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New-York and California Steamship and Empire City Lines. 587

in the California steam marine and the marine of the port of New York, consid. port of New York, 67,336.

ered in its connection with the subject Added to this aggregate of the Califor- of this paper, as follows: nia steam fleet and tonnage employed

Companies. Steamers. Tonnage. in it, the aggregate number of ships and Aggregate number and tonnage of the southern ports and West amount between New

York, California, the Indies, between these ports and New

Southern and West York, we have a sum total of companies, India ports......... 11........58....... 88,248

Aggregate number and steamers and tonnage, as follows:

amount between New

York and the trans-
Companies. Steamers. Tonnage.

atlantic ports........ 5........18....... 40,762 California .............. 5........41........67,336 Southern ports, (includ

Sum total ........ 16........76....... 129,010 ing the West Indies).. 6........17........ 20,912 Total............ 11........58........88,248

NOTE. In the estimate of tonnage, the carpenters' measurement in most instances is given where this could be ascertained with accuracy. In other instances it is made from the general calculation of the companies. The difference between the custom

house and carpenters' measurement is sufficiently employed in the transatlantic marine,

no, understood without deeming it necessary to go into and we have a sum total of the steam a comparison of registers of tonnage.


No. II.

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I OBSERVED in my previous letter, that that the temporary check which was Pennsylvania and her metropolis ad- given to the tide of her prosperity, in vanced more rapidly in population, arts, obstructing its external current, has geand wealth, than their older neighbors of nerously repaired the damage by openNew-York and New-England; and that ing the great fountains of the internal this early momentum was maintained deep; and that within and beyond the to within a quarter of a century of the borders of Pennsylvania, various elepresent time. The state and city now ments are uniting their forces, which stand perhaps numérically as second to will bring back with tenfold increase the city and state of New York; but all that has been diverted or withheld, possessing, as they do, the means of and will indefinitely swell the volume of greatness beyond the resources of their her domestic and foreign trade. Permit competitors, it requires no aid from the me then to return to the topic with genius of prophecy to see, that Pennsyl, which I closed my epistle, and consider vania and Philadelphia must each stand the feasibility of restoring to Philadelprima absque secunda, respectively pre- phia the foreign commerce of which eminent, without a rival in this country. she has been deprived.

In tracing the career of our city, we The writers of New York insist that have seen that her business relations her situation on the Delaware River, at with Europe were arrested by the ab- a distance of nearly one hundred miles straction of the capital and attention from the Atlantic, is liable to many obnecessary to its success; that it was de- jections. On the other hand, all imparcoyed to distant and gigantic enterprises tial persons of competent intelligencein the interior-to mines and furnaces, experienced navigators, well-informed to canals and railways. I am now to merchants, and gentlemen conversant inquire what effect these developments with nautical affairs-agree in a differand improvements have produced, in ent sentiment. They find in Europe the enhancing the productive wealth of largest towns, and the most extended the state, and adding means to the activity, the characteristics of ports si. city. You will find, as I proceed, tuated on rivers nearly as far removed

from the open sea. London on the requisitions of the port of New-York. Thames, Paris on the Seine, and Liver. The noble river itself is nearly a mile in pool on the Mersey, two of which are the width, from the Pennsylvania to the Jerlargest cities of Europe, can boast of no sey shore. A line of wharves, more great advantage over Philadelphia in than three miles long, now stretches proximity to the ocean.

along the eastern front of Philadelphia. But the Delaware was once traversed The chain may be prolonged beyond by a rich and busy commerce. As the Richmond on the north, to Greenwich length of the river did not prevent its Point, beyond the Navy Yard, on the successful prosecution, so it can inter- south, making a distance of six miles, pose no barrier to its return, since mo- and capable of indefinite extension bedern improvements, such as the facilities yond these limits. On the bosom of this of steam and other artificial aids to navi. majestic highway, the largest vessel in gation, overcome the distance in a few the naval service may securely ride up hours.' In geographical space, she is as to and beyond the city. At the Navy remote from the Atlantic as when she Yard on its bank were built some of the engrossed so large a portion of American finest specimens of naval architecture commerce; but in point of time she has of which our country can boast. The made no 'inconsiderable approaches, United States ship of the line, Pennsyl. since distance is to be measured not by vania, the pride and boast of the Amemiles, but by the speed of the motion rican navy, and beyond question one of employed to overcome it. The mildness the largest vessels in the world, found of the climate and an efficient ice- her unobstructed passage to the ocean breaker place her beyond the visitation from her dock at Philadelphia The of a casualty, to which the Siberian channel of the Delaware is abundantly winters of Boston render the harbor of wide and deep for the requisitions of that city peculiarly exposed. In brief, commerce in peace and the exigencies the tug and the ice-boat have removed of navigation in time of war. It appears, every diversity of ingenious objection, from the official chart of the coast surand dissipated or neutralized every form vey, that the channel is seldom less of physical impediment..

than a quarter of a mile in breadth, and These appliances of modern times do varies in depth, at the most depressed not lessen the security of her marine, stage of low water, from four to nine and while they place her on the same plató a half fathoms, except at the bar below form with the most favored port on the Fort Mifflin. At this point, which is sea. Her ships while in port are effec- but a few rods in extent, the deepness tually secured from ocean blasts, and is eighteen feet at low water; but as the enter on their voyages with the confi. tide rises to seven feet eight inches dence of safety, and with all assurances above the plane to which the soundings of dispatch.

are reduced, a profundity even there is But the kind and watchful guardians attained which is equal to any emerof our city in New York, ever solicitous gency and the wants of the largest craft. that she should do herself no injury by In the face of these facts, officially asrashness, raise their warning voices in certained and recorded, and of the coma chorus of objections. They prudently mercial history of the Delaware, one of hint, but in whispers, that the shoal and the newspapers of New York is in the narrow channel of the Delaware pre- habit of informing and repeating, with sents insuperable obstacles to the easy emphasis, to its willing or credulous admission into our port of the largest readers, that the stream of our magnifivessels; and that the want of room for cent Delaware will not admit the pas. wharves prevents us from accommodat- sage of merchant ships of the first class ing a large mercantile marine. Such and highest tonnage! I shall hereafter intimations, whether by wink or inuendo, give you some account of our mercantile or by direct and unequivocal assertion, marine, and of the vessels which habit whether made in ignorance of facts, or ually sail from the port. from motives of wanton disparagement, It thus appears that Philadelphia has are wholly unfounded and gratuitous convenient accommodations for a large

The accommodations for shipping at marine, has a safe harbor, and an expan. the port of Philadelphia are ample, and sive outlet to the ocean. Nothing but certainly more than equal to the present the absence of will on the part of her

Navigation of the Delaware-Coal Trade--Iron Manufacture. 589

merchants to appropriate these blessings in 1820, with 365 tons, will amount in -nothing but a sluggish and censurable the present year to more than 4,500,000. indifference to the rarest natural advan. Since the year 1845, the vessels' emtages-nothing but the unmanly spirit ployed in these shipments, at Richmond, which would tamely submit itself to a have exceeded in number and capacity degrading and suicidal dependence on the whole foreign tonnage of New York. the shipping of New-York-can prevent Your town of Newcastle, in England, the return, as their opposites effected the is said to enjoy from the coal business acquisition, of a remote as well as prox- alone, a commerce second only to Lonimate, of a great as well as productive don itself. We may reasonably antici. commerce. Shakespeare, with a stroke pate, from the increasing exports of that of his pen, thus indelibly engraves the article from year to year, and the value decree of fate, or the deliberate award of the return freights, that the suburb of of mankind, as the result of inactivity :- Richmond, now three-quarters of a mile

from the northern extremity of Philadel. “ An active dwarf we do allowance give phia, will soon mingle with and form Before a sleeping gian

part of the metropolis itself. So long But Philadelphia has not only a no- ago as 1837, the insurable interest in the ble river, but the materials necessary to coal trade, passing round Cape May, make it the avenue of a mighty com- was estimated by Major Bache, upon merce.

competent data, to exceed $22,000,000 In order the more distinctly to show per annum. At that time the anthraher capacity to regain what she has lost, cite coal trade, concentrated on the Delwith additions proportioned to her aug. aware, had not arrived at a third of its mented numbers and larger capital, the present magnitude. Nor do Lanclude in eye must be fixed on her history and the estimate of four and a half millions progress, while glancing at the elements of tons for the anthracite trade of the of trade within and around her. The current year, the western and northern genius of Philadelphia commerce should shipments of bituminous coals, which, be endowed with those faculties of past it is believed, will exceed the half of and future which are ascribed to the that quantity. If the supply from the double-faced Janus of antiquity; one to mines of Pennsylvania has risen in appropriate the rich and instructive les. thirty years from 365 tons to nearly five sons which a century and a half has re- millions annually, it is easy to calculate vealed, that the other may secure that the ratio of future increase, and how brilliant destiny which the illuminated soon, with the bituminons trade, it will record unfolds. Let us see how a sur- equal that of the British dominions, vey of surrounding circumstances and The iron manufacture of Pennsylva. the register of past experience will jus- nia, exposed as it is to perverse, and vis. tify a favorable prediction in regard to ited as it has been by adverse legisla. her future career.

tion, greatly transcends in amount of Pennsylvania possesses in her site production that of all the other states of one element of intrinsic superiority over the Union. We exceed the product of all her sisters. She is the only state in manufacture in Russia and Sweden the Union which has a navigable outlet united, and go beyond that of all Gerto the Atlantic, a footing on the lakes, many. We produce more iron than and a command of the western waters. France, and equal in magnitude the proHer controlling sceptre is admitted over duction of England, as her manufactures the long line of the Ohio, by standing at stood in the year 1820. It would be difits head, at Pittsburgh. But before I trace ficult to compute the value of this busithe advantages of this position in fur- ness to Pennsylvania if the manufactunishing so many inlets to the vast reser- rer of iron had not to contend with the voir of her external trade, so many trib. low rates of wages paid to the English utaries to the expansive sea of her for- laborer, while he is obliged to pay those eign commerce, permit me to take a which are prevalent in this country. rapid view of what her own territory An excellent mineral, and the means of supplies.

working it, abound in surpassing quanThe resources of the state are surpass. tities; but owing to the large capital reingly rich. The anthracite coal trade, quired for the maintenance of the busi. which commenced by actual exportationi ness, and the risks attending its pursuity


the making of iron is languishing, and Pennsylvania there are 788 of these es. its results are uncertain and precarious. tablishments in all, of which 208 are The works established are not driven to employed in the cotton, and 580 in the half their capacity, with incredible loss woolen manufacture. The pecuniary to the state and deep injury to its citi. value of these establishments is not at zens.

present ascertainable. What has made England the richest. No one needs be told of the agriculcountry in Europe, but the possession of tural capacities of Pennsylvania, of the coal and iron, and the protection they fertility of the soil, and the excellence received, in the early period of their of her farmers. According to the same history, from the ruinous effects of for- census, she is the largest wheat-proeign competition? The relation which ducing state of the Union, her product England bears to the rest of Europe, being now greater than that of agricul. from the wealth which these minerals tural Ohio, and far exceeding in quantity amass, will be sustained by Pennsylva- that of her neighbor, the State of Newnia towards her sisters of the confedera. York. The returns give to Pennsylvania cy. Your writers go far towards assign- 15,482,191 bushels, or 2,400,000 bushels ing, as the only reason for England be- more than New-York, whose arable docoming the great capitalist of Europe, main is confessedly greater. Several her possession of coal and iron. Profess- of the states are before Pennsylvania in or Buckland informs us that the facili- the article of maize, or Indian corn, but ties imparted by coal to manufacture, she carries the palm in the general proenable less than one million of her pop- ductions of agriculture. These fruits of ulation to perform the labor, in the pro- her fields are constantly on the increase, duction of artificial fabrics, of 400,000,000 and considering the broad belt of sterile of persons. Richard Cobden discovers mountains which divide and environ her, in her iron and coal "the primary and the vast area of the mineral soil, the source of her wealth and power," and prevailing fertility of her extended declares that the want of them alone plains and valleys inspires the emotion “ prevents other nations of Europe from of wonder as well as the sentiment of rivaling her in manufacturing great- gratitude. This is doubtless owing ness." McCulloch and other writers of chiefly to the bounty of nature, but authority confirm this view, and express something is due to the cultivation and the conviction that if the British coal thrift, the industry and intelligence of should become exhausted, her boasted the rural population. The practical manufactures, now so dependent upon farmer of Pennsylvania cannot find a machinery, would soon become extinct. happier or more plentiful home than You may hence see, in the countless that which his own acres supply. They abundance of these minerals over Penn- in turn cultivate his virtues, while they sylvania, one of the grand sources of her bound the circle of his wants and amdomestic wealth, and in the early and bition. extensive developments of these ele. “Each wish contracting fits him for the soil." ments of convenience and manufacture, and in the means of their convey. It may now be well to compute by auance to market, her best title to pre- thentic arithmetic the aggregate amount eminence in commerce.

of her various and multiplied resources. Pennsylvania contains within her I rely for the accuracy of my figures borders a larger number of factories for upon estimates, prepared in the year the making of cotton and woolen goods, 1844, from the official returns of the than any state of the Union; nor has any United States census of 1840, and commember of the confederacy a deeper piled under the eyes of John Downs and stake in the due encouragement of these Freeman Hunt, the well-known editor of two species of domestic industry. The the Merchants Magazine, a work gene. census of 1850 places her highest in rally received as correct in its statistical number on the list of these establish- details. According to these tables, the ments, even above the large manufac. total value of real estate in Pennsylturing States of Massachusetts and vania is $1,400,000,000, and of personal New-York. The former has 213 cotton, property $700,000,000, making a capital and 119 woolen factories, and the latter of Twenty-ONE HUNDRED MILLIONS OF 86 for cotton, and 149 for 'wool. In Dollars! No estimate of the real and

Capabilities for Foreign Commerce, Pennsylvania Rail-road. 591

personal property of New York amount- been employed in making tunnels and ed, at that period, to one-third of this adits to coal, and subterranean and aggregate. If we add to it the wealth superficial structures, for mining, and in which has since been accumulated, by the disinterment of iron ore, and works constant development and unstinted ex. connected with its manufacture, would penditure, the sum will be so much in- more than double the expenditure for creased as to depress New-York still railways and canals. No city in the lower, in comparison with Pennsyl. Union has been so profuse as Philavania.

delphia in the application of its capital, Such is the present wealth, and such to develop the material wealth of the the foundation of the future resources of state in which she is situated; nor can this state. And, thanks to the prodi- any other state of the confederacy exgality of a former age, these riches are hibit such extensive lines of artificial not wholly unproductive, nor “dead conveyance. weights" upon the present times. Cap- As Pennsylvania is in the van among ital is still required adequately to unfold her sisters in resources and improvethis magazine of nature, though much ments, so will be the destiny of her mehas already been expended. For the de- tropolis in magnitude and trade. SHE, velopment of the mineral wealth of the and not New-York, is the GREAT DISTRIBstate, I ascertain that the expenditure UTER AND SELLER OF MERCHANDISE to a amounts to five times the sum appropri- large portion of the western and southern ated by Congress to all physical im- country. Not content with various railprovements whatever in the United way connections with many, the chief States, since the year 1804,-for roads, points of trade in her own state, she fortifications, harbors, and rivers ! will soon hold in her iron embrace the

Let us then see how the public spirit cities of Columbus, Cincinnati, and St. and enlightened activity of her me. Louis, by way of Pittsburgh, the great tropolis, under the depressions of an western emporium of Pennsylvania. To exiled commerce, a transferred and these granaries, the various avenues of buried capital, has made these multi- western trade converge. At no distant plied benefits her own. This view will day she will place her cars, by way of exhibit the capabilities of the city to her own great entrepot, at Cleveland, in sustain a large foreign commerce, and Ohio, and by direct communication, at present such inducements as may exist, the town of Erie, in her own state, on to the collection of the funds necessary the Lake. These connections will secure to establish at her port a line of regular a large portion of the trade of that grand steamers.

highway of waters. At Wheeling, in The whole number of railways within the State of Virginia, she will particithe State of Pennsylvania, which exceed pate with Baltiinore in the southern a mile in length, is 42, embracing to- trade. These points of junction give to gether an aggregate extent of 1132 Philadelphia the trade of that immense miles. Authentic data are before me, region west, north, and south, whose Jaboriously compiled by Col. Childs, luxuriant opulence would build into which show that the cost of constructing greatness and sustain the prosperity of much the greater portion of these 1132 many cities. Locally situated between miles of railway, amounts to the sum of New-York and the fertile districts be$48,236,431. If to this sum be added yond, their trade is naturally hers, and the cost of those which are not officially she now is stretching out her iron arms ascertained, and of those prolonged to receive what nature so bountifully beyond our limits, but made with Penn- offers. sylvania capital,' the estimate, upon New-York, having no geographical reasonable presumptions, would greatly connection with the West, is limited by increase the line of distance, and swell her natural boundary to the lake trade, the whole expenditure to above sixty and encounters, in her ambitious enmillions of dollars. The length of the deavors to seize our western commerce, canals made within the borders of Penn- the interposing barrier of the county of sylvania is above 1,000 miles, the con- Erie, in Pennsylvania. If the existing struction of which may be estimated to legislation of the state is to be respected, have cost nearly thirty millions of dol- and future legislatures prove faithful to lars. The immense sums which have their duty, the gate of the West will never

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