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Tables of Property and Tonnage by the St. Lawrence, fc. 427


Value of Property sent from the Seaboard to the Interior, via the St. Lawrence, Hudson,

Portage Rail-road, and Mississippi.
St. Lawrence.

Portage Rail-road,

Mississippi. 1851

..... $10,956,763......$80,739,899......$2,779,751......$12,958,294 1850...


10,885,775 1849...


10,050,697 1848....


9,380,439 1847...


9,222,504 1846...


7,222,941 1845... 55,453,998.

7,345,010 1844..


7,826,739 1843.


8,170,015 1842..


8,031,190 1841.


.. 10,256,322*


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In this latter table, it will be observed,

St. Law.

Portage Missis

Articles. rence. Hudson, Rail-rond. rippi. that the estimates for the St. Lawrence

Tous, Tons. Tons. Tons. and Portage Rail-road are only for last Pig iron ...... 66.. 2,958..

62 year while those of the Now Voltat Coal.......... 86.. 13,655.. 2,662.. year, while those of the New-York State Whis

85,000 Whisky .....

649.. 13,938.. 51.. Canals and New Orleans are for eleven Salt...........

134.. 6,408.. - ..

Merchandise.. 923.. 4,580.. years. In the case of New York the Me

Sundries .....141,412.. 74,722.. 674.. 153,350 figures of the Auditor of the Canal Department are taken, whereas in that of Total tons..329,621..1,977,151..13,696..1,292,670 New-Orleans it is estimated that her

This table exhibits the tonnage ar

: shipments to the interior equal her fo

- riving at the Hudson, as much in prereign importations. This may be wide" of the mark either way, but it is the only

ponderance of the other routes, although

y the Mississippi may exceed it in value.t method which presents itself as an ap

aprIt will also be seen that Philadelphia is proximation. Having seen the value of :

indebted for her inland commerce, not so 7 down trade" by the different routes, we

much to the region west as east of the will now present the “ down" tonnage,

mountains. She has in her coal and iron naming some of the principal articles

mines and ample agricultural resources, for 1851 only:

abundant food for an immense inland St. Law

Portage Missis- railway and canal commerce. The Articles.

rence, Hudson. Bail-road. sippi.

Tons. Tons. Tons. canals of Pennsylvania, west of the
Lumber ..... 62,351., 711,731..10,100.. mountains, appear to feed the commerce
Timber..... 9,895.. 84,755.. -
Shingles.... 217.. 7,185..

of the Ohio at Pittsburgh; and those east Staves......

9.177.. 77,652.. - .. 58,552 that of the seaboard at Philadelphia. Furs.......

242.. Ashes...


It is to be regretted that so little regard
Flour..... 70,966.. 362,714.. 7... 100,138 is paid to arranging and collecting sta-
Wheat ..
16,867.. 94,910.. - ..

.. . 5,193 Corn .... 3,052.. 221,633..

109.989 tistics of our inland commerce by the Oats...... 1,746.. 57,509..

6,949 various states in which the great lines Barley.... 69.. 93,426..

- are situated. The State of New-York is Rye....... 284.. 8,063.. Cotton....


327,566 the only one which compiles full reports Tobacco.... 135.. 1,851..

64,187 of traffic, tonnage and valuation of the Hemp 74.. 560..

2,858 Beef. 89.. 12,215...

commerce of her public works. Such

9,077 Pork 3,454.. 7,203..

47,205 reports are not only interesting, but they Bacon....

164.. 5,452.. 4.. 37,291 are extremely valuable to business men. Butter ..... 1,122.. 4,784.. - .. 2,417 Cheese. 37... 12,801.. - ..

1,811 They are the means of acquainting the Lard...... 150.. 5,407..

22,766 producer, the forwarder, the vender, the Tallow. 413.. 122..

196 Potatoes.... 403.. 17,949..

broker and the consumer, with the pro

22.809 Wool..... 15.. 5,259..

bable stocks, the rapidity with which Leather ... 4.102..

those stocks are coming forward in Eggs......

1,838.. Lard oil...


2,117 Oil cake... 3,405..

* The estimates for the Mississippi are greatly Sugar.....


118,278 under the truth, since no account is made of the Molasses.....

91.500 enormous coasting trade of New Orleans.-ED. Lead..........

8.. - ..

9,592 REVIEW. Rail-road iron

+ There is no propriety in including timber and Castings....


lumber in an estimate like this. Omitting them, the Blooms...... 16,675

tonnage of the Mississippi will preponderate.-ED. Nails & spikes


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market, and the probable effect on some of them terminating at New-Orfreights, price and demand. This in- leans, Mobile, Savannah and Charleston, formation, if published weekly with of. and their tendency will be, to greatly ficial correctness, would prove invalua- increase the tonnage to and from the inble to the community. It would enable terior to the seaboard, beyond anything business men to operate intelligibly, by we have yet seen or predicted. And it furnishing them data upon which to base will be done mainly by opening up retheir calculations. It would acquaint sources, and reaching points, which have ourselves and foreigners, by comparisons heretofore been unproductive on account of corresponding periods of several years, of their inaccessibility. and of the totals at the close of each On the other hand, we have seen that year, of the extent and progress of our the northern route has three water outinternal trade. But this is a digression, lets, delivering at tide water a "down" suggested by the difficulty always en: tonnage of 2,320,468 tons, against 1,292,countered in this country in procuring 670 tons by the Mississippi during the reliable statistics of trade. England has year 1851. It should be remembered too her Board of Trade, whose monthly re- that the latter is open for navigation the turns show her merchants and manu. whole year, while the northern route is facturers, and producers, the transactions closed upon the average about five of the previous month with great exact. months per annum. Besides this imness, and these returns are at once sent mense water tonnage, the New York and by steam or electricity to Liverpool, Erie, New York Central and the NorthManchester and Birmingham, whence ern lines of railway, have delivered at they are distributed to all parts of the tide water an aggregate of no less than world. Every merchant in the foreign 228,107 tons, valued at $11,405,300. trade looks for them with interest. Why According to the figures thus far premay not the United States have a sented, then, the seaboard is indebted to " Bureau of Commerce" attached to the the interior for 1851-in 3,841,245 tons of Treasury Department, to answer the property, worth...........$182,663,140 same purpose with the English Board of The interior is indebted to Trade, returns from which may be pub- the seaboard for property lished at the close of each month, quar- valued at..............$151,990,717 ter and year? Its organization would be easy, and under proper regulations Credit to interior...... 20,672,423 · and superintendence, would prove of in- It is generally supposed, and the evidencalculable value to the country, both at ces of exchange seem to favor such suphome and abroad. This fact and the position, that the interior is in debt to the preceding query are the result of the di- seaboard. Such is no doubt the fact gression from which we now will return. with regard to new countries which have

The Mississippi hitherto has stood all their improvements to make, their alone and unrivaled "as the southern lands to clear up, cultivate and stock, beroute; and it will continue for a long fore they become profitable, which is time to come the only southern water much the case with the inhabitants of route. But railways will soon be opened the valley and basin. The light and which will contribute much to the trade costly goods, jewelry, silks, etc., sent of other southern ports than New-Or- west by express, are not included in the leans, without, however, detracting much above estimates, and if the value of such from those sections of country which fur- freight could be accurately computed, it nish her trade. The traffic of railways would no doubt more than square the acis generally created in bringing the count. There is, however little confi. country which they pass within reach of dence to be placed upon the valuation of a market, which previously made no de.“merchandise.” In the canal estimates mand upon it. While, therefore, Savan- upon the New-York canals, it is doubtless nah, Charleston, and Mobile are to be estimated at too low a rate per ton. At vastly benefited by the trade their rail. least, as before remarked, these estimates ways will bring them, it will not be by of the value of up tonnage, are but the diverting traffic, other than passenger, merest approximations, under the present from the river. 'Many lines of railway mode of classifying that species of freight. are about being opened, which will prove From the foregoing it may be seen as auxiliaries to the great southern route, that, while the value of products of the

Great Increase of the Lake TradeRailways and Canals.

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interior seeking the seaboard is by the 975 tons, being an increase in measuresouthern route as about ten to seven by ment of nearly four hundred per cent. the northern route, so the value of the in ten years, while the increase in careturn merchandise, &c., going by the pacity, owing to a substitution of steam northern route, is as about thirteen to for sail, as a motive power both for proone. Hence there should be a very great pulsion and handling freight, is much preponderance in the value of western greater still. The gross tons entered at over eastern freight, on the northern all the lake ports in 1851 are estimated route. That such is the fact, the returns at 9,469,506, and cleared 9,456,346. of exports and imports at the upper lake The steamboat tonnage of the western ports abundantly testify, the latter in rivers in 1842 was 126,278 tons; in 1846, many cases being from three to four hun- 249,035, and in 1851 it was reported, by per cent. greater than the former. Secretary Corwin, at 135,559 tons. If

But if the inland commerce arriving there is no error in either of these stateat and departing from the seaboard, is ments of tonnage, then the capacity of so considerable, what must be the the tonnage must have been greatly enamount in value, and the gross value of larged lately, by quickening the speed exports and imports at the several inland and making a greater number of trips. ports ? To how many people must its It is most probable, however, that many transport, transhipment, storing, handling old, worn-out crafts were computed in and selling, give employment? How 1846, while in 1851 only the working many tons of boats and shipping are em. enrollments were taken into account. ployed ? How much fuel is consumed The rivers employ 558 steamers and the in steam? How much capital is invest- lakes 157. The original cost of the ed in purchasing, insuring, transporting whole sail and steam tonnage on the and exchanging? These are questions lakes and rivers in 1851, was about fraught with deep interest, to all those at $21,838,000. The total net money value all interested in the progress of civiliza- of all the property transported on the tion, commerce, science and the arts. lakes in 1847, was estimated at $33,000,They might be intelligibly answered too, 000; in 1849 at $63,000,000; in 1850 at if a proper system for the collection and $93,000,000; and in 1851, $151,000,000. arrangement of statistics were establish- That of property transported on the ed. As it is, however, we can only give rivers of the valley in 1842, was estimaa few of the most careful estimates, ted at about $130,000,000; in 1846 at based upon the most authentic returns, ob about $184,000,000, and in 1851, at about tainable from time to time, and arranged $275,000,000. This gives an aggregate with great care. These estimates have money value for 1851, of interior lake always been represented as below the and river commerce, of about $438,200,mark, from the fact that many ports make000, an amount far exceeding our forno returns at all.

eign commerce, exclusive of specie, The United States have over 3,000 But if we add to this the enormous miles of lake coast, and some 30,000 coasting trade of the United States, inmiles navigable river; to which should cluding California, the amount would be added about 3,000 miles of canal, more than double our foreign commerce. composing a total of not far from 36,000 This, it will still be observed, is inde. miles of inland water navigation. The pendent of the railway and canal comgross value of the commerce of the merce. The total movement of the lakes alone, in 1848, exclusive of cost of New York canals alone in 1851, about tonnage, passage or express business, was 860 miles in length, was 3,582,733 tons : $65,000,000; in 1849, $123,000,000; in valued at $159,981,801, and paying tolls 1850, $186,000,000; and in 1851 it was to the state of $3,329,727. It is estima$325,000,000. The unparalleled in- ted that in this navigation 4,047 boats crease during the last three years is owing were employed, with an aggregate of to the opening of many new lines of rail. 283,290 tons. The amount paid for way at various points intersecting the transportation on these canals, in addilakes, and cheapening the prices of tion to the above amount of toll to the transportation from the interior to the state, is estimated to have been about lake shore. The enrolled tonnage of the $2,500,000. This latter is the amount lakes in 1841 was 56,252 tons; in 1846, paid to the forwarder to indemnify him 106,836 tons; and in 1851, it was 215,- for carriage, wear of boat, horses, men, etc. These canals have cost the state river and railway. And there will be upwards of $29,000,000, besides the an- but little rivalry between the different nual charges for repairs and mainte- routes. They will work harmoniously nance. The state has received in tolls together, mutually assisting each other, from the canals since 1824, $59,413,870. and all will be fully occupied. The im.

The railways of the United States in mense heavy products of the southwest operation comprise about 15,000 miles, at will continue to float down the Mississipan average cost of, say $25,000 per mile; pi, to the Gulf of Mexico, in great promaking an aggregate expenditure of fusion and increase. Much has been some $375,000,000. Nearly all of this written and said of turning the tide of railway that has affected the lake and the Mississippi trade north. Above cer. river trade of 1851, has been opened tain lines, where the distance is greatly since the commercial returns of 1848, in favor of the northern route, some of or at least a large portion of it, and it the present trade, and perhaps all the inhas been seen that the results are beyond crease, will take the northern route durall anticipations. But the business of ing the season of navigation. But the 1851 was benefited by less than increase of trade south of those lines, 10,000 miles of railway, whereas, in which will be induced by the opening of 1855, we shall have in operation over projected improvements, will far exceed 20,000 miles, penetrating the agricultur- the amount diverted. The strife now exal and mineral hearts of almost all the hibited in procuring means for diverting western states. What must result from trade from existing routes will disapthe opening of so many feeders to the pear in the inability to carry off the great through water routes ?

augmentation. Suppose the Mississippi It has been observed that the amount and the northern water routes now to of inland commerce reaching the sea, have a “total movement of 10,000,000 board is but a little of the “total move- tons, which is probably not very wide ment.” It is only the surplus that seeks of the mark, how many railways like the a foreign market, while the great bulk, Erie, Northern and Baltimore, and Ohio, the unmeasured, the unfathomed mass, will it take to carry the present tonnage ? is consumed, changed and interchanged And how long will it take to construct among the several states. A little of them? It would require ten railways, it adheres to the hands of every person each with double tracks, stretching from who touches it, as it were; it pays to Boston, New-York, Philadelphia, and every exchanger, transporter and labor- Baltimore to New Orleans, via the Miser its stipend, as its passes about to its sissippi valley and the lake basin, makplaces of consumption. It is, most un- ing at least 40,000 miles of track, which questionably, a good thing to have a for- would cost at least $60,000,000, and take eign commerce through which to dispose ten years to build. In the mean time, of our surplus products, but we should our commerce would have doubled not, for this, sacrifice the internal com- twice, crowding both water and land merce, so much more valuable to the routes to their full capacity. So this will whole country, and without which our not do. Our canals in New York, Pennforeign commerce could not survive a sylvania, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, must single day.

be enlarged, within the next ten years, to In concluding this subject, the ques. a capacity which will admit boats to pass tion naturally suggests itself: if such drawing six feet of water, with steam for has been the progress of our commerce a propelling power, and stowage for during the past thirty years, what is to 2,000 bbls. of flour. Freight must be be its future? If such results have fol- handled by steam, and transit expedited lowed the partial opening of the resour. in all possible ways by water. Railces of the new states by water routes, ways will feed water routes with freight what is to follow the perfect exhumation from the interior, the through lines carof the interior of all the states by means rying express freight of a light and of the iron tracks which are to act as costly character, and passengers. At feeders to the great northern and south- least such are our conclusions from the ern water routes? The year 1860 will foregoing premises. The great united draw upon an internal traffic in the northern and southern routes must alUnited States valued at no less than ways continue the great highways for $1,800,000,000, including lake, canal, the products of the interior, upon which

History and Statistics of the Louisiana Parishes.


they will be exchanged among the ing them at various points, will weld States, and the surplus finds its way to together all the various interests of the the seaboard. By them the northeast several states in such a bond of union and southwest will be forever united, as will prove forever inseparable. while the numerous iron ways intersect




[As Superintendent of the Bureau of Statistics of the State of Louisiana, we published a great number of papers, including material relating to the majority of the parishes. We have deferred a general report upon them all, in the hope of obtaining additional material, and in expectation of the completion of the national census, so as to embody its statistical results. As this report will be published, if possible, before the close of the summer, we continue to solicit information, and beg our friends to send to the office of the Review anything of interest that may relate to the history and statistics of their parishes and towns of the state. As a guide to the nature of the information desired, we refer to the papers already published by us, and to the annexed circular, which has been so often published before :)

1. Time of settlement of your parish or town; dates of oldest land grants ; number and condition of first

settlers ; whence emigrating; other facts relating to settlement and history. II. Indian names in your vicinity; what tribes originally ; what relics or monuments of them; if Indians

still, in what condition ! III. Biography, anecdotes, &c., of individuals distinguished in your vicinity in the past for ingenuity,

enterprise, literature, talents, civil or military, &c. IV. Topographical description of your parish, mountains, rivers, ponds, animals, quadrupeds, birds.

fishes, reptiles, insects, &c., vegetable growths, rocks, minerals, sand clays, chalk, flint, marble, pit coal, pigments, inedicinal and poisonous substances, elevation'above the sea, nature of surface, forests, or undergrowth what wells and quality of well water, nature of coasts, does the water make inroads. mineral springs, caves, &c. V. Agricultural description of parish'; former and present state of cultivation ; changes taking place :

introduction of cotton, sugar, rice, indigo, tobacco, grains, fruits, vines, &c., &c.; present products, lands occupied and unoccupied, and character of soils ; value of lands; state of improvements; value of agricultural products ; horses, cattle, mules, hogs, and whence supplied ; profits of agriculture, prices of products; new estates opening; improvements suggested in cultivation, and new growths ; improvements in communication, roads, bridges, canals, &c. ; kind and quantity of timber, fuel, &c.; state of the roads, summer and winter ; kinds of inclosures, and of what timber; manures, natural and artificial pastures ; agricultural implements used; fruit trees, vines, and orchards; modes of transportation ; extent of internal navigation ; levees, &c. ; modes of cultivating and manufacturing sugar in

use. VI. Instances of longevity and fecundity ; observations on diseases in your section ; localities, healthful

or otherwise ; statistics of diseases, deaths, summer seats, &c. VII. Population of your parish ; increase and progress, distinguishing white and black ; Spanish, French,

American, or German origin; foreigners, classes of population; number in towns ; growth of towng and villages, &c.; condition, employment, ages ; comparative value of free and slave labor; comparative tables of increase; marriages, births, &c.; meteorological tables of temperature, weather,

rains, &c. VIII. Education and Religion.-Advantages of schools, colleges, libraries enjoyed ; proportion educated

at home and abroad; expense of education ; school returns, churches or chapels in parish, when and by whom erected, how supplied with clergy ; how supported and attended ; oldest interments ; church

vaults, &c. IX. Products in Manufactures and the Arts.-Kinds of manufactures in parish ; persons employed ; kind

of power ; capital; wages ; per centum profit; raw material ; sugar and cotton ; machinery and im

provements; kind and value ; manufacturing sites, &c. X. Commercial Statistics.-Value of the imports and exports of Louisiana with each of the other states of the Union, as far as any approximation may be made or data given; growth and condition of towns; in

crease in towns, &c. XI. General Statistics.--Embracing banking, rail-roads, insurances, navigation, intercommunication ;

learned and scientific societies ; crime, pauperism, charities, public and benevolent institutions ; militia, newspapers, &c. ; application of parish taxes; expenses of roads, levees, &c.; number of suits decided in different courts; expenses and perfection of justice ; number of parish officers, lawyers, physi

cians, &c. XII. Date, extent, consequences, and other circumstances of droughts, freshets, whirlwinds, storms,

lightninge, hurricanes, or other remarkable physical events in your section from remote periods; other

meteorological phenomena ; changes in climate, &c., &c. XIII. Literary productions emanating from your neighborhood; your associations, if any; what manu

scripts, public or private records, letters, journals, &c., or rare old books, interesting in their relation to the history of Louisiana, are possessed by individuals within your knowledge. State any other matters of interest.

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