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it is probably not surpassed in the United This region, however, is celebrated for States; but the grasses and clovers do its healthy climate, and its freedom from not succeed so well without plaster, and bilious and pulmonary affections. It will other manures. 4. The prairies, chiefly be perceived from this hasty glance, in the western part of the state, and that, physically, Michigan possesses limited in size, consist of a deep, black, within itself everything that an indevegetable mould, and resemble the best pendent republic can require :-rich lands in Illinois; they are generally pasture-lands, unsurpassed grain soils, above the level of the surrounding timber of great size and variety, both country. 5. The Burr Oak Plains ap- hard and soft, large quantities of which pear like cultivated orchards. The soil are exported not only to the west and is composed of a mixture of the earth of south, but also to the seaboard-lakes, the prairies, and the white oak openings; rivers and mill-streams, in abundance; abounding in lime, as it does, it is emi- fish, salt-springs and plaster quarries, nently productive, and, next to the prai- copper, iron, zine, silver, coal, limestone, ries, is preferred for agriculture. 6. sandstone and marl; a climate as modThe marshes, or meadows, are a strikingerate as that of Pennsylvania, and one and peculiar feature of the state. Ex. of the driest in America, and, above ceedingly abundant, wet in winter, all, it is so shaped, and so surrounded by but generally dry enough to mow, form water, that the greater portion of it is ed of vegetable mould and marl, they accessible to large vessels. are covered with a dense growth of Michigan was first colonized by the long grasses, affording two tons to the French, about the year 1671, and the acre, and fully recompense for the com- existence of native copper was ascerparative difficulty of growing the culti- tained early in the eighteenth century. vated grasses. As pasture they make The settlements, however, were few and excellent beef, and every thing prospers far between, the European population on them. They were a marked element being principally engaged in the fur of success in the early settlement of the trade, while a few devoted missionaries state. 7. The lakes number not less passed their lives in a vain endeavor to than 3,000; -exceeding in number and convert the Indians to Christianity. Cabeauty all others perhaps on the globe." dets of good families appear to have Most of them contain rich beds of marl, been among the earlier settlers, if we nearly pure carbonate of lime, mixed can judge from the names still remainwith petrified shells. Of course, they ing, and the uniform politeness of the give rise to numerous streams and rivers; French habitans, which have survived and in consequence good mill-sites are nearly all other characteristics of the to be met with every few miles. Both old régime. Detroit was planted in the lakes and streams abound in fine 1701, by M. de la Motte Cadillac, with fish. The highest land in the state, or one hundred men and a Jesuit; at which the "water-shed,” in Hillsdale county, period buffalo ranged wild through the is 633 feet above Lake Michigan. The woods. In 1760 this country fell into average height of the peninsula is the hands of the British In 1766 we 160 feet above the surface of the find the Hudson Bay Company extendlakes; but the ponds, forming the sour. ing their operations to this territory; ces of the rivers, are chiefly on the and in 1783, the North-west Company greatest elevation.

was formed, for the purpose of collectIII. The upper half of the southern pen- ing furs in Michigan. The following insula, north of Grand River, constitutes table exhibits the product of their trade the fine country, generally sandy, and for one year previous to 1774 : if the borders along the lakes be excepted, as yet sparsely settled, except by Beaver skins.......

.... 100.000 those engaged in the lumber business. Bear skins...........

2,100 IV. The mineral country, including Fox skins.......


Kitt for skins ... the whole of the upper peninsula, with Outer.


4,600 its primitive rocks, long winters, heavy Musksquash skins..


Martin skins........ growth of timber, and broken country,

32,000 Mink skins...

1,800 will not probably attract the attention of Lyox skins..

6,000 fariners, to any great extent, until the Wolverine skins .....

600 Fisber skins ....

- 1.650 rest of the state is thickly inhabited. Raccoon skins ...




Wolf skins................................ 3,800 act of Congress. During 1812-13, it was
Eik skins ......
Deer skins......

again, in consequence of General Hull's Deer skins, dressed...

1,200 surrender, for a short time once more in Buffalo robes .......


possession of the British. At this time and a quantity of castoram.

cultivation was conducted to a very Montreal was the principal depot of limited extent, and in the most antiquatthe company, whence the skins were ed modes; schools were almost unshipped to England.

known; commerce was limited to the Beavers have become all but extinct;

immediate wants of the people; and, and the wolverine, from which the state

at this day, no perceptible influence for obtains its sobriquet, is all but unknown

good remains from the early settlements. in the southern peninsula.

By degrees, as early as 1820, enterpris

ing Americans began to find their way This company finally disposed of its further into the interior ; but it was not interest to the American Fur Company, till about 1834 that any general immiorganized by John Jacob Astor

gration commenced, and from 1836 to In 1772 a mass of native silver, now 1840, the great bulk of the American deposited in the British Museum, was population entered the state. They were found on the shore of Lake Huron, and chiefly young persons, or newly married in 1773 a company, for the purpose of couples, from Vermont, New Hampshire, working the mines, headed by the Duke and other New England states, and of Gloucester, was chartered by the Brit. New York, principally the western potish government; but after considerable tion of it. In 1836 the territory was expenditure of means, the adventure was erected into a state. The energy, intelfound unprofitable and abandoned. By ligence, education, and spirit of the the treaty of 1783 the territory was virtu- earlier American settlers, have given a ally ceded to the United States, but was peculiar character to Michigan, which it still withheld, by England, from actual still retains. It will be remembered possession, till 1796. At this period great that in 1837-8, the disastrous commerignorance regarding Michigan prevail. cial revulsion occurred, and thousands ed in the East, the fur companies pro. of city mercantile men were suddenly bably considering it to be their interest cast from opulence into poverty ; num. to keep out the American population as bers of these, with their families, found long as possible. It has been stated their way to this state; a large portion that the Virginian soldiers' claims, after. of them became farmers; others were wards located in the Scioto valley in scattered among the rising villages, and Ohio, were at first settled in Michigan, thus, from the first, the polished man. but changed from the current belief that ners, the educated ability, and the practhis state was one vast swamp, with tised experience of our largest eastern merely a belt of harder land around it. cities were sown broadcast over the counLess than forty years ago a map of the try, to produce, in the present generaterritory was published in New York tion, a most promising harvest. Fodescribing it as sueh. There were no reigners to a very limited extent have roads into the interior, the only means sought this state as a home, but have of travel being by Indian trails, and passed round the lakes to Wisconsin, the French population were settled upon Iowa, and Illinois. The following table, the Detroit and St. Clair rivers, and from the census of 1850, will give a just the small streams entering into them. idea of the population. The Hollanders, On the 11th of January, 1805, Michigan as well as some of the Germans, hare was erected into a separate territory by colonized by themselves :--

14.677 140,645



TABLE OF THE NATIVITIES OF THE POPULATION OF MICHIGAN, 1850, Maine ..... . 1,117 Virginia .....

1,504 Ohio New-llampshire .. .. 2,744 North Carolina.....

312 Michigan ... Vermont .......... 11,113 South Carolina.....

81 Indiana....... Massachusetts .... . 8,167 Georgia...........

69 Illinois ...... Rhode Island..... . 1,031 Florida......

12 Missouri..... Connecticut ...... 6.751 Alabama.....

19 lowa New-York...... .133,756 Mississippi..

34 Wisconsin.... New Jersey.,,... 5.572 Louisiana.....

California Pennsylvania . 9,452 Texas ,.......


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4 Territories ... Delaware, 368 Arkansas.....

25 England ...... Maryland...... 537 Tennessee...

101 Ireland ... District of Columbia. 45 Kentucky.....

402 Scotland....



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127 Russia......

25 Mexico .....
10,070 Norway...

South America..... France... 945 Denmark.

13 West Indies........ Spain......

Sweden ....

6 Sandwich Islands... Portugal... 2 Prussia .....

190 Other Countries.... Belgium 112 Sardinia...

Unknown .......... Holland.... 2,542 Greece..

Deaf and Dumb...

122 Turkey .... 2 China .........

Blind ..... Italy...... 12 Africa

3 Insane.....

136 Austria ...

21 British America ....... 14,008 Idiots ..... Switzerland.......... 118

Acres improved land, (1850) 1,929,110; southern Canada to the Detroit River, unimproved land in farms, 2,454,786 and forming a united line from Chiacres. Cash value of farms, $51,872,446; cago to New-York city. The chief buaverage cash value per acre, $11.83; siness of Detroit is forwarding, shipditto in Louisiana, $13.71.

building, foundries, steam-engine shops The southern half of the state is now saw-mills—the logs being procured from planted with fine farms, containing St. Clair and Saganaw-anneries, togehouses, out-buildings, and barns, not in ther with the usual stores of a prosperferior to those of any portion of the ous city. Some wholesale business is United States; and beautiful villages done, but not as much as might be of from 500 to 5,000 inhabitants, laid expected, the communication with the out and built with the taste and neat- East by means of the lakes and the ness that characterize the New-Eng- New-York Canal and rail-roads being so landers, while schools and churches easy and cheap. A rail-road also runs to everywhere abound. In the year 1850 Pontiac, about thirty miles N. W.; and Michigan contained 362 places of wor- several plank roads are completed, the ship, being in a ratio of one church to longest of which is about one hundred every 1,098 souls ; and the total value of and thirty miles. The best of these pay church property was $723,200. This, dividends not exceeding ten per cent. however, does not fairly represent the per annum on the cost, besides reservchurch accommodation, as schoolhouses ing a sinking-fund for repairs; but are extensively used as places of wor- every year the stock is becoming ship, where the denomination is not yet more valuable. The city is lit with sufficiently numerous or wealthy to erect gas, and supplied with water by a steam. a building for itself.

apparatus owned by the corporation. The following table shows the statis. The hotels are numerous in proportion to tics of the leading denominations in the population, and the best of them are 1850:

fine buildings, bearing a high reputation. Number of

Total Three daily papers, two agricultural, se

Churches, Baptists

... 58..

$84,050 veral weekly, secular and religious, and Congregational

59,550 two monthly magazines, are published Episcopal .. .... 25.....

82,800 here. Methodists.. ......103....

*142,650 Presbyterians'... ... 67.... *142,650 From the first organization of the Roman Catholics

159,775 state, peculiar and anxious attention Detroit is the principal city, and till has been paid to popular education; and of late years contained the capitol of perhaps no new state in the Union has the state. This is now located at Lan- greater reason to feel proud of its prosing. The population of Detroit is a lit. gress in this respect. Michigan was the * tle over 30,000.f It has not grown first state to establish a constitutional of. with the rapidity of many other wes- ficer, under the name of superintendent of tern cities, probably in consequence public instruction. The system is wide of the scanty settlement of the heavy and comprehensive, founded on the Prustimbered country immediately around, sian scheme, and may be described as and the unusual proportion of villages follows:-A general supervising head of throughout the rest of the state. The Cen- the department (the superintendent), a tral Rail-road to Chicago (commenced by university in which education is free, the state, but now owned by a Boston governed by a president, who is apcompany) begins here, and will shortly pointed by a board of regents, the lat. connect with the Great Western Rail. ter being elected by the people; branchroad, running from Niagara Falls, through es of the university, in various parts of

the state, to act as feeders, at present in * This is so in the census tables, and I do not sap- abeyance; and a system of primar pose it to be a mistake.

C.F. † In 1819, 1,040; in 1824, 1,325, and 396 buildings. schools under the management of ce


.... 29....


tain township officers, with a large fund ing in Lake Erie, and in the fall of the sufficient to afford three months, at least, year proceeding northwards, when they of education in the year, free of cost to are caught, salted, and barrelled. Some the pupils. To this may be added a normal twenty other species of gocd eatable school; three departments are organized fish frequent the lakes, and every year in the university, viz. :-science and the pursuit of them becomes of greater arts, medicine, agricultural and mecha- commercial importance. The export, nical art, including natural history, che. annually, of all sorts, is estimated at mistry, &c. &c. The following statistics $300,000. A grant of land has lately are brought down to December, 31, 1851. been made by the federal government

for the construction of a canal at the Disbursements of the state for the University since 1837..

**$286.928 Sault Ste. Marie, to connect Lakes HuSchool Fund invested, (annually increasing ron and Superior. It is intended to be from sale of lands,)..

...... $611,000 large enough for the deepest vessels, and School Districts................

3,307 Children residing in do................... 143,222 will probably be finished in two years. Do. attending school.....

115,165 For several years the topographical Paid to teachers, 1851..........

..$154,469 Volumes in Township Libraries.....

07:18 corps of the United States army (at

present under the command of Captain A mill tax is annually levied to pur- John N.Macomb) have been employed in chase books for these libraries. Both surveying the Lakes, and have completed the university and primary schools own thein to the west of Mackinaw. The large tracts of land, the proceeds of maps are monuments of great skill, per. which, as sold, are funded.

severance, and ability, and will compare The university is located at Ann Ar- well with any executed under the di. bor, the normal school at Ypsilanti, and rection of European governments. both possess handsome, substantial, and The following tables are taken from convenient buildings. A good library the state census of 1850, and Mr. Lan. and museum belong to the university man's History of Michigan:

Besides these, there are forty academies, theological institutions, literary


1845, societies, &c., incorporated by act of the 87,273..... 175,000.... 212,267.... 304,280.... 400,000 legislature, and a number of private


FOR 1837, 1840 AND 1849. There exists a general plank-road law,

1637. 1810. 1842.

Bushels of wheat.... 1,014,896. . 2,157,108..4,739,99 made, in all directions.

Do. all other grains 2,038,129. 4,666,720..8,179,767 Pounds of wool...

153,375, 1,643,756 There is a rail-road in the south, com. Horses

14,050.. 30,144.. 52,305 mencing at Toledo, O., and Monroe, Neat Cattle ...... 89,610.. 185, 190, 210,268 Mn., both on Lake Erie, and running


109,096.. 295,890.. 152,541 Sheep........

22,684.. 99,618.. 610,563 partly through Michigan, partly through Saw Mills

433.. 490.. 730 Indiana, to Chicago. It connects with Flouring M

114.. 190.. 228




Dwelling houses.... commenced by the state, but is now

Number of families. ..

72,560 owned by a New-York company. There Value of real estate. is no finished canal in the state.

Occupied farms..

34,679 Cash value of do.

.$51,914,644 Ine uisheries on the upper and Lower Value of farming implements

$2,748,311 Lakes are of great importance, those for Horses....

57,842 catching trout and white-fish# especi- Asses and mules ..........

Milch cows......

97,557 ally. The white-fish are migratory, liv. Working oxen...

56,203 Other cattle ....

117,043 * Trout. Salmo amethystes (Mn); white fish, Cor. Sheep.........

756,38 regonus albus (Les). Besides these, the most valua- Swine .. ble are, pickerel, Lucioperca Americana; pike, Esot Value of live stock.... reticulatus ; muskelonge, E. estor ; catfish, Timelo. Bushels of wheat.....

4,893.141 dus catus; herring, Hyodon tergirus ; sturgeon, " other grains...

8,197,178 Sturio maculosus, (growing to six or seven feet Wool, pounds of. long.) and siskowit, a species of salmon. A marked Value of orchard products..

$130,522 peculiarity of most of the Lake fish is the quantity Butter, pounds of.....

7,056,475 of fat, resembling that of quadrupeds, which they Cheese, do.

1,112,646 contain-entirely different from the salt-water fish. Maple sugar, do. ....

2,426,067 While their favor differs from that of the latter, it Feet of lumber sawed.......... is much more delicate and richer than that of river Value of do. fish. The brook trout is found in abundance in the value of annual products of all kinds Lake Superior country. Eels are unknown.

of manufactures......

........... $74,968,344

202,588 $7,852,550



$2,221,708 ... $10,111,488

Avenge menn temperatund,


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Fort Mackinac....

7....40.37.... 20.08. ...36.69....61.33 ....43.39....

...43.39.... 90.... - 23.... 97.57.... W. ....Fair .... ....450
Sault Ste. Marie. . 12. ...39.82....17.64....37.39....61.79....42.47 .... 98.... 30....114.39....N.W.... Cloudy.... 29.588....460 29' 55"
Fort Gratiot....... 9.... 46.96.... 25.77.....43.22....67.44.... 48.02.... 96.... - 18....102.88.... S. W ....Fair ....38.516....420 51
Detroit............ 4....47.36.... 28.69....46.32....66.44....47.98.... 94.... - 5.... 95.00.... S. ....Fair .....28.300....420 19
Dearborn Arsenal, 1....49.21....30.73....51.43....66.21 .....48.50....100....- B....108.00..., W. .... Fair ....21.610....420 20'00"
Chicago, III. ..... 4....46.18.... 25.56....45.06....66.96....47.16.... 94.... - 22.... 109.00.... N. .... Cloudy.... ....410 50 00"
Fort Jesup, Louis.12....65.81.... 49.79....66.94....80.84....65.32....100.... 8.... 81.58.... N. ..., Fair ....46.243....310 30 00"

mate :

-ep The face uvek omnesadium

18 fridge was

Saneasa B

*YM following data

pat which leaves the state for ever..

regarding (Washington, D. C., 1851,) affords the effect. Besides these, large qantities of barrel

the consume a large quantity of timber, Detroit being in lat. 42° 19' 18", and and the flour barrels and fish barrels than would be expected from its position,

vania. staves and heads are annually exported, summer, and averages milder in winter,

the question. attribute

Froin been observed. and northwest. (bilious inflammation of lungs) in winter. rally of a mild character, and lung fever serious diseases known were ague, gene. western state. Till very lately, the only compare favorably with any other

As regards health, Michigan will entertained in New York and Pennsylsame belief (whether just or unjust) is ring the last half dozen years. rity of the springs has taken place du. cided change in the length and severemarked by old residents, that a detiful, dry and cloudless. It is, however, season. The falls are usually very beauis the most unpleasant and changeable every month in the year. The spring boats have passed from Detroit to Buffalo, ground could be plowed, and steamring the last fifteen years, when the March. “Instances have occurred du. passed by the beginning to the end of in before the end of December, and is On the Detroit River, winter rarely sets unusually dry and agreeable climate.

Taken altogether, Michigan enjoys an for a sufficient length of time to decide observations have not yet been made explanation. But correct meteorological St. Lawrence, this is probably the true besides that of the lakes, drains into the face of 248,755 square miles of land, each other"; and considering that a surwarm and dry ones, mutually following cold and moist years, and a series of years; but more modern observations

it to “a successive series of which ebbed and flowed each seven prevailed that this was owing to a tide rise and fall of water in the lakes has

Formerly the notion the prevailing winter winds being west

an early period, a periodical

unwooded prairies of Wisconsin, and Army Meteorological Register, which surround it, produce a marked

than the eastern, probably owing to the cli- the winters are shorter and more irregu.

to have a colder climate and more snow New-York. The western coast appears lar than in the same latitude in Western

There is much less snow, and position, and the large bodies of water longitude 82° 58'; but its almost insular The climate of Michigan is hotter in


Various Statistics-Meteorological Register-Climate, fc. 491

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