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Domestic and British ExportsLoan of Foreign Capital.

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ment for the loan, he adds: “We will expected of us, will be made with a view receive your lumber by way of the to conciliate that power first. All this Hudson, or through the port of Portland, is well; but it goes either too far, or not and land it on your sugar plantations far enough. Our interests, as we have ten per cent. cheaper than it can possibly remarked, are common. We must be delivered there now by way of New. avoid all sectional feeling, and all exOrleans. We will do more. We will travagant deferences to foreign govern. send you Canadian wheat, and thus de- ments—whether England or Russiaprive our own farmers of so much of a where the object is to enrich one portion market, for what does it matter to us of the Union at the expense of the othwhether we ship to Boston, to New York, er, and to conciliate a powerful state beor to Philadelphia, so long as we derive cause it condescends to purchase a comequal benefit from the transportation ? modity from us which it can neither Then, again, as Canada wants pork and produce nor obtain elsewhere. hams, the provinces will receive these Let us come to figures. The domescommodities without the payment of cus- tic exports of the United States amount toms duties; and this will lower Cana- in value* to $196,689,718. Of this dian labor.' We will go still farther. amount, England takes to the value of We will " But we will not pursue $105,121,921. Deducting $70,000,000 the thread of the argument. The next as the excess of her purchases of cotton we hear of this compromise of interests, over other nations, and $12,000,000 in is the advocacy of Canadian reciprocity gold and silver as a similar excess, there in the Congressional halls at Washington. is a balance left of $23,121,921. She

The North has no wish to see the buys from us commodities to the value South assume an attitude of commercial of $23,121,921, all prime necessaries of independence. It has no intention, if it life and needful luxuries, which is less can prevent the alternative, of allowing than double the value of the prime ne. the South to become its own burden-car- cessaries of life and luxuries which we rier, its own importer, and its own ex- export to the West Indies, the domestic porter. It cannot passively contemplate trade with which might be so greatly the withdrawal of the cotton, pork, to- augmented by a system of reciprocity. bacco, rice, or provision trade, which it The domestic export trade with the West now controls. While cotton continues Indies amounts in value to $12,600,875 to be the ruling staple of the continent, per annum, while the domestic export and England monopolizes the spindles trade with Canada does not exceed of the world, every national concession $5,835,000.

Domestic and British Exports per Annum to all Parls of the World.

Domestic Exports.

British Exporte. To Europe at large ...................$157,742,277..., ......$130,060,775 " Asia at large......................

2,943,887..

53,004,165 " Africa at large ......................

1,640,954......... 14,008,530

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There should be, we think, if our without giving offence to exterior natreaties be not nullities, our construction tions, and a like league might be formed of equity an unmeaning phrase, some by us on a similar basis of principle. It favor shown to the governments of our is so common for us to regard the trade own continent over those of the old of Europe as all-important to our pros. world. The principle is not novel.Customs' unions are formed in Europe,

Oficial returns of 1851.

perity, that to maintain and enlarge it, found. The products are the products we are almost willing at times to sow of every hemisphere; and the area the seeds of contention at home. En- of habitable country yet to be occugland, on the contrary, has her trade pied by a population as dense as that of well diffused over the globe; and by Europe, is greater than the whole of Afribold enterprise, and the exercise of a ca. Bathed on one side by the Pacific and lofty spirit, she has pushed her conquests on the other by the Atlantic, the contiof peace, until her domestic exports nent looks out on Europe and Africa now average $360,000,000 per annum. and Asia on the East; and on Asia and The figures in the foregoing table are in Oceanica on the West. What destiny point.

awaits this continent, none can tell; but We have on this continent, and in the this we may safely predict, that it will islands adjacent, an extensive market be through an American population and for the interchanges of commerce, that over our own soil, that the nations of the needs to be fostered to be profitable.- world will hereafter have intercourse From the frozen seas of the North, to the and hold intellectual converse. Straits of Magellan, it is one vast and We conclude this division of the subelongated oontinuity of plateaus, val- ject by drawing the reader's attention to leys, table-lands, and protecting moun- the subjoined table. It is prepared from tains, of intersecting lakes, and navigable official statements of the domestic trade rivers-of rail-roads and canals-of con- of the United States with the countries tiguous cities and of clustering isles, named, the domestic exports of Great Every habitable zone is embraced with- Britain thereto, the population and in its extreme length, and heat and cold square miles thereof, and the number of are regulated on isothermal as well as souls to each square mile. We shall meridian lines. From latitude to lati. continue the subject more in detail heretude, every quality of cultivable soil is after.

Domestic

British Ex Countries,

Population, Aren of sq. Pop. to sq. Exports to. Importa from. porta to.
miles, miles.

Value.
Value.

Valae. Mexico ....

.7,200,000....1.100.000.... 7 ...$1.014.690.... $1,804.779.... 82,260,000 Central America, ........ .1,852,000.... 204,000.... 9 .... 223,302.... 149,856.... 1,256,000 Venezuela ......... ...,1,250,000.... 774,000....

851,779.... 2,380,295.... 1.600.000 New-Granada....... 2,200,000 ... 330,000..

2,507,701.... 695,606.... 1,650,500 Argentine Republic........1,600,000.... 927.000..

659.852.... 3,265,382.... 4,235,000 Cisplatine Republic, 460,000.... 256,000..

32,711....

350,000 Brazil................. ....7,560,000...2,300,000 ...

.. 3,128,956.... 11,525,304,... 12,725,000 Guianas.. 135,000.... 136,000...

671,738.... 137,582.... 500,000 Honduras , ...

310,000.... 72,000.... 4%.... 213,806.... 174,526.... 917,000

South America on the Pacific.

.1,200,000.... 144,000.... 8 ... 1,608,877.... 2,734,746.... 5,783,000 Peru .........

. 1,400,000.... 524,000.... 3 .... 249,760.... 94,733.... 4,245,000 All other ..... ..........2,420,000....1,039,000.... 2 ... 36,196.... 39,829.... 475,000

West Indies. Hayti...................... 700,000.... 11,000.... 64 .... 1,697,372.... 1,889,968.... 1,375,000 Cuba.....

.....1,200,000... 42,383.... 29 .... 5,239,276.... 17,046,931 Swedish West Indies... 9,000....

29,001 Danish West Indies, ..

43,000....

118....360 ... 902,687,... Dutch West Lodies ..... 18,500..... 590.... 21%

366,898.... 572,430) British West Indies ... 800,000.... 13,000..... 61

3,903,560.... 1,003,871.... 10,200,000 French West Indies... 257,000.

720....357 .... 289,579.... 22,909 Spanish West Indies .. 359,000.... 3,865.... 93 . 961,410.... 2,480,329 * Included. Generally......

203,000.... 18,072.... 114 .... 76,936....

The Canadas. Canada....................1,800,000.... 349,821.... 54 .... 5,835,834.... 4.956,471 1A 175 on British N. Am. Possessions. 862,000....1,905,000 ... 0.4.... 3,224,553.... 1,736,783 French fisheries ............

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6. ... 11,523,114..

Chili............

42,383.... 60

...

61,157..

255,894

255,894

7,590,000

25,751

We have glanced at the question of now turn to the gulf commerce, and will continental reciprocity. We have as. show that it is no exaggeration to say, sumed that the domestic trade with the that the great sea midway between the British North American Provinces is by Americas is more essential to the welno means so important as interested par. fare of the United States, than is the ties would have us believe. We shall Mediterranean to Europe, to Asia, and Commercial Value of the Mexican Gulf and the Mediterranean. 529

to Africa." If we can establish this Utica, Memphis and Tripolis, Antioch point, then it must at once be admitted, and Smyrna, Alexandria and Ptolemais, that, as a matter of expediency, recipro- Tyre, Sidon and Joppa, are names as city with the Canadas should be imme- familiar for their commercial grandeur diately followed or preceded by recipro- as for the glory of their arms, their concity with South America and its terri. quests of peace, or the wealth, on which torial appendages and islands, and with their civic greatness was founded.the West Indies, and the isles of the But the commerce of antiquity, great as Pacific contiguous to the continent. it was for the time or era, was nothing

That which should first be considered, in comparison to the trade of a single as regards the commercial value of a city a few hundred years later. And sea, is its physical character, the protec- great as was this latter trade, what was tion its harbors afford to shipping, its it, in all its vigor, to the trade of London, form or configuration, the natural features or Liverpool, or New-York now? The and productiveness of the countries commercial magnitude of the ancient which bound it, its currents and climate, Mediterranean ports cannot be traced in but mainly the number, navigable con- their ruins; but one thing we are assured dition, and courses of the rivers that of, that the cities of the Adriatic and fall into it. Secondly, accessibility to the Mediterranean, together, do not afford the great ocean highway, distance to be employment for as much' tonnage as passed over in going and returning; dis- does the port of New-York alone. tances to be overcome in visiting from But this has little to do with the quesport to port ; and, finally, contiguity to tion of the commercial value of the the markets of the world.

Mediterranean. Cities may crumble on The Red Sea, comparatively speak- its shores, its bays may fill with mud ing, is of no commercial value : it is and vegetable aggregations; and states hardly sought as an interoceanic commu- decay that once ruled it. All this may nication with the Mediterranean. It evince a degeneracy of people, a want has no great rivers falling into it It of enterprise, the operation of unwise drains no valleys, no basins, no lands, laws, a corrupting government-it may that might send forward their products be a result of devastating wars, or a to be borne upon its bosom to ready transfer of commercial power and domarkets. Along its banks no cities have minion consequent upon the spread of risen to maritime opulence; commerce population, and the discovery of new would perish if planted there. Its wa- mediums of supply, and new channels ters are received from a mysterious of intercourse. But the countries resource, and come and go but to feed the main. The rivers that poured their Indian ocean. Few vessels ride upon it, floods into the Baltic, into the Propontis, or are urged by its winds; and only such and into the gean, and which supare impelled over its surface as bear the plied the Mediterranean on the North, slaves of Massonah to Egyptian ha- flow on still. The great arteries of three rems, or African pilgrims to the shrine continents, the Danube, the Euphrates, of Mecca. How different would its and the Nile, which drained their valleys uses be, if, from the hills of Abyssinia, a thousand years ago, drain them now. the shores of the Persian Gulf, the val. It is because commerce has changed its ley of the Nile, or the basins of the principles, and navigation its character, Euphrates, an Amazon, a Mississippi, a that the Mediterranean is not what it Hudson, or an Orinoco, poured into it, was. Discovery has swept past the and united the trade of three continents. natural order and development of things. • Commerce and navigation have chan. It has created necessities, and it has surged their principles and character with mounted former obstacles. We traverse the revolutions of time, of states, and the ocean with steam and travel the earth the spread and progress of population with iron horses. Speed is everything, and civilization. Around the name of whether in the plow or the anvil, the the Mediterranean there lingers a classic common wagon or the rail-road carriage, association, and we venerate it for its the sail-rigged ship or the leviathan past services, when on its bosom rode the steamer. argosies of the world, and the trade of The Mediterranean is a sea of seasboth hemispheres located on its shores. of peninsulas and headlands—of archiCyprus and Syracuse, Carthage and pelagos and deeply-indented bays. A

journey may be made by land from are the surplus of the products which Genoa to Venice in a few hours, and these countries reject. The local sup from Durazzo to Salonica in two or three ply being a surfeit, consumers must be days. To make the voyages between sought for elsewhere-in the East, in the these ports with a sail-vessel, requires South Seas, in the remote Indies, or on the lapse of many weeks, and some- this continent. But for all the protimes the delay of months. On the con- ductions that are borne to or from the trary, the journeys soonest made from gulf, there is a market almost at hand. one port to another on the coast of the Brazil, the Plata States, Central America, Gulf of Mexico, are those which are un- Equador, Venezuela, and the West In: dertaken by sea-voyages. A vessel dies, need of the products that are casproceeding from the Atlantic up the ried down the Mississippi; and New Mediterranean, and taking a cargo in Orleans, Charleston, Baltimore, Philathe Black Sea of the productions of delphia, New-York and Boston require Western Asia or Central Europe-or at for domestic consumption and exchange the mouth of the Nile, of the productions the bulk of the products that are sent of Egypt-or at the port of Venice, of forward by the rivers of South America the productions of France or Germany, into the gulf. cannot clear the Straits of Gibraltar on It is no departure from truth to aver, a return trip under two months. The that the basins tributary to the Gulf of sinuosities of shore-line measure 14,000 Mexico are more extensive, prolific in miles; the shore-line of the Gulf of natural productions, and the productions Mexico-clear as it is of projections and more varied in character and of greater other interruptions to navigation-mea. agricultural value, than may be said of sures but 5,500 miles. While a vessel all the basins in the world beside. The coasts along a shore-line of 14,000 miles, annexed table will serve to illustrate collecting a promiscuous cargo of the this fact, so far as square miles are conproduction of 2,000,000 square miles, a cerned: vessel inay make the entire coast of the Basins in the World, drained by Rivers, haring a Gulf of Mexico, (5,500 miles,) receive a

Sea or Ocean Outlet. cargo of the productions of 4,000,000

THE OLD WORLD. square miles, and be under way, in the

Basin of the Mediterranean....... 1,160,000 sq. m. broad ocean, nine thousand miles in ad

Nile

520,000 vance of the other; or, a vessel in the

Euphrates .....

196.000 Indus,

312,000 gulf may take in a cargo on the coast

Ganges......

432,000 and deposit it in the port of New-Or

Irawaddy.

331,000

Others of India....... 173,000 leans, return and deposit a second

Rhine & West. Europe 730,000 cargo, before a vessel, sailing up the Mediterranean, can again make the Atlantic and spread its sails in search of a

THE NEW WORLD, market. Key West and Gibraltar are Basin of the Mississippi ..... 982,000 sq.m. the gateways that interlock the grana

Florida and Texas.... 520,000

Mexico & Cen. Am... 300,000 ries of the Gulf of Mexico and the

Amazon ............. 1,796,000 * Mediterranean. East and west of these

Orinoco, &c. .........

700,000 € is the Atlantic, and it is only on its

Total ......................... 4,298,000 heaving billows that the strife of rivalry begins. The seas locked within are The valley of the Amazon is but a the recipients of the elements of com- continuation of the valley of the Missismerce-nothing more--and that sea sippi; and its waters, by the laws which which has the advantage of proximity to govern tides, are caused to flow, not into the ocean, of greatest extent of bound- the ocean first, but into the gull. The ing country, of variety and quality of Orinoco, which is an arm of that majes. production, and superiority of inland tic flood, empties into the Caribbean navigation, is the sea that does, and als direct. Hence the valley of the Ama. ways must, take precedence of all others. zon is but a continuation of the basin of Such is the Gulf of Mexico. There is, too, the Mississippi; and their draining rivers this point to be considered: The pro- all fall into the gulf before they flow ducts of Southern Europe, of Western out into the Atlantic. But it is needless Asia, and of Northern Africa, which to dwell longer on the external value of seek the ocean by the Mediterranean, the two seas. Any farther comparison

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1000

6

Total.......

..................

8,854,000

3,864,000

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may be confined to a few words. The bowels—is reached and disseminated productions brought down from the ba- through the vast basins which thus sins of the old world, do not return to stretch, on meridian and latitudinal lines them. The staples of the Indus and far north and south of the tropics, into Ganges make long voyages to Europe the temperate zones. or Eastern Asia; the surplus products of Whatever causes supervene to deprive the basins of Western Europe are borne the Mississippi, as a burden-route, of its to markets far beyond the Indian seas; proper downward share of the domestic and the products of the valleys drained products of the country-whether trade by the rivers that pour into the Mediter- is forced from its banks to the northern ranean, are conveyed oceanward thou. ports by enterprise and artificial mesands of miles to all hemispheres. The diums, or the foreign demand for our great basins of the Americas are all staples, by way of New Orleans, is on drained towards the gulf; and the ocean the wane-of one thing we may be cermarket is then at hand.

tain, that it needs but the effort to make We have next to consider the physic that city one of the greatest entrepots cal character of the countries through on the globe. Its commercial position which our rivers course. The Missis- is unrivaled, and its climate daily imsippi River, which is peculiarly our own, proves. The continent, south of it, is is the ventricle of the Union. It is capa- yet to be explored, its resources to be ble of absorbing and digesting all the developed, its riches and their variety products of labor that may be poured to be unfolded. Three hundred millions into it. Taking its rise in the lati- of people ask to be admitted to commutude of fifty degrees north, in the re. nion and intercourse with six hundred gion of snows and exalted mountains, millions west of us, who are shut out by where the climates are suited to the an isthmus, only twenty-six miles in growth of wheat and barley, and the width. A hundred millions of dollars hardy cereals-in the region of valuable have already been expended or devoted forests and animal furs-it runs south, to the work of leveling this barrier, of crossing thirty degrees of latitude, and constructing rail-roads from the Atlantic changing with every mile its tempera- to the Pacific, of tunneling mountains, ture and the character of the staples that digging canals, clearing out once naviare produced op its banks. “Having," gable streams, of building highways says an eloquent writer, in speaking of which are to penetrate into and traverse this noble river, “left behind it the re- the interior, and of laying the foundagions for peltries, wheat, and corn; for tions of Anglo-Saxon cities on the sites hemp and tobacco; for pulse, apples, of Indian villages. Steam has commuted whisky, oil and cotton; and having time, and brought about a speedier and crossed the pastoral lands for hogs, nearer relationship of Europe with Amehorses, and cattle, it reaches, near the rica, and both with the East, than could thirtieth degree of latitude, the northern have been accomplished by the ordinary verge of the sugar-cane. Thence ex- sailing-vessel for a hundred years later. panding out in the gulf, with all these By a census of the Central and South productions on its bosom, it passes on to American states, the increase of CaucaKey West and the Tortugas, and delivers sian population thereof, for seventy years up to the winds and waves of the ocean was not greater than has been the inthe fruits of its teeming soil and mul- crease of pure white population within titudinous climes." Then comes in the three years last past. And the inthe valley of the Amazon. Taking up fluences that will inevitably work a resthe agricultural productions and staples toration of the political, moral, and social which the Mississippi had just reached, condition of the South American states and pushing the variety beyond the and they have much to redeem)--that equator, it increases, and far down in will lead to advancement in the arts another hemisphere diversifies the won. and sciences, and to physical progressderful assortment, until sugar and rice, will operate with the same results in the coffee and indigo, drugs and spices, West Indies and the islands which becocoa and cotton, cochineal and tobacco, long to the continent. Let once the seed india-rubber, dyewoods, peltries, fax of Anglo-Saxon enterprise be sown, as it and wool-everything, in short, that is has been, to some extent, in Central grown on earth, or produced from its America and south of the Amazon, it

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