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But as the winds in summer blow from Whatever his knowledge of architecthe opposite quarter, frosts frequently oc- ture, or his ability to avail himself of cur, late in the spring and early in the the labour of others, there are no quar. autumn, sufficiently severe to cut down ries of stone or kilns of brick ready to beans, melons, and other plants of that furnish material for his walls, nor madescription.

chinery to prepare the wood for the comAbout the 1st June rain generally pletion of the edifice. Wealth cannot ceases to fall in sufficient quantities call these things into existence, nor here much to benefit a growing crop; and, if secure the services of mechanics to use it fail to rain about the autumnal equi- them, were they to be had; and if withnox, the drought will continue until out it, which is too often the case, so about the 1st of November. Though the much'heavier is the iron hand of neces. climate of Oregon is, in this particular, sity upon him. more uniform than that of the western Like circumstances, at all times and states, it has also its variations, the win- places, produce like results, and the pioter sometimes being, for two or three neer here, as elsewhere, erects a log cabin weeks together, clear and frosty, and as his first edifice, cloudy weather and rain sometimes oc- The same necessity governs his first curring in summer; the present year efforts in agriculture, and for one or two agrees with the exception nearer than years there is little attention paid to the the general rule.

culture of anything not needed for his Markets.-Scottsburg, at the head of own subsistence. And it must be borne tide water on the Umpqua River, and in mind that but few of the settlers are twenty-five miles from the ocean, is near yet prepared to avail themselves of the the southwest angle, and the shipping natural advantages of the country, or to point for the valley; above this point turn their attention exclusively to those the river is not navigable, and as yet branches of agriculture that the markets there is no road leading to it passable and means of transportation make most except with horses. But the principal profitable; which subjects I shall now market for the products of the farm is proceed to notice. found in the gold mines of the Klamath Grasses of nutritious quality cover the and Rogue rivers. These mines lie be- whole country; that of the hills being tween the 41st and 43d degrees of north varieties of the buck grass, or festuca, latitude, and are principally supplied common to all the elevated regions of from Oregon.

Oregon. The valleys produce a ranker Wagons are sometimes used as a growth and greater variety, among means of transportation as far as Shasta which may be mentioned a valuable city ; but, owing to the badness of the clover. The excellence and abundance roads, pack animals are mainly employed. of these grasses, which, from the mild

Labor, for the summer, is worth from ness of the climate, continue their three to five dollars per day, and but few growth through the winter, make the laborers are to be had at these prices. country, to all grazing animals, a natural These circumstances, together with its home. recent and very rapid settlement, con- Horses, Cattle, Sheep and Logs, are trolling the farming operations of this free from disease-always in good concountry, rude and primitive as they may dition; and beef, mutton, and pork, of appear to farmers in a more advanced superior quality, are at all seasons condition, are yet in accordance with slaughtered that never received either sound judginent and good policy, and go food or shelter at the hand of man. to show that many of the practices of Besides the surface and climate, which our ancestors were not so much the re- must ever mark it as a grazing country, sults of ignorance as of necessity. there are many temporary and local

The immigrant arrives late in autumn causes to encourage the raising of aniat the end of an exhausting journey in mals at present. a wilderness. He has first to direct his Horses and Mules. — As horses and attention to the comforts of his family; mules are extensively used in the carrytheir subsistence is to be procured, per- ing business, they are in good demand; haps, from a distance, and they are to be $100 being about the average price of protected from the inclemencies of win. Indian and Mexican breeds, fit for serter, which is now fast approaching. vice; and those of the United States

Markets-Labor-Grasses-Horses and Cattle-Crops, Etc. 603

rate much higher-good horses and the dry, or hay state, it is liable to be mules bringing double that rate. burnt off; and when such an accident

Cattle are also in good demand, as happens, and the rains are late in falling, bullocks can carry themselves to mar- and are followed, as is sometimes the ket, and gather their food by the way; case, with cold, rainy weather, and even and butter and cheese are articles in snow, the scarcity produced by the fire which, with Oregon, no country can will be prolonged through the winter, compete.

which must result in a ruinous loss to Bullocks, on foot, rate from six to ten such farmers as are unprepared to meet cents per pound, the price depending on it with food for their animals. Such was the tractability of the animal in being the case in Willamette, in the winters herded and driven. Spanish stock, $15 of 1846–47 and 1848–49, in which to $25 per head, according to training. hundreds of animals perished of starvaTame cows, with calves, $50 to $100. tion. Butter, 75 cents; cheese, 50 cents per Crops.-On the dry lands, any crop pound.

ripening by midsummer succeeds well. Sheep are not valued for their wool, Wheat, peas, oats, barley, &c., are cultithough there are now in the country vated for home consumption. The want some of the best wool-bearing breeds. of mills and labor-saving machines, and The short, sweet grass and pure air of the price of labor, discourage their culthe mountain pastures encourage a re- tivation as articles of export. markable fecundity and fatness in the Vegetables.-such as maize, potatoes, animal. Young lambs are being added cabbages, &c., requiring the whole sumto the flock in every month of the year. mer to perfect them—will some seasons It is not uncommon for a mutton to yield succeed without irrigation; but, as the 20 pounds of tallow; while the flesh, for crop is liable to be cut short by drought, fineness of flavor and texture, is nowhere usually a spot naturally damp, or that exceeded. Mutton is a convenient ar- can be easily irrigated, is selected for ticle of food at home, as well as in the the kitchen-garden. mines. Salt provisions being little used. The mode of culture is simple and an ordinary family, even in summer, will primitive. The emigrant, who has arconsume a mutton while it is still sweet rived too late for fall-ploughing, in early and fresh.

spring turns over the green sward of the Hogs, as yet, succeed well, but it is prairie, with a huge, clumsy plough, probable their food will first cease to be drawn by oxen. On this he sows his produced spontaneously. The mast- crop of spring-wheat, peas, or oats, and bearing trees are few in number and harrows it in with a wooden harrow or a variety, black oak and hazel comprising scragged tree-top; the first, if a spring. the whole. The clover and nutritious crop, yields from 10 to 25 bushels per roots of the valleys being their principal acre, being varied by the manner and dependence, besides their own tendency time of setting the crop and the contito destroy, each field put in cultivation nuance of the rains. If sufficient rain directly diminishes their pastures. Their falls about the autumnal equinox, which flesh being not much eaten at home, they is generally the case, fall wheat is sown; are mostly made into bacon, and in that but if this should not happen, it creates shape are a valuable item in the trade no uneasiness, as the crop may be set at to the mines. Stock hogs, 8 to 10 cents any time until March without any per. per pound; pork, fresh, 10 to 12, and ceivable difference in the yield, and but bacon, 25 to 50 cents per pound.

little in the time of ripening. It is comHereafter, when the number of graz- mon, however, to sow more seed on late ing animals approaches more nearly to sowings. the capacity of the country to maintain The yield of the fall crop, though them, the danger which may be appre- affected by the same causes, is more hended to this branch of the business is, uniform and abundant than that of the that grasses starting up with the first spring, and from 20 even to 50 bushels rains of autumn continue their growth of wheat are harvested per acre. The through the winter, and ripen about mid- rotation of crops, though doubtless here summer, and, except on damp places, of as much advantage as elsewhere, is rernain dry until rain in sufficient quan- attended with one serious inconvenience, tity again falls to renew its growth. In the frosts of winter being insufficient to destroy peas or oats. Wheat, if following decided advantage over other parts of a crop of either, is frequently choked the country. and intermixed with their voluntary But the very means which have given growth; and oats particularly are very the fariners of Umpqua great advantages injurious. The same result also follows in the market will tend to make them of in sowing in fall after a spring crop, short duration ; because a portion of the -the two kinds of wheat become inter- country embraced in the northern mines mixed, to the injury of both. At the is well adapted to the purposes of cultitime of harvest, the weather is usually vation, and much more of it affords fine dry and pleasant. Wheat and oats are pasturing. cut with a cradle, and peas pulled by The grazing in the neighborhood of hand. There being no barns, a clayey Shasta city is excellent, and a fine yield spot is made smooth and hard' by being of both potatoes and gold may be dug dampened and beaten with mauls, or from the same plat of ground; and, as tramped with animals. A round it a the price for which vegetables, butter, high, strong fence is made, and over it and cheese are sold in the mines must be those fond of the shade throw a feir enormous, it is a profitable business to bushes. On this “ floor" the grain is pay high prices for them here and carry laid regularly, the heads pointing ob- them 200 or three hundred miles on the liquely upward. A wild skittish band of backs of animals. Many have exchanged horses are turned in and driven against the pick and shovel of the miner for the the bristling heads of the grain, and, by implements of husbandry, and farms and their scampering, in a very short time dairies are being established in the very the wheat is threshed from the straw, heart of the mines themselves. and much of the straw itself broken to The peaceful relations which have at pieces, much more time being reqnired last been established with the Indians of to separate and remove it from the Rogue River, will also have their irgrain than is occupied in threshing. fluence, as they have opened to the Leaving the bottom undisturbed to the farmer a valley surrounded by mountains last, as it is sometimes dirty, the threshed rich in gold, remarkable for its health, grain is pushed to the centre, and ano- beauty, and agricultural capacities; and ther floor laid down; and so on until the as the distance from the ports of the Pa. crop is threshed.

cific, and the extremely rough and Formerly we depended upon the sea mountainous country lying between, will breeze, which springs up each evening, make transportation always difficult and to separate the wheat from the chaff; expensive, the northern mines inay but now, as we can obtain fanning.mills shortly be independent of commerce, at $100 each, most of the farmers have except for groceries and manufactured provided themselves with these modern articles. When the mines cease to coninventions. Of the whole list of vegeta- sume the agricultural products of Umpbles and fruits found in the temperate qua, it is difficult to foresee what other zone, there is scarcely one that may not market will be found, or what will be here find its favorite soil, and, with a the effect upon the pursuits of the inlittle attention, be adapted to the cli- habitants. The great natural advantages mate; and in the vegetable market, of the country and the nearness of the having no foreign competition, the farm- market, are orerbalauced by the high ers have the greatest encouragement prices of labor, difficulties of transportato engage.

tion, and want of machinery; and, until In regard to prices, it must be borne great changes in the prices of labor and in mind that three-fourths of the inhabi. improvements take place in the other tants of Umpqua are immigrants of the obstacles, we cannot compete with present year, who must be fed, and fur- Chili and the Atlantic States in the pronished with seed-that, within the same vision trade of the Pacific. These things time, the newly-discovered mines of the considered, though there is perhaps not north have attracted between ten and one farmer in a hundred discontented ar twenty thousand persons, whose supplies desirous to exchange his home in Oregon are drawn from Oregon principally; and, for the one he left in the States, I do as the roads are bad and transportation not think a greater proportion of the expensive, Umpqua, being the nearest prudent would advise their friends who farming district to the mines, has had a are well and comfortably settled in the

Operations of the United States Mint-Coinage of 1852.

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States to exchange the many comforts ney over the plains, for the certain pri. and advantages they now enjoy, and vations and uncertain advantages of a perform the arduous and dangerous jour- home in the wilderness.

ART. X.-HOME AND FOREIGN COMMERCE,

UNITED STATES MINT STATISTICS SINCE 1790-MISSISSIPPI BONDS-COINAGE LAW OP 1852

SILVER COIN-STATISTICS OF COTTON TRADE-MASSACHUSETTS RAILROAD, BANK AND FACTORY SIOCKS-COMMERCE, WILMINGTON, N. C.-CANADIAN CURRENCY,

OPERATIONS OF THE UNITED States The total amount deposited for coinMINT.-The coinage at the principal age was $56,788,479; of which there mint, during the year 1852, amounted was in gold, $55,717,488, and in silver, to $52,403,669 44; of which $51,505,- $1,070,991. 638 50 were in gold, $847,410 in silver, The deposits of gold received from and 50,630 94 in copper. This coinage nines in the United States amounted to was comprised in 32,612,949 pieces - $54,506,963; of which there was from being the largest number ever before California the sum of $53,794,700; from struck at the mint in a single year. The other states of the Union,' $712.263. deposits received were $50,874,131 in During the year 1851, the amount of gold, and $952,297 in silver; making a gold received from California was $55,total of $51,826,428.

938,232; from other states, $602,380; The coinage at the branch mint, New total domestic gold, $56,540,612. Hence Orleans, amounted to $4,622,000; of it appears that the receipts from Califorwhich $4,470,000 were in gold, and nia in 1852 fell short of those in 1851 by $152,000 in silver. The number of $2,143,532, while those from other states pieces struck was 1,418,000. The de- of the Union were increased by $109,posits were $3,935,668 in gold, and 883. $118.694 in silver; total $4,054,362. The coinage of three-cent pieces

The coinage of the branch mint, Char- amounted to $559,905, which was 56 lotte, North Carolina, amounted to $396,- per cent. of the total coinage of silver. 734 in gold-comprised in 91,780 pieces. The demand for this piece has not been The deposits were $430,900 in gold due to its intrinsic importance in cur

The coinage of the branch mint, Dah- rency, but to the fact that it is the only lonega, Georgia, amounted to $473,815 one whose proportionate value to gold in gold-comprised in 101,890 pieces. allows of its issue from the mint, under The deposits were $476,789 in gold. present laws. The necessity of some

The total coinage at the four mints legislation, which, by readjusting the was $57,896,218 44 ; of which there was proportionate weights of the gold and

-in gold $56,846,187 50, in silver $999,- silver coins, shall admit of the issue and 410, and in copper $50,630 94. This coin- permanent circulation of the latter, is age was comprised in 34,224,619 pieces. becoming every day more imperative.

BUMMARY EXHIBIT OF THE COINAGE OF THE HINTS TO THE CLOSE OF 1852.

Commencement Cold coinage Silver Coinage Copper coinage.

Entire coinage. MINT, of coinage.

Value.

Value.
Value.
In pieces

la value. Philadelphia...... 1793.... $194,876,142 00.. $65,795,016 90.. $1,446,457 39..385,078,778..$ 262,117,618 29 New Orleans.....1638.... 33.885,865 00.. 13,166,800 00..

.. 44,545,145. 47,052,665 00 Charlotte....... .....1838 ... 3,450,668 50..

837,788.. 3,450,668 50 Dahlonega ....... 1838.... 4,617,809 50..

1,093,685, 4,817,809 50 Total................$237,030,485 00..$78,961,818 90..$1,446,457 39..431,555,396. $317,438,761 29

Mississippi Bonds.-We wish that for such a paper, and it would do much some citizen of the state would prepare good. At present, we can only furnish for our pages a full history of the bonds à few statistics from a writer in the question, with all the arguments pro and Bankers' Magazine: con in regard to it. We are anxious

VOL. XIV.

Statement of the Planters' Bank Bonds, sand dollars were issued on the Ist

issued by the State of Mississippi. March, 1833, and payable as follows: 1831. July 1. 500 bonds, $1000

Five hundred thousand dollars each, payable July 1, 1841, $500,000 . 1st March, 1861, AM $500,000 1833. March 1. 500 bonds,

Five hundred thousand dollars $1000 each, payable March

1st March, 1866,

500,000 1, 1861 (twenty-eight years). 500.000 Five hundred thousand dollars 1833. March 1. 500 bonds,

1st March, 1871, H, 500,000 $1000 each, payable March

All of them bearing interest at six 1, 1866 (thirty-three years), 500,000 per cent. per annum. Commissioners 1833. March i. 500 bonds,

were appointed to negotiate the bonds, $1000 each, payable March

who succeeded in doing so at a premium 1, 1871 (thirty-eight years), 500,000 of thirteen and one-quarter per cent.

(138), so that after paying two millions Total bonds issued, $2,000,000 to the Planters' Bank, the state had left, Interest to 1854.

and after defraying all expenses attend

ing the negotiation, the sum of two hunInterest on first issue of $500,

dred and fifty thousand dollars ($250,000, from July 1, 1810, to July 1, 1854 (fourteen years), 420,000

000). This sum was placed in the PlanInterest on the bonds, dated

ters Bank as a sinking fund, and wås March 1, 1833, $1,500,000,

to be added to by the dividends of the

bank on the state stock, from from September 1, 1840, to

which

fund money was to be drawn semiSeptember 1, 1854, (fourteen years),

1,260,000

annually to pay the interest on the state bonds.

• OP The bank's dividends averaged ten

3,680,000 Deduct bonds paid by

per cent, for a number of years, and the $88,000

interest on the bonds was regularly paid the state,

up to 1st of September, 1839, when the And interest,

73,920
161,920

state stock in the Planters Bank was

transferred to the Natchez Railroad Balance, principal and in

Company. At this period the "Sinking

en Fund," created by the dividends on the terest, due 1854,

$3,518,080

V stock over what was required to pay the In addition to this debt of $3,518,080, interest on the state bonds, reached the State of Mississippi is indebted in nearly eight hundred thousand dollars. the sum of $5,000,000 for bonds issued This fund belonged to the state, and, to the Union Bank of Mississippi in 1838, under the charter of the bank, was conand for the interest ($300,000) that has trolled by the auditor of the state, and annually accumulated for the last twelve president and cashier of the bank. A years.

very large portion of this fund was lost The whole revenue of the state at this by the general bankruptcy of 1836–39; period does not exceed $225,000 annu- what was left of it, however, was taken ally, although the census shows a popu- possession of by a commissioner aplation of about 600,000 persons within pointed by the state, who received, with its liinits.

the bills receivable, about sixty thouThe Planters' Bank of Mississippi was sand dollars in cash. This money is chartered in the year 1830, with a ca- now in the state treasury, together with pital of three millions of dollars, and by about an equal sum collected by the the first clause in that charter, the commissioner since the fund was transamount of two millions of that stock was ferred. What disposition is to be made reserved for the state, and the remain- of the funds remains to be seen. ing one million for individual subscription. The books were regularly opened

CALCULATION UPON PAYING $250,000 ANYT

ALLY, FOR TWENTY-TWO YEARS, IN LIQUIand the stock subscribed accordingly.

DATION OF THE PLANTERS' BANK BONDS, The bonds of the state were issued

Am't of bonds Annual int. Total am'i of Annual ap. the first five hundred thousand dollars

ou tetanding thereafter. inf. up to priation (500,000) on the 1st July, 1831, and pay

1854. from 1854 Year able ten years after date.

in 1854.

$1,912,000.....$114,720..$1,606,080..$230,000.1854

1,912,000.... 114,720.. 1,470, 800.. 250,000..1855 The remaining fifteen hundred thou 1,912,000.... 114,720.. 1,335,520., 250,000,. 1856

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