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capitol, which have been characterized elections biennially impose on them by as a enduring monuments of our shame” means of corrupt practices. Freemen -being of Quincy granite, we have now are here, as with us in Charleston, opensimilar ones of native granite-the mas. ly and shamelessly bartered for, or bought sive iron railing having been extended up like cattle in the market, and whilst from the capitol garden to the corner of the politician perjures their souls, the Bridge-street, and they are of such beau- whisky seller perishes their bodies.tiful appearance as to contrast most tri. But amongst these sons of the desert, umphantly with the northern stone.- civilization is creeping in. Oases are May we not hope that the building now springing up everywhere, and by the in. going up will prove but the beginning of fusion of mechanical enterprise, we may a state-house on such a scale as will yet hope to see these so much to be pitchallenge as much our future admira- ied sons of Carolina rendered virtuous, tion as the existing one does our present happy and useful people. Almost every execration.

mechanical establishment in and about I must now beg to be indulged in Columbia gives employment to some of carrying your readers with me on a visit the sand-hill boys; and in the factory of to one of the most complete and promis- Dr. Percival, we were pleased to learn, ing little manufacturing establishments are several energetic and respectable to be found anywhere either within our young men, natives of these diggings state or out of it. I allude to the chair who were at work, and exhibiting all the factory and turnery of Dr. Percival, a skill and aptness of their more experien. few miles from the town. It is most ced mechanical tutors. But to the faccharmingly located in the sand hills- tory itself. It is not on a very large scale. a region that knows no unhealthy season. but as complete as it can be for all the The water power is supplied from a purposes contemplated by the enterpris beautiful lake which, like many others ing and well managing gentleman who hereabouts, finds its source in the sand projected it. Turning in all its varieties hills, whence there comes a never fail. is done here, with the greatest precis ing supply of water. It is as true as it ion and nicety, and with almost increi. is surprising, of these collections of fresh ible rapidity. In the manufacture of water, that they are in nowise detrimen- chairs, when the circular and vertical tal to the health of the inhabitants. Js- saws have answered all the demands that suing out of the white sand beds, a num- may be made on them, there is but bulle ber of minor tributaries concentrate in required which the latbe cannot accortsand-bottomed beds, and so slight is the plish-and here it is all done to perfecdeposit of vegetable matter that their tion. Chairs of beautiful and varied par beds preserve almost their primitive terns, some of them original in design, whiteness. Their surfaces seein but to and superior, as affecting comfort and ele. subserve the cooling exhalation without gance, to any we have ever seen of ne evolving any of their fatal miasms. thern make, are turned off by hundreds which are so generally characteristic of The caning is done here in beaotifs fresh water ba yous or lakes, whilst the style, and some of the female slaves en clear pure and deep mass of water-free ployed in this department, exhibit. aften of anything harmlul, and with bank but a brief experience, a facility 2 and bottom of the most inviting charac. quickness really surprising-inasmucba, ter-presents in the heat of summer an they perform what is regarded amongs invitation to bathing which can hardly the Yankees a full day's task with the be resisted. It is perfectly true that greatest ease and in a more perfect maearth presents scarcely a spot where a ner. We were shown several specimen man may more easily pick up a living of caning from different northern facta than in these same sand hills, and yet ries, executed by first-class operative the inhabitants for the most part are ihe which, upon comparison with those es most wretchedly inert, and therefore cuted by the women here, were foun > continually stinted people to be found be most decidedly inferior to the lat anywhere. This is owing on the one part The painting, both plain and ornamente to the absence of that stimulation which is also done here in the best style. the state is bound to furnish in public now for the most important item-0 schools, and on the other to the heavy cost! The chairs are made at s e drag upon their morals which the state cost than in any northern factory

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now, whilst a part of the labor here is no interest paid on capital lying idle in paid for in this pioneer factory at a rate a lumber investment. Almost every much beyond what it will be procura- particle of the forest tree is used to adble at as soon as a sufficient number of vantage, even the bark being stripped operatives shall have been drilled on from the edges of the sawed pieces to finthe spot. The sophomores and juniors ish the material, now Coming so much are studying faithfully, and are forward into use, for rustic arbors and chairs, &c. scholars-ere long we may look for a for gardens. In every department of graduation of seniors, who will immedi- this model factory we perceive indicaately set about the work of pioneering tions of a thorough perception of the art themselves in other parts of the state. of producing the largest representation of

Thus it is always that a mechanical mercantile value at the smallest possischool, like a literary one, continually ble outlay of domestic means. The masends forth its graduates to enlighten terials at the very doors cost almost noand benefit society. But we return to thing; the water power, never failing, our assertion, that to make a chair costs works without wages; and the manual here less than any where at the north; labor, costing even now as little as norand how can it be otherwise? The pow- thern labor, may be and will be, under a er which nature supplies in this sand- Percival's skilful and eminently practihill lake is as constant and regular in cal management, made, by the judicious action as it is exhaustless in quantity, intermingling of slave male and female and keeps within its proper metes and labor with that of the native whites, bounds without any restraint of bank or and their imported tutors, cheaper than it dam, for just at its narrow mouth is can possibly be had for in any northern placed the mill-race, which a single flood- locality. Here then, with all the elegate controls. Around, and in sight of ments of cost at the lowest rate, the wares the mill, grows the very kind of trees of this factory would contend successfulthat this manufacture requires for its ly, even for a foreign market, with the materials: oak, bird's-eye and straight- keenest Yankee competition. As to the grained maple, walnut, beach, hickory, home market, the Doctor will have unbirch, elm and China-tree woods, which disputed possession to the extent that he together furnish almost all the materials can supply the various styles called for that even the highest art in chair-ma- in the trade. It costs quite as much to king calls for. The trees are merely bring a Windsor chair from New-Hampstripped of their limbs, and, in the green shire or Massachusetts, (the principal state, without even stripping off the bark, seats of this kind of manufacture,) to Coare put under the saws, which by vari. lumbia, as the original price of it in the ous cuttings soon reduce them to the home market. . We will call it precisediminutive shapes of the trade-then by ly the same. Thus it will be seen that, a quick and most perfect process they even admitting the cost of manufacture are seasoned in a few days, and after- here to be as much as at the north, which wards finished up for sale. By this means it is not, they will yield a profit of one the lumber is laid down at the mill at hundred per cent. if sold at the price the smallest possible cost, no expense of which the northern chairs cost laid down large lumber storehouses is incurred, and here.

ART. XIII.-INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS.

LETTER OF HON JAMES ROBB-NORTH ALABAMA AND SAVANNAH RAIL-ROAD-RAIL-ROADS OF

INDIANA AND ILLINOIS.

The Hon. JAMES ROBB, in a letter to which 'Louisiana is now so much inCol. de Russy, a pamphlet copy of which terested. he has kindly furnished us, argues with The Opelousas or Great Western ability the question of state subscription Rail-road may be constructed from Newto rail-road works, and thus refers to the Orleans to the Sabine River, at a cost three great lines of improvement in not exceeding fifteen thousand dollars per mile, estimating iron, materials and descending the Mississippi and Ohio labor at their present cost. The almost rivers, and enable the passenger leaviog unbroken surface of country over which St. Louis or Louisville, to reach New. it will be located will render it the Orleans in sixty hours, without incurring cheapest road in the world for the trans- the delay and dangers of a voyage of a portation of freight and passengers; and, thousand miles on the Mississippi River. without being able to estimate its busi- Aside from its advantage in this ness, which in time will prove of the respect, it will have its connection with greatest magnitude, I assume that its the Mobile and Ohio Road, reaching to expenses will be less, in proportion, than the Ohio River, and from thence by the any great road in Europe or America; Central Railroad of Illinois to Chicago and that, in any event, it will prove one and the northern lakes; also the Memof great profit to the state and its stock-phis and Charleston Road, terminating holders. You who know better than I at Chattanooga. From this point raildo the country which is to be peopled road communication is already open to and improved by means of this great im- Charleston and Savannah; and from it provement, can best judge of the accu. there is now in progress of construction racy of my prediction.

an entire line of rail-road via Knoxville The Vicksburg and Shreveport Road, in East Tennessee to Alexandria on the while not commencing with the advan- Potomac, for all of which the means of tages of the Opelousas Road, which has completion have been secured by the its terminus opposite a city of 150,000 liberal aid of the states of Tennessee and inhabitants, is of the highest importance Virginia. · While communication with to the state and the region of country the Pacific is carried on, either by the through which it passes, and is such as Isthmus of Darien or Tehuantepec, or to possess the strongest claims to the any other route than by a direct railmost favorable consideration of the Le- road to the Pacific by a northern line, gislature. I fully concur in the accu- the Great Northern Road will absorb the racy of the memorial submitted by Mr. entire travel between the countries on Coleman, President of this company, the Pacific and the states located east of and am convinced that the friends of the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. What this improvement have not overrated its will be the commerce of such a road, importance, and that it cannot fail to leading as it does from a city of one prove highly productive, and when com- hundred and fifty thousand inhabitants, pleted, become the great highway of and of the largest export of raw produce emigration to the extensive territories in the world ?" of Western Louisiana and Texas. . We have some additional facts in

The Great Northern Road may be regard to the Shreveport Road, furnished constructed, at the present cost of iron, us in the address of the President, N. materials and labor, to the Tennessee D. Coleman, Esq. River, at a cost of ten millions of dollars. The direct influence of the road, here or about twenty-three thousand dollars advocated, upon the northern parishes per mile; and the careful inquiries and of Louisiana, has been noticed. Its efreports of those charged with the exa- fects upon New Orleans, our commermination of that portion of the route cial mart, will now claim our attention. crossing the swamps and prairies, furnish It has been deduced that 300,000 bales of conclusive testimony in favor of the cotton will be the increased product of practicability of the route adopted. A the northern parishes, by the completion large portion of the road traverses a of our road. It will be but a reasona. country of resources and fertility which ble calculation to suppose there must is capable of supplying a business which follow an increased production of cotton alone would give support to the road, in that tier of counties in Arkansas, independent of other sources.

only a short distance north of our route, We however rely on its important say that it will amount only to 50,000 connections, and the facilities it will bales. In like manner, the counties in afford to travel and rapid intercommuni. Texas, north of the line of the Opelousas cation, as most likely to prove its great Railroad, will be induced, by the faciliand chief source of profit. The comple- ties offered by our road, to extend the tion of this road to the Tennessee culture of cotton to the amount of 50,000 River will at once command the travel bales. The total amount of increase,

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then, will be 400,000 bales of cotton, all ferred above all others to Baltimore, of which will reach New Orleans by way Philadelphia and New-York, for all deof the road to the river, and by the river scriptions of freight from the south and from Vicksburg. The value of this aug- southwest seeking those points; also for mentation can scarcely be estimated. - all merchandise shipped from the northIf, however, each bale leaves only $5 for ern cities seeking the south and southstorage, pressing, commissions, &c., it west within its influence or range. It amounts to two millions of dollars. But would also control a vast amount of the commercial and monetary transac- travel which will otherwise take the East tions, predicated of this large amount of Tennessee and Virginia Rail-road. In cotton, will take a much wider range, fact, it is the only route, including all roads and secure much more beneficial results; already made, or in contemplation, which perhaps it may contribute to the estab- will carry freight or passengers as quick lishment of a direct importing trade. as the East Tennessee and Virginia route

If the Vicksburg, Shreveport and Tex- from north to south via Memphis. as Road shall be extended through the “The road from Memphis to Decatur northern portion of Texas, it will not will be comleted in three years at farhave progressed far before it reaches thest (a distance of less than two hundred the grain-growing regions of that state. miles,) under the charter of the Memphis The country between latitudes 32 and and Charleston R. R. Co., and the only 33°, north and northeast of Austin, is portion of this contemplated new route to adapted to the growth of wheat, at the build is from Decatur, Alabama, to Grif. rate of 50 bushels per acre, weighing fin, in Georgia, a distance of about 170 from 60 to 64 pounds to the bushel. miles; and it is rather a remarkable fact

The facilities offered by the road are that following the air line from Decadestined to superinduce the manufacture tur to Griffin leads us through, or very of flour in that section, which will find near to, the only practicable route known its inarket in the city of New Orleans. from North to Middle Alabama, to wit: So far, then, as New Orleans is concern through Morgan, M

oncern through Morgan, Marshall, touching the ed, the Vicksburg, Shrieveport and

and lines dividing De Kalb and Cherokee Texas Rail-road, occupies in fact, and from St. Clair, and through the centre of should occupy, in the estimation of all Benton county, near Jacksonville, the Louisiana, especially of New Orleans, a county seat, thence to near Gadsden, very high degree of importance.

and through Newnan, to Griffin. It is estimated that the road will

“This road would, to a very considerabe 206 miles long, and cost, inclu.

ble extent, drain the whole of North Alading bridges, buildings, motive power

bama above and below the Muscle &c., $3,145,339.

Shoals, which region of country is genUnder the title of the North Alabama making annually from seventy-five to

erally known as the Tennessee Valley, and Savannah Rail-road, an article one hundred thousana bales of cotton, lately appeared in the Savannah Repub- varying according to seasons; and with lican, which we extraet: "Permit me to a plank road made to Elkton, Tenn., call your attention to a projected line of which is thirty miles north of Decatur, rail-road, not put down on any map, but Ala., from ten to twenty thousand bales which, when carefully examined, will more would, in all probability, seek its be found vastly to contribute to the trade way to Savannah. Upon reaching Cooand commerce of Savannah, and the in- sa Valley from Rome, in Ga , to Talladecrease of tonnage and passengers going ga county, the road runs through a secover the Western and Macon and Cen- tion of the country, yielding at least tral rail-roads.

twenty thousand bales more, which “If you will examine the map of Ten- would be tributary to it. nessee, Alabama and Georgia, and draw “Thus, it will be perceived that, in the an air line from Memphis, Tennessee, to article of cotton alone, the road would Savannah, Georgia, it will at once ap- intersect a portion of country yielding pear that Decatur, North-Alabama. Grif- from one hundred to one hundred and fin and Macon, Ga., are nearly upon that twenty thousand bales, and, with the line. A line of road, therefore, reaching aid of the plank road, or roads, could from Memphis, Tenn., to Savannah, via contribute one hundred and thirty-thouDecatur, to Griffin, would at once be pre- sand bales.

"Again, goods purchased in Baltimore, gulf ports, which is sufficient to induce it Philadelphia or New-York would, almost to go that way. But the present rates necessarily, be sent by way of Savannah, charged from the Tennessee River to to supply all the section of country inter- Savannah or Charleston, say $5 per bale sected by this contemplated road to including insurance, would not be for a Memphis, Tenn., and beyond that point, moment submitted to by any planter or to a portion of West Tennessee, Missis- shipper, knowing the difference in cost; sippi, Arkansas and Texas. Besides, it consequently, no cotton can be expected, would induce a considerable carrying with any show of reason, to seek the trade all along the line of road from St. Atlantic ports, when a communication Louis, Mo., in flour, hides, and other ar- by rail-road is made to Memphis, unless ticles of commerce, which she has for this projected road is built. exchange for other products of other sec “The country through Marshall, and tions of the country.

for some distance towards Cherokee, is "And the grand reason why I believe mountainous and rugged, but presents all these anticipated results will be rea- no formidable obstacle in building the lized, is in the fact, mainly, that Decatur, road, it being intersected with valleys North Alabama, via this new route to running in the direction of Gadsden, Griffin in Georgia, is nearer Savannah which approximates the air line already than Chattanooga' is to Charleston by mentioned." rail-road. The distance from Chatta. " There can be no question that the nooga to Charleston, by railroad, is four freight and travel already mentioned as hundred and forty-four miles. The dis- likely to be brought on this line of road, tance from Decatur, Ala., to Griffin is would yield a considerable revenue, and 170 miles; the distance from Griffin to make it, in fact, a good investment, at Savannah is 249 miles. Making, in all, fifteen thousand dollars per mile, or prothe distance from Decatur to Savannah bably more. And when viewed in all 419 miles. But, allowing the road to its important bearings upon Savannah, diverge at various points, it is sufficient Baltimore, Philadelphia and New York, to establish the important fact, that De. it is presumed no great difficulty would catur will be as near Savannah for freight be experienced in realizing capital to or travel as Chattanooga is to Charles, build it. ton, making a difference of length by “The writer trusts that enough has alrail-road of 130 miles, and by river of really been stated to point out its great 185 miles, in favor of the new route to importance, and to call public attention Savannah-sufficient, in my estimation, to it, and speedy action in getting surto overcome all competition by other veys and estimates made by an expelines.

rienced engineer; and if he succeeds “The distance in miles being so much to this extent for the present, he will rein favor of this new road, it is confi. main satisfied, and will have accomdently believed and maintained, that it plished the task he has undertakenis the only possible way to control the being entirely satisfied as to the final cotton of the Tennessee Valley to the result, when estimates and surveys are Atlantic ports; because the Memphis made." and Charleston Road can afford to carry cotton from Decatur to Memphis, and by RAIL-ROADS IN INDIANA.—The third steamboat from Memphis to New-Or- annual report of the Bellefontaine and leans, for three dollars per bale, includ- Indiana Rail-road Coinpany states that ing insurance, or, at most, three dollars the road is nearly ready for business, as and twenty-five cents; but, by the road far as the western line of Ohio, at a from Decatur via Griffin to Savannah, town called Union. The road comit can be carried at the same rate, be- mences at the town of Galion, on the cause insurance will be saved. In this Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati case, I do not at all conceive it doubtful Rail-road, and, in conjunction with the how the large bulk of the cotton will go Indianopolis and Bellefontaine Rail-road, -clearly to Savannah-it being a well- forms a continuous line from Galion to ascertained fact, that prices are generally the state capital of Indiana. The In better for North Alabama cotton at the diana portion of the route, 84 miles to Atlantic ports than are realized at the Indianapolis, is completed, and open for

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