept separate in elaborately the successful experiment of casks, holding from 2,000 to 5,500 galMr. Weller, of North Carolina; and Mr. lons each. Several new wine cellars Longworth, of Cincinnati, both distin- will be built here during the next season,
"Greatly as the manufacture of native
DR. wine has increased during the last few Cost of 1,000 sheep, at an average of $1 25
per head........... years, the supply scarcely keeps up with
Cost of expenses of care and keep for the the increasing demand. All the still year, at 20c... wine more than five years old is now out Interest on capital, at 7 per cent............ 87 00 of market, and the sparkling is greedily
$1,537 00 taken off as soon as it is fit for market.
CR. The prejudice which at first existed
existed By 3,000 lbs. of washed wool, at 25c. per Ib. 750 00 against it on account of its nativity is fast By increase-gay 400 lambs, at 75c. ....... 300 00 disappearing, and many wine drinkers
Gross profits....... will use no other."
............ $1,050 00 Deduct expense and interest ......
287 00 In volume xiii. of the Review, the sub- Net profits on capital per year .............. $763 00 ject of sheep raising and wool was treated And this is only a capital of $1,250. by us at very great length; and from the We have made no charge for the use of attention the paper has everywhere re- land, as at present there is a vast range ceived, we cannot question it has been for stock on which nobody pays. We effecting much good. We are determined have supposed that the wool-growingwas to continue the subject from month to only a branch, and that the other branches month, and would be glad to obtain the paid the interest for any investment that experiences of our friends. Referring to might be made for a house and the other Texas in particular, the “ Wool Grower” necessary fixtures. To farm it successenters into some calculations, &c., which fully, even their shelter should be preare worthy of being preserved. We are pared, so that during the severe storms of free to confess that we consider Texas rain and sleet which are common to that without a rival for growing wool, unless country, the sheep should be kept dry. there is something better in New Mexico, The sheep are very sensitive to wet, and a or California. The sheep now there can cold wet storm will injure them very sebe improved at much less cost than we verely. Such sheds need not be very exsupposed before we saw the wool. By pensive. It is not so much the cold as selecting only those of the best wool, a the wet, that the successful flock master grade of wool will be produced that will has to guard against. We are satisfied, howbring, if properly washed, from 28c. to ever, that our estimate of profits is quite 32c. per lb., averaging about 30c, in this too low. But allowing that it is a fair one, market. The fleeces are clean and light, what business can any man follow in that when washed, and make a desirable kind state or here that will compare with it? of wool, which is largely sought for by There is a very curious table made by the manufacturers. There were some Mr. Gray, of San Antonio. He shows fleeces which could hardly be called that on a sheep farm with 500 ewes at the wool. They were from some of the old commencement, at the end of ten years Mexican sheep, and would pass for goatsthe gross value of the wool sold will be hair in almost any market. Still a cross $67,800, the expenses will have been $15,upon them with a good Merino ram, 900. Possible loss, $10,800, leaving a net would produce a desirable breed, for the profit of $43,200, while the whole amount hair would disappear in the cross to a of capital at the commencement is put large extent. If, however, a better grade down at only $890. We think the table erof sheep are plenty and cheap, we should roneous, however, because he has given prefer them at even a higher price, be- too large an increase. The price is low, cause the wool would be worth at least and the estimated quantity of wool is 10c. per lb. more, which would make a also low. Still the business can be made very great difference in the profit. Ac. immensely profitable, and we shall look cording to Mr. Hill's letter, the expense for a large increase of wool from that of keeping sheep must be very small. In region. The farmers may be assured a large flock it could not exceed 15 cents that they can never glut the market, and per head for the whole year, but suppose they may depend upon a rich demand it should be 20 cents.
and good prices for all they can raise for We will take a flock of 1,000, and sup- the next ten or twenty years. We would pose them to be equal to the average of rather take our chance in Texas with a the wool sent to us. Let us see what flock of two thousand sheep for the next can be done by a prudent flock master. ten years, than in the richest placers yet The account would be
found in California for making money.
Commercial Progress-- Home and Foreign.
75 The great Fair, which was held in them being the handsomest I have ever Macon, Georgia, last October, was bril- seen. liant in every respect. When we can “Colonel Summer, of South Carolina, lay our hands upon the reports of the exhibited a Thibet sheep, which was of committees, it will be our pleasure to no- course a great curiosity. He also detice them at length. Mr. Martyn, a gen- livered the address, which was handtleman connected with our Review, somely written, well delivered, and, with writes us as follows:
perhaps one exception, was highly ap"I have scarcely a word to say of the preciated by all who had the pleasure of fair. It was like all other efforts of the hearing it. same kind. Two or three departments of “I regretted to see so meagre an assortthe exhibition were highly creditable. ment of farming and other mechanical All agreed that for quality and quantity implements — that entire department, of real Chinese chickens, the society had both in its higher and lower branches, much need to be highly gratified. I was extremely deficient. In the fine doubt whether any northern exhibition arts, a few copies of landscapes and a ever excelled the one in that department. few miserably-executed portraits made The quantity of stock was considerable,' up the supply. The floral department numbering some fine specimens of was creditable. The fruit department, Devons and other imported breeds. Two with the exception of apples, and one or or three fine Canadian studs excited two specimens of pears, was slim enough. much admiration.
The receipts were about $4,000." "The stock of mules was fine, some of
ART. X1.-COMMERCIAL PROGRESS-HOME AND FOREIGN.
COMMERCE OF FRANCE, 1846 to 1851-CONSUMPTION OF COAL BY SEA STEAMERS-FINANCES
AND FOREIGN TRADE OF GREAT BRITAIN, ETC.
The imports and exports of France, which embraces imports for French conaccording to the official values of 1826, sumption and exports of French articles have been for six years as follows, in only, has been, it appears, more powerfrancs :
fully affected than the general commerce.
The imports declined nearly one-half in IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF FRANCE.
the year of revolution, and have never GENERAL COMMERCE.
recovered. On the other hand, the exImports. Exports.
Total. ports did not materially decrease in that 1646 1 .257.000.000 1180.000.000. 2.437.000.000 1847......1,347,000,000..1,271,000,000..2.614,000,000 you
year, and have since increased 50 per 1848 ... 862,000,000.. 1,153.000.000..2,015,000,000 cent., while the general commerce has 1849......1.142,000,000.. 1,423,000,000..2,565,000,000 1850......1,174,000,000.. 1,531,000,000..2,705,000,000
1847, 1851......1.158,000,000..1,629.000.000..2787,000,000 sternation and desire to sell in
accelerated the exports, which were SPECIAL COMMERCE.
further impelled by the 10 per cent. Importa. Exports.
bounty on exports by the government. 1847. ....976,000,000.. 891,000,000.. 1,867,000,000 The proceeds of sales were generally 184S.. ..556,000,000.. 834,000,000..1,390,000,000 1849.. .780,000,000..1,032.000.000..1,812,000,000 hoarded instead of being invested in pro1850... ....781,000,000..1,123,000,000..1,904,000,000 duce for manufacture or goods for con
...781,000,000..1,239,000,000..2,020,000,000 sumption. The transit trade across France By this return, which shows the whole does not appear to have recovered so inward and outward commerce of France much. It was as follows: according to official valuation fixed in
Total. 1826, and which therefore represent 1847.......367,000,000...280,000,000....647,000,000 relative quantities rather than values, it 1848. ... ... 606,000,000....319,000,000....625,000,000 appears that the revolution gave a great
1851. ......377,000,000....390,000,000....767,090,000 check to the importations, but accelerated This result is owing to the fact that the the exports. The special trade, or that interior countries of Europe are not so far
tranquillized as in France, for the resump- a list of 78. This gentleman puts the tion of industry.
number of steamers now using anthracite
in whole or in part, that did not use it in The Philadelphia Ledger, in an article 1850, at 46. He places the average daily upon the coal trade, furnishes the follow- consumption of these 46 at 11 tons, or ing information relative to the consump- 506 tons daily for all. We will suppose, tion of coal by sea-going steamers: then, that, viz.: 30 of these use wholly
New-York being the great centre of anthracité, 16 half only of anthracite; coal consumption, inquiry has been that their steaming time is 265 days in directed to that city, with the view of the year. This would give us for one ascertaining the amount of anthracite year, viz.: 30 steamers, consuming each consumed by steamships, which have so 11 tons for 265 days, and 16 steamers largely multiplied within the last year or burning 5} tons for 265 days, making an two. A gentleman of much experience aggregate consumption of 110,770 tons, in the coal business, who has spent a as the greatest possible increase from week at New-York, pursuing the inquiry, this source. If we even put the working has left with us his rough notes of facts days at 285, and the daily consumption at and observations, from which we learn 15 tons, it would give but 162,500 tons. that the whole number of steamships The whole consumption of anthracite in plying to and from all ports in the United sea-going steamers, December, 1851, is States, (including American steamships estimated by another gentleman, intelliin the Pacific, but excluding navy steam- gent in coal statistics, at 822 tons per ships, about sixteen of all sizes,) does not diem, working time, say 218,000 tons. exceed 80. River and Sound steamboats The largest figures are too small to aid us are not counted. The United States coast much in accounting for the 1,200,000 tons steamers, including Chagres, &c, all use extra mining product of 1851. We have anthracite. Those on the Pacific use all said nothing of river steamers; only of sorts of fuel, according to the cost. The sea-going craft. four Collins steamers take anthracite (Lackawana and Pittston) out, and Welsh, The revenue returns of Great Britain, bituminous back. The seven Cunarders says the Courier and Enquirer, exhibit a take Cumberland coal out, and return singular anomaly in legislation, and dewith Welsh bituminous. The four Bremen monstrates the inequalities of taxation, and Havre steamers use bituminous, but especially in reference to the poorer the Franklin (Havre) tries anthracite this classes of people. Property, with us in voyage, to test it against Cumberland the United States, bears the burden of
The Nicaragua Company has just con- taxation, and contributes mainly to the tracted for supplies of Schuylkill coal to support of the state governments; while, be delivered this winter at Havana, with our trans-Atlantic friends, the poor Nicaragua, East Coast, in St. Juan, Pa- man contributes disproportionately to the cific, and Acapulco. The steamers that government revenues, although his labor touch at Kingston, Jamaica, have con- is not so liberally compensated as it is tracted for 10,000 tons of Heilner and here. The heads of taxation in Great Beckworth, to be delivered at Jamaica Britain, which draw so heavily upon the this winter. All steamers touching at poorer classes, are tea, coffee, sugar, New-Orleans take in Pittsburgh coal molasses, tobacco, and malt. We conthere, because of its cheapness; but dense the table of Annual Revenue for those running to Richmond, Va., take in at the year ending Sept. 5, 1852, with variNew-York anthracite for out and return. ous subjects of taxation for that period : From the alphabetical register of the Malt... insurance companies of New York, a list Hops.....
426,000 of steamers of all kinds has been ob- Sugar and Molasses.......... 4,159,000
5,900,000 tained, from which the following record Coffee..
. 444,000 of the build of steamships that affect our Tobacco and
1,043,000 inquiry is gathered, viz:
-£21,473,000 In 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 Total.
8,951,000 Wine. ...
504.000 Add Cunard steamships not entered,
934,000 Whole number of sea-going steamers,
Excise and other licenses.....
Timber, Currants, Silks, &c............ 2,454,000 Mr. Haswell, U. S. Engineer, furnishes Total Customs and Excise ........... ..£37,597,000