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Ports of Entry-Uninterrupted Navigation, Amazon River. 567

age to those ports-surely, we say, Brazil “Though the river was not at its full, would not at this day attempt to play the it reminded me of our Mississippi at its part of Japan, and hinder those vessels topmost floods. The waters are quite as from passing by her doors to other parts muddy and quite as turbid, but the Amaof the world.

zon lacked the charm and the fascinaThe Pastaza, we are informed on the tion which the plantation upon the bank, authority of our old friend, Gen. Villamil, the city upon the bluff, and the steamthe Secretary of State of Ecuador, is boat upon the water, lend to its fellow of navigable nearly up to Quito; and, it is the north ; nevertheless, I felt pleasure well known that the sands of most of at its sight. I had already traveled seven those streams are auriferous.

hundred miles by water, and fancied that Tabantinga is the frontier post of Bra- this powerful stream would soon carry me zil on the Amazon. Thence ascending, to the ocean. But the water travel was we have an uninterrupted navigation comparatively just begun; many a weary along the main trunk of the Amazon, month was to elapse ere I should again which here courses through the northern look upon the familiar face of the sea, and parts of Peru, and not far from the south- many a time, when worn and wea ried ern boundary of Ecuador, for the distance with the canoe life, did [exclaim, “This of 500 or 600 miles. Thus a steamboat river' seems interminable. may reach the foot of the Andes.

"Its capacities for trade and commerce Lieut. Herndon entered the Amazon are inconceivably great. Its industrial four hundred and sixty miles above the future is the most dazzling; and to the Brazilian boundary, and he thus de- touch of steam, settlement, and cultivascribes the river there :

tion, this rolling stream and its magnifi“The Amazon, where it receives the cent water-shed would start up into a Huallaga, is five hundred yards broad. display of industrial results that would The march of this great river in its silent make the valley of the Amazon one of grandeur was sublime; but, in the un- the most enchanting regions on the face tamed might of its turbid waters, as they of the earth.” cut away its banks, tore down the gi. “From its mountains you may dig silgantic denizens of the forests and built ver, iron, coal, copper, quicksilver, zinc, up islands, it was awful. It rolled and tin; from the sands of its tributaries through the wilderness with a stately you may wash gold, diamonds, and preand solemn air; its waters looked angry, cious stones; from its forests you may sullen, and relentless, and the whole gather drugs of virtues the most rare, scene, as the noise of the falling trees spices of aroma the most exquisite. gums came booming at distant intervals across and resins of the most useful properties, the forest, awoke emotions of awe and dyes of hues the most brilliant, with dread, such as are caused by the funeral cabinet and building woods of the finest solemnities, the minute-gun, the howl of polish and most enduring texture. Its the wind, and the angry tossings of the climate is an everlasting summer, and waves, when all hands are called to its harvest perennial." bury the dead' in a troubled sea.




Few subjects are more interesting than the richest soil, the best harbors, and the to trace the developments of different most valuable agricultural productions, sections of the country when connected not only of the Union, but of the whole by means of rail-roads, and the other world. It has been aptly said that various systems of internal communica. Cotton is King," since every thing of tions. The commercial independence commercial importance depends upon it of the South has become no longer prob- in the way of exchange. The cotton lematical. We possess the finest rivers, planter has, until very recently, conti

nued blind to his own interests, by de- Atlantic with the Gulf of Mexico, at pending upon expensive, uncertain, and the Bay of Pensacola. circuitous routes in the transportation of 4th. The superiority of the harbor of his productions to either domestic or Pensacola over all others on the Gulf foreign markets. Direct trade" is the of Mexico; and its national defenses. natural channel of communication be. 5th.-The probable expense of con. tween nations, and no fact is of more struction, connected with steamboats importance for the cotton planter to to New Orleans, and the income deunderstand than this simple axiom.- rived. The intervention of third parties, the There is no interior town that we rates of commission, insurance, lighter. know of in the State of Alabama, in a age, steamboat transportation, wharf. more enviable position than Montgoage,drayage, and various other expenses mery-possessing a large, thriving and levied upon a bale of cotton before it energetic population-free from debt, can be shipped in a safe vessel to a and having a vast extent of rich agriforeign market, has rendered the ports cultural country dependent upon her of New Orleans and Mobile a dread to trade, by means of rail and plank roads the majority of planters of Alabama and that are being built, and all converging Mississippi.

towards her as a common centre. It is To promote the mercantile and agri- not, therefore, surprising that the city of cultural prosperity of central Alabama, Pensacola should feel desirous to cona most important rail-road was under- nect and afford Montgomery that which taken, a few years since, to connect she most requires, to wit, a safe and Montgomery with the city of Pensacola. magnificent harbor, to increase her comThe causes that led to a suspension of mercial and internal prosperity. In. this road are too well known to the citi. crease the facilities of trade, and you zens of these cities, to render any expla- promote the opportunities for wealth, nation at this time necessary; suffice it and the consequent influx of population. to say, it was simply owing to the mo. It has become an established fact that netary revulsion of 1836 and 1838, that rail-roads increase the mercantile pros. paralyzed the prosperity of the entire perity of interior towns, and enables country, and which rendereil abortive merchants to establish wholesale stores the various attempts undertaken at that at central points, thereby affording facitime, to open the avenues of trade with lities for the capital of the surrounding interior sections of the country.

country to be spent in its own vicinity, The Montgomery and Pensacola rail. rather than seek a more remote market road has now assumed an importance at the hazard of a tedious and expenits most sanguine and earliest advocates sive journey, which is a serious consiin no way anticipated. It will be the deration with merchants, mechanics, object of this communication to point and planters of small means. The hisout, as briefly as possible, the most pro. tory of all the towns along the Albany minent inducements that are now pre- and Buffalo Rail-road-Schenectady, sented to the citizens of Montgomery Utica, Rome, Syracuse and Rochester, and Pensacola, in favour of an imme- that now contain populations averaging diate construction of this road.

10 or 20,000 inhabitants, are all corrobo1st.—The certain, cheap, and expe. rative of this fact. Look, also, at Chiditious facilities of communicating with cago, built upon the low slash prairie of a commercial harbor of the first class; northeastern Illinois; (ten years ago she and the consequent concentration of could not number 5000 inhabitants; she mercantile and agricultural trade at now boasts of 40,000, with 2000 miles of Montgomery from the surrounding coun- rail-road converging upon her. Such is ties.

the result of well-directed individual en2nd.-The saving of time, in favor of terprise, that could be illustrated by a this road, over all others, in connecting hundred different examples. the northern cities with New Orleans, It is well known that the business of Texas, Chagres, the Tehuantepec route, Montgomery is perplexed, and brought on to the bay of San Francisco. to a pause several months in the course

3rd.—The advantages this road pose of the year, by the shallowness of the sesses over the Savannah and Brunswick Alabama River; and this frequently ocroutes now in progress, to connect the curs in the most busy periods, when the

Montgomery and Pensacola Rail-roadExpeditious Route. 569

travelling community is most anxious phia, Baltimore, Washington, Norfolk, either to go, or return from the northern Charleston and Savannah, with New cities. This annoyance compels thou- Orleans, Texas, Chagres, the Tehuantesands to take the more tedious route of pec route, on to the Bay of San Franthe Mississippi River, who would other- cisco, is easily demonstrated by an wise select the more agreeable and examination of the maps, together with expeditious way through Montgomery, the numerous enterprises nearly comthence on to Wilmington, Charleston, pleted to shorten the distance between or Savannah. The stockholders of the these important commercial points. Montgomery and West Point Rail-road Now, it is important for us to examine are losing millions from this cause; and the merits of the Pensacola and MontI see no way of avoiding the loss but by gomery road, and to sustain by facts lending their aid and influence towards the priority it possesses over all other the construction of the Pensacola and routes. The roads through Georgia and Montgomery Rail-road. It is hardly pos- South Carolina are rapidly approaching sible to arrive at a correct data as to their completion, and in a few months the number of passengers that would a direct communication will be had by pass over the route, in the event of its rail-road, from the city of Montgomery connection with the Alabama, Georgia to Wilmington, North Carolina, thence and South Carolina Rail-roads at Mont- to Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, gomery. Especially, after the Chagres New-York, and, in fact, to every comand Tehuantepec Rail-roads are com- mercial city upon the Atlantic coast. pleted, and connections established by Montgomery, then, is distinctly the terthem with some point on the gulf coast, minating point of all the roads convergbeing the terminus of the long chain of ing from the Atlantic coast to the Gulf roads leading to the northern cities. It of Mexico. Is it compatible with sound may be safely relied upon, however, judgment, or, the progress of the times, that 200 is a small daily average of pas- that the property-holders of Montgomery sengers, since 100 is the present number should continue apathetic to their own passing through Montgomery, notwith- permanent prosperity, and allow other standing all obstacles by the river, and cities to circumscribe and secure the rail-roads not yet completed.

elements of wealth, now within the conThe cotton trade is well worthy the trol of her own citizens, by extending consideration of the citizens of Mont. a rail-road to the Bay of Pensacola; and gomery, and a strict inquiry should be thus possessing the most magnificent made as to the probable increase of this harbor to be found either upon the Atimportant branch of business in the lantic or the Gulf of Mexico? event of this road being constructed. The saving of time in making a jourWhether the obstacles to be encoun- ney from New-York to New Orleans, is tered upon the river-heavy steamboat superior to any other route proposed, or freight, insurance, and the various ex- yet undertaken. It can be made in the penses incidental, at Mobile-to wit, short space of “ Four Days," a rapidity commissions, drayage, wharfage, light- greater than is even pretended to be erage, are not sufficient to draw off a claimed by the numerous improvements vast amount of the cotton from the river, now in contemplation to connect the to be repacked at Montgomery, and great commercial emporiums of the thence forwarded to Pensacola, as op- North and South. This time is calcu. portunities present for shipment; thereby lated as follows; a good steamer can saving all those minor expenses which make the trip from New-Orleans to Pentaken together, detract so much from a sacola in 16 hours, distance 200 miles; bale of cotton in the Mobile market. thence by rail-road to Montgomery, 160 It is not false prediction to say that cot- miles in 8 hours : ton presses will line the river front of

New-Orleans to Montgomery, via Pen-:, 1800 Montgomery, in less than a year after


.... 24 hours. the construction of this road, and thus Montgomery to Wilmington, via S. Caopen a new avenue for employment and

........ 30

Wilmington to Washington, R. R... wealth to her enterprising citizens.

Washington to New York, R. R....... 12 Secondly.-The saving of time in favor of this road, over all others, in connecting

Equals 4 days..................... 96 hours. the northern cities, New-York, Philadel The most gigantic efforts are making

rolina R. R....................

by the capitalists of the country to es. sacola route to connect the Atlantic tablish an expeditious and economical with the Gulf of Mexico." route to San Francisco. The western The citizens of Savannah deserve the members of Congress are urging the pro- greatest praise for their comprehensivepriety of connecting the city of St. Louis ness and perseverance in endeavoring with the Pacific coast, and demanding to promote the prosperity of their city, aid from Government to promote the by connecting with every point calcuenterprise. Missouri has already com- lated to increase her wealth and impormenced, and has now under contract, tance. Their efforts are not to be overa considerable portion of a rail-road, looked by the good people of Montgom. extending westward from St. Louis, de ery, lest they may suddenly find them. signed to connect with the Bay of San selves circumscribed by the state of Francisco. But an undertaking of such Georgia, and deprived of a convenient magnitude is well calculated to intimi- and safe harbor their own neglect has date the most courageous, and we may failed to secure. confidently expect youth to decay into The Savannah and Pensacola rail. extreme old age, before a rail-road, 2300 road will be nearly four hundred miles miles in length, will be made over an in length, and will cost upwards of four uninhabited country, to connect the million dollars ; great as this sum may Mississippi with the Pacific Ocean. The be, it will certainly be raised, and the antagonistical interests that Montgomery road built, if Montgomery fails in duty has to contend against are nearer home, towards herself. almost upon her own threshold. The In the event of Montgomery and Mobile and Ohio Rail-road, via Selma, Pensacola being connected, it is a mat. is progressing with an energy that gua- ter of doubt whether the other road will rantees a completion at an early period, be constructed, since everything will be and when connected with the Central accomplished in favor of Savannah, in Illinois road at Cairo, will be a continu- the connection of the Central Georgia ous, though “circuitousroute to the road with the Alabama roads leading to eastern cities.

Montgomery, and this idea holds good The following table of time and dis. in respect to Charleston... tance exemplifies the advantages of the The citizens of Pensacola are ans. Pensacola and Montgomery route to the ious to join with Montgomery; the mis. Bay of San Francisco from the city of fortune is, they have not much capital New-York. It has been prepared with to invest, and must, therefore, depend care, and has been partly taken from a upon her richer neighbor to push the paper recently read before the Georgia work successfully to completion. An Historical Society. Inquiries made by that Pensacola can do, however, will be myself from experienced naval officers, done to the full extent of her means. pronounce the sailing distance and It would be well if a Convention was time correct.

called at Montgomery, and some plan

determined upon to undertake the work New-York to Pensacola by R. R. 1,000 mls., 72 hrs.

irs at once, and terminate the great strug. Pensacola to Tehuantepec....... 900 " 72 Crossing the Isthmus .......... 130 "

gle of sixteen years to connect the AlIsthmus to San Francisco ...... 2,350 “ 192“ ìantic with the Gulf of Mexico. The Equals 14 days, 6 hours..

last Florida legislature granted a liberal

charter to this road, and appointed the This calculation is a reality, and following gentlemen as commissioners sanctioned by the proposition recently to open books and receive subscription made by Col. Sloo, to carry the United for stock: States Mail from New York to San Walker Anderson, W. H. Chase. B. Francisco in fourteen days, provided D. Wright, O. M. Avery, of Pensacola. Congress recognize the validity of the Florida. contract made by him with the Mexi. M. Bonclevare, John G. McLane, I. can authorities. The Senate are now G. Robinson, A. J. Robinson, W. T. debating whether the Garey, or the Sterns, C. Snowden,' W. Ashley, Aa Sloo grant is entitled to the support of Johnson, T. A. Mclvar, A. Russell and our government.

A. Fowler, Conecuh county, Alabama. Thirdly.--" The advantages this road E. I. Pickins, L. A. Bowling, W. J. possesses over the Savannah and Pen- Sturty, James Dunklein, T. I. Barnett,

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Harbor of Pensacola--Expense and Income of the new Road. 571

H. L. Henderson, H. B. Taylor, B. W. opposite side. Third, Fort Barrancas, Henderson, and J. P. McMullen, Butler on a high cliff, half a mile from Fort county, Alabama.

Pickens, on the opposite shore. Also, C. Webb, A. J. Perry, G. Harrison, J. an extensive navy-yard, with floating C. Swanson, and John Walker, Loundes dock, basin, and rail-way, now ready county, Alabama.

for the construction and repair of naval C. Cromlin, J. E. Belser, E. Sandford and merchant vessels. Şayer, John Craigen, J. J. Scribles, B. The health of the city and bay of S. Bibbs, H. W. Hilliard, E. Barnes, J. Pensacola is proverbial, surrounded by R. Dilliard, R. Wall, and G. Matthews, open pine woods, and furnished with an Montgomery county and city.

abundant supply of healthy spring Any three of the abovenamed per- water. It is the favorite resort in midsons may open the books in such places summer of many families from Mobile as they may think proper, and keep and New Orleans, who are attracted them open until the whole capital stock there by the facilities for salt-water is subscribed.

bathing, and the remarkable salubrity It is important, however, that these of the climate during the unhealthy commissioners should be prompt in the season. exercise of their functions, otherwise Fifthly, "The probable expense of the charter will be forfeited. It is a construction, connected with steamconstitutional law of Florida, that all in- boats to New Orleans, and the income corporated companies should be orga- derived.” nized, and the work commenced within We have endeavored, briefly as possione year after the passage of the act, or ble, to trace the various merits of this it becomes null and void.

improvement, and the attention it is enThe general government has conced. titled to from the citizens of Montgomed the right of way through the publicery. Another important feature is now domain, in favor of this road, and con- to be considered, and, in fact, the one tinued efforts are being made by the most essential to the success or destrccFlorida delegation to obtain alternate tion of the scheme. We allude to the sections of land for six miles on each probable expense and income of the side of the line, similar to that passed road. in favor of the Central Illinois and Mo. The act of incorporation is for two bile roads.

millions of dollars—an amount exceedFourthly, "The superiority of the ing the sum necessary for the accomharbor of Pensacola over all others, on plishment of the enterprise, according the Gulf of Mexico, and its national de to the following calculation : fenses." The bay of Pensacola, as a harbor, 160 miles rail-road, Montgomery to Pen

sacola.............: has nothing to compare with it from the F


Four first-class steamboats, to run daily Chesapeake to the Rio Grande, or along between New Orleans and Pensacola. 280,000 Central and South America, until you

Equals expense................ $1,880,000 arrive at Rio de Janeiro: It has anchor

INCOME. age for the most extensive commerce; and vessels are securely sheltered Tom and vessels are securely sheltered from 200 daily passengers, 360 days, $8 00.... $ 576,000

150.000 bales of cotton .............

150,000 the severest gales, The depth of water Accumulated freight, merchandise, &c... 300,000 on the bar at the main entrance equals Mail contract............

100,000 twenty-four feet, and has been station

1,126,000 ary at this depth from time immemo Deduct expenses......

326,000 ial. As you ascend the bay, you find

Equals net profit of 23% per ct.. the same depth of water until you pass the city of Pensacola ; distance from the This estimate, we are confident, will bar about twelve miles. The largest be found greatly within the assets of the class frigates and sloops-of-war fre- road; my object is, however, not to exquently run up, and ride at easy anchor- aggerate, or to indulge in an enthusiastic age off the town.

confidence as to the ultimate prosperity The most important defenses are: of the road. The experience of all First, Fort McCrea, on the main land, great lines of communication betwe as you enter the channel to cross the populous sections of the country, bar. Second, Fort Pickens, upon the been found to exceed in profit, IT

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