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based upon the inexhaustible profusion ance has placed them in the foremost of the precious metals, that the magnifi- rank of nations. A simultaneous decence of the western world became a velopment of the elements of progress proverb. Old Spain, in the plenitude of was evinced in their courage and apits exchequer and diplomatic success, parent temerity, in daring to be free from reveled in a glorious triumph over Fran- the antiquated trammels of European cis I., and the arms of Castile and Arra- power, by shaking off the yoke of foreign gon were then deemed invincible. Lite. oppression. The influence of intellect rature flourished, commerce extended progressed, while that of brutal force was the arts were encouraged, and the abrogated by the potency of rational haughty demeanor, the pride and pomp policy, based upon the public will. The of the Hidalgos, ultimately eclipsed the struggle for supremacy and freedom was progress of intellectuality. An effemi- long, and severely arduous; victory nate indolence succeeded the excesses poised the laurel wreath of triumph in of intoxicated power, and the nobleness doubtful hesitation, until, soaring above of Castilian chivalry, and a miserable the plains of Yorktown, she dropped the policy, have sunk the Spanish power to diadem of liberty, and young America that of imbecility.

was free. But far away to the north, the silent The emancipated youth, reared in the strategy of the stealthy Gaul trod the forest wilds-was a semi-savage, it was shores of Newfoundland and the banks thought! Rude were his thoughts, his of the St. Lawrence, paddling his bat- manners and his works; but that rudeteau westward on the great lakes, and ness was instilled by the supposition of planting his standard as he progressed. his monitorial teaching that he must reDescending the Ohio, exploring the Mis- cognize a power superior to himself. souri, and following the current of the The idea of British omnipotence was Father of Waters, he reached the Gulf urged so closely home to his consciousof Mexico, impinging the limits of New- ness, by the fearful energy and play of Spain, and circumvallating the terri- its power, that he, unaided by science tories of another hereditary enemy in and art, was depressed by established the old world—the colonies of England formulas the surging sea hemming -whose career of progress it is designed him in, forbidding him commerce and to briefly sketch.

connection with others of his race. But In the year 1607, under every species looking forward on the stream of proof disappointment and discouragement, gress, the temple of fame, fortune, and the English colonies commenced the per- felicity, loomed in the rugged vista of manent settlement on the banks of the future. His undevelope genius James River. Thirteen years subse- rankled in its recess of the brain, as quent to the settlement of Virginia, a on the development it sprung like a handful of exiled fugitives, fleeing from young eagle on the stage of action, the impaired privileges of religious free- grasping in his talons the electric bolts dom, sought an asylum on the inhospita- of Jupiter, and the emblematic olive ble shores of Massachusetts. Amid the branch of peace and commerce. Then gloom of the winter solstice in a northern he took his flight, his eye fixed upon clime, these “ Pilgrim Fathers" landed heaven, while he' skimmed the ocean under the favorable auspices of no wave. The howl of the tempest, the patronizing power but that of Providence, lightning's flash, the crash and roar of in whom alone they put their trust. thunder, the piercing frosts of the frigid They struggled long for an existence zone, or the fervid heat of equatorial against the vicissitudes incident to the regions, do not impede his progress-it inclemency of the seasons-starvation is onward still-striking out into a new and the hostile aggressions of implacable sphere of existence, discarding all the savages, as relentless in their ferocity as ancient forms and formulas that contract they were sanguinary, continually star- the powers of mind, for the grand and ing them in the face.

true conceptions that elevate the human With the predetermination of success powers, and propagate the principles of stamped upon their character, every ob- political equality ; tracing the retardstacle to their progress was removed, ing inferences of these forms, where every obstruction surmounted, until the they linger among mankind, in order to constancy of an enthusiastic persever- appreciate, by contrast, the more refined

HARGHINIHIH

age.

and elegant structures of the present rail-road trains that traverse this and

other lands. These are the sequences The development of modern science, of modern progress-the knowledge of and its adaptation to the various arts and investigating science, and its multifariprofessions of the times, may be ac- ous appliances in new discoveries and credited to the Anglo-Saxon race. Great inventions in the laboratory, the workBritain claims the initiative, and the shop, and the kitchen. United States, as if by intuition, competes This is certainly a wonderful age ! with the parent state, with persevering The ancients subdued the animated ardor and successful emulation, in the powers of the wilderness to their will; race of scientific application and practi- to drag the chariot and to course the cal demonstration of philosophic princi- arid desert, the camel, horse and tardy ples to the requirements of agriculture, ass performed all the labor of mercantile mechanism, manufactures and com- transportation, and the huge elephant merce. With an imperial domain, much was called in requisition for the more of which is unexplored, its vast resources herculean labors of war and civil life, almost dormant, its mineral treasures an- while modern intellect directs the fierce known, the variety of its agricultural elements of fire, of water, and of air, to do products limited, its commerce in in- their bidding. It is an age of iron, yet cipiency, its manufactures but few, an age of gold, of bronze and brass its institutions of learning, science, the an epoch of metallic grandeur, unrivalfine arts, as yet in a state of infancy ed by the gorgeous fancy of the eastem ---the genius of Young America has fabled genii. Crystal palaces and iron evinced a precocity of native acumen mansions ; long lines of iron ways; iron and talent far surpassing the ordinary bridges span our rivers, and iron ships, progress of juvenility-displaying a ma- of large dimensions, navigate the ocean. furity of mental and physical advance. It would, however, be an endless list that ment that astonishes, while it commands, embraced all its appliances, were it the respect of the most powerful nations. possible to call up the embodied wisdom Inferior to no nation in the elements of antiquity from the dark profundity of of local felicity, and the peaceful ag. the past, and show them modern prograndizement of her character-she is gress on the real road to science, as it second to none in the practical de mon- has emerged from the ignorance of the stration of progressive improvements. dark ages, or even from that of the last

One hundred years ago the colonies century. that formed the bases of these states Show them a lengthened train of only contained about one million of white twice a hundred loaded wains, gliding inhabitants, which number now a popu. smoothly on the iron trail with the velolation of twenty-five millions. Then they city of an eagle's flight-dragged on were without a foreign trade-now, the like some long, slim, snaky monster by white wings of commerce are spread to its locomotive heads, with eyes of burnevery breeze, urging on with lightning ing fire snorting forth their heated resspeed their laden argosies to every clime, pirations, and at every evolutionary pul. to every quarter of the globe. Thousands sation discharging the refuse remnants of of their vessels--as aquatic hunters--are their motive power. Show them a ves beating up the fin-winged quarry of the sel propelled through the ocean with a great deep in every ocean. A thousand celerity of fifteen or twenty miles an darkening vapors, of fiery creations, hour without the aid of sails, or wind, or mark the trackless way of as many steam;-another force impels the aquatic ships impelled by steam. These, though palace-simply heated air is the coercive now the commercial transports of peace- calorician-power, Show them cities and ful trade, are so constructed as to as their thousand streets, stores, public sume the hostile aspect of belligerents edifices, and private dwellings, at midin the event of war. The same motive night lighted with the brilliancy of noonpower that urges on this mercantile day by an invisible fluid that is weighmarine through the vasty deep, is like-ed and measured with the same prewise applied to every species of handi- cision as oil, wax and tallow. Show craft or trade. It drives the saw, the them the miniature of a fine ladyplang, the lathe, the forge, the needle, dashing belle-with all her gaudy

" the press, and those lengthy finery, produced with the most accurate

Modern Discoveries--Freedom and its kindred Institutions.

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minuteness, without a painter or a pen- zenith with volcanic force into the aërial cil, except the pencils of the solar rays, space. These are more than enough merely by exposing the subject to the for them, yet we look forward to more refractive condensation of the rays of wonderful occurrences. light, through the medium of the camera What is the cause of the unparalleled obscura-imprisoning the reflection on progress of the last fifty years ?-Freea silvered plate of copper by chemical dom, and its concomitant institutions, and galvanic fitters.

education, commerce, industry and enWe almost hear them exclaim, as terprise. The bright prospects of the they shrink from the picture, “Hold! suture seem to expand over the region of let us return to the darkness of the past, the Southwestern states; the lustre of a and be again shut up from the modern glorious halo already surrounds their world of witchcraft, magic and enchant- path of progress, if they are only true to ment!" Detain them for a few minutes, themselves. Alabama, Mississippi, and and desire them to take a peep through Louisiana are already on the track of Rosse's or Craig's telescopes, while they improvement. But the young giant of take a sweep across the firmament. the South has not yet decided to fall into They find the haze of distance dissolved; the ranks of sell-aggrandizement, for the barriers to mortal vision vanished; which nature has designed this great the veil of the universe withdrawn; the state. The people of Texas are evidently splendor and magnificence of celestial inclined to harmonize with the conscenery, with all its grandeur, displayed temporary movements of this progressive to human understanding at a glance; age. A union of sentiment is all that the siderial fields of space passing, like is wanting to form, accelerate, and cona panorama of suns and worlds, with summate the grandest conception of the their satellites and rings, brilliant orbs, timesma rail.road from the Pacific to and opaque planets, on the majestic the Atlantic, connecting these two march of time. We imagine a spirit of great oceans by an iron link, lying uneasiness and a desire to quit this lower across the continent of North America, sphere, and ascend to planets that they and forming a line of uninterrupted comrecognize as their local habitations in munication between Asia, the United the spirit world, on the acromatic field. States and Europe, which, from the They may be persuaded to stay, and look physical construction of the country, is upon the operation of the electric post. destined by nature to pass through A London correspondent demands from Texas. Paris, Berlin or Vienna, the character of The fabrics of every country, the prothe Bourse, the rise or fall of stocks, ductions of every clime, will be transprices of exchange, &c., and while ported upon it. Merchants of all nations gazing on the operator's motions, he reads will be its subsidiaries. The trade of the instantaneous response. At ten the world will concentrate at two points o'clock the New Orleans broker receives on this continent. The terminus of this a bulletin of the packet just ten days road on the Pacific will become the from England to New York, in ten great mart of the East. There will be minutes after her arrival. Show them offered for sale or transportation her rich twenty thousand mammoth sheets of manufactures, her gums, her drugs, her news thrown off from the press in sixty tropical fruits, her gems. At some point minutes. Show them yonder hill ob. on the Gulf of Mexico, where the best structing the progress of the grading harbor may be found, will be the comlaborers of a new rail-road; the rock mercial emporium of European goods bound base is charged already, and intended for the consumption of the ignited by the merest movement of a East. The future Rothschilds, Barings tiny wire, connected with alternate lay- and Astors, will congregate at these ers of zinc and copper plates submerged points, as the immediate localities from in acid; a vast explosive sound bursts which the other markets of the world can upon their ears, and the mountain rocks be scanned and controlled. Capital will are flying in mid-air. Present a similar be amassed and wielded in sums beyond explosion in the depths of Hell Gate, and the pale of all former antecedents. the heaving surge gives way, and the Mercantile operations will assume gisub-marine obstructions are riven from gantic forms; and the adventures will their foundations, shooting upward to the exceed the wildest dreams of by-gone days of speculation. The financial short in the attempt to delineate the kings of to-day will dwindle into insig- prosperity, the wealth, the refinementnificance before the imperial dynasties in fact, the abundance of all the elethat will rise up, as it were, to-morrow. ments of greatness and happiness clusterThe pen, aided by fancy, might even fall ing around a future like this.

ART. VII.-COMMERCIAL PROGRESS OF BALTIMORE,

(We continue to present statistical returns showing the growth of the great American cities. We are indebted to the annual statement of the Baltimore Prices Current and Ballimore American for the facts we now give.)

A REVIEW of the business operations of may now be looked upon as completely Baltimore for the year just elapsed, al. established-the Palmetto, sailing to though it may not afford any very strik- Charleston, is to have a consort of 1,300 ing feature with regard to actual in- tons, the largest steamer ever built at crease, will show a regular and healthy Baltimore-she is building at the yard condition of things, with an abundant of Mr. Robb, and her construction has money market, and an absence of specu- already reached an advanced stage. lation generally; and there is to be ob. Earnest appeals are being made daily served every element of future growth to our merchants and the merchants of and prosperity, with the promise that so Savannah to establish a line of steam. soon as our carrying facilities are per- ers between Baltimore and that port; fected, an extent of inland as well as and of late the subject has come so pal. foreign trade, equal to the desires of the pably before them, that we cannot but most zealously ambitious, must be real- indulge the hope that we may, in a few ized. With regard to the progress made months, put afloat two more steamers to toward enlarging and facilitating our follow in the wake of our pioneer line to trading operations, it is a source of un- the South. feigned pleasure to know that within Much has been said within the year the past twelve months a number of upon the subject of direct trade with most important objects, which only re- Europe. However zealous we may be quire time to carry out and develop in our efforts to place Baltimore upon with entire success, have been com- such a footing as will render it unnecesmenced under very auspicious circum- sary for southern merchants to go to the stances. In the train of these we think North for their purchases, the truth canwe can see many other objects of nearly not be disguised that our water facilities equal moment, as affecting the future of are such as to preclude the possibility our city, taken up and as ably and ener- of establishing Baltimore as the importgetically managed. Since we last pre- ing point for the present. What we sented an annual statement of our trade want most now is aid in perfecting our and commerce, appropriations have been water facilities, so that vessels of even made by Congress and by our City prescnt average tonnage may arrive and Council for the improvement of our har- depart ad libitum. Let us renew and bor and ship channel. This is an all- redouble our efforts for the improvement desirable object, for which our Board of of our harbor and river; when we are Trade had been assiduously laboring, ready the South will take us by the and we are in hopes that the general hand. government will follow up its acknow. The Baltimore and Ohio Rail-road is ledgment of the propriety of our petition completed to Wheeling! Who but the by a further appropriation, and one more citizens of Baltimore can fully apprecommensurate with the character of the hend the import of those words? Though object. In the mean time, it is hoped it be not our vocation to indulge in paneour State Legislature will imitate the gyric, on this occasion, at least, an ex. example of our City Council by making cuse must be permitted us if we soar an appropriation towards improving the somewhat with the bright wings which Patapsco beyond the city limits. hope has lent us in the contemplation

Our steam connection with the South of that great event. We have reached

Baltimore and Ohio Rail-road-Coal-Guano-Iron Furnaces. 471

[graphic]

the threshold and the stepping-stone of Imports of Coffee at this Port for the last Three

Years : our true commercial destiny, and there is nothing now can turn us back. The

1852 1851. 1850. wide and far West has opened her am

From Rio de Janeiro... 224,082...266,240... 150,194

La Guayra..... ple arms to receive us, and bids us God " Porto Cabello : { 16,241... 21,081... 24,040 speed in our efforts to secure the prize

Maracaibo..... 554... 5,873... 2,754

" West Indies ..... 8,535... 8,114... 6,532 which nature has so long and patiently Coast wise ....... 4,280... 3,885... 3,934 held out to us. Who will say that the prize is not already ours? The hope

Total................ 253,692... 305,103...187,454 deferred through a protracted series of The receipts of cotton at this port for years is finally resolved into a complete the last three years have been as folreality, and the most sanguine calcula- lows, as near as can be ascertained: tions of those by whom it was first entertained are on the eve of being entirely

1852 1851, 1850. verified.

From New-Orleans ....... 4,734... 3,070... 4,015

Mobile ............ 3,369... 2,737... 1.371 COAL-CumberlandThis article is " Apalachicola.... .. 1,496... 677... 1.883 rapidly becoming one of the leading Savannah .......... 2.995... 2,950... 2,500

. Charleston..........13,000...12,500... 10,000 features of our trade, having established " " North Carolina ::

North Carolina ..... 2,000... 2,000... 1,500 itself in favor wherever its qualities have “ Virginia & other places 6,000... 5,500... 4,500 been tested. The increased use of steam- Total. ............. 33,594...29,434...25,769 power, particularly on the ocean, and the growing preference for cheap bitu Imports of Hides for the Year 1852 : minous coal for domestic purposes, have From River Plate ....

.. 34.678 caused an extraordinary demand for

Rio Grande.....

. 14,674 " a Rio de Janeiro..

8,570 Cumberland, and our routes of transpor- " Porto Cabello..

28,188 tation have been taxed to their utmost West Indies and other foreign ports.. 10,471

" California........

27,342 within the past year in order to meet the

Coastwise ports.....

50,064 wants of the different companies work. ing mines in the Alleghany region. The

Total, 1852..

..173,987 1851

.253,794 trade, in the early part of the year, " 1850.

..263,095 opened under some disadvantages, owing

" 1849..

..235,742 to the failure of the largest company

GUANO.—The imports of Peruvian at then in operation, the late Maryland

Baltimore the past year do not much Mining Company, and continued de

i exceed those of 1851, amounting to about pressed until May, when it revived, and

25,500 tons. This is accounted for by has continued since then with great ac

the fact that the agents of the Peruvian tivity. The demand for transportation

government have imported a consideraby the rail-road company has exceeded

ble quantity into Norfolk and Alexanits ability to provide cars, and at this 2

dria, for the first time. The demand time the amount brought to this market. for shipment and consumption is at the

was active the past season, and prices

ne ruled high, from dealers, on account of rate of about 300,000 tons per annum,

annum, the scarcity of the article. The importalthough the business of the Company's

mot ers' prices remained unchanged at year ending 1st October, 1852, did not exceed

$46 20 per ton during the year. 206,000 tons. The rail-road company having made preliminary ar- We embrace this opportunity of corrangements for the accommodation of recting a recent statement in the Boston the coal trade. the exceedingly active Journal, in which the total imports of demand now prevailing warrants us in guano into all the United States. in 1851. the belief that the receipts of 1853 will are put down at 23,153 tons. The imreach not less than 500,000 tons.

ports of Peruvian guano at Baltimore

alone amounted to 25,000 tons, and we Receipts of Coal at Baltimore for the past Eight

are quite certain that at least 10,000 Years, to the 1st of January :

Anthracite,
Cumberland.

tons were imported into other ports in 16,000 tons.. ... 90,000 tons. that year, which would make the total 1846....

.. 18.393 " ......100,000 “ 12,000 tons more than is stated by the 1847 50,259 ......110,000

Journal. The total imports of Peruvian 1848.

60,289 .....125,000 1849.

71,699 ....140,000 guano into all the United States, during 1850... . 146,645

160.000 16

the year 1852, were 79 cargoes, with 1851.... .....163,855

...200.000 1852....

......256,000 ...... 125,000 41,088 tons (2,240 lbs).

1845....

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